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Notes: Present Tense | Class 11 English Grammar PDF Download

I. The Simple Present Tense

This tense is used in the following ways
(i) It is mainly used to express habitual action, habit, or custom.
Example: 
(a) I watch television on Sunday.
(b) She gets up every morning at 6 o’clock.
(c) He walks in the evening.
(d) My shop opens at 9 o’clock.
(e) I take exercise every morning.

(ii) To talk about a general or universal truth.
Example: 
(a) Earth revolves around the Sun.
(b) The Sun rises in the East.
(c) The Sunsets in the West.
(d) Two and two make four.
(e) Honesty is the best policy.

(iii) To indicate a future event which is part of a plan or arrangement.
Example: 
(a) The school reopens next week.
(b) The examination commences next month.

(iv) To introduce quotations with the verb ‘says’.
Example: 
(a) Newton says, “Every action has an equal and an opposite reaction.
(b) Keats says, “A thing of beauty is a joy forever.”

(v) Vivid narration, as a substitute for the simple past.
Example: 
Ravana fights bravely but he is killed in the end.

(vi) Exclamatory sentences that begin with here or there,
Example: 
(a) Here you go!
(b) There he goes!


(vi) Time clauses and conditional clauses in place of simple future.
Example: 
(a) If you do not earn money, you will not buy the house.
(b) If you do not work hard, you will fail.


Rules for Affirmative Sentences


Singular subject + first form of verb + s/es +
Plural subject + first form of verb +
Example: 
(a) They play cricket in the ground.
(b) She cooks food in the evening.
(c) Water boils at 100°C.
(d) We study in ABC institution.
(e) She advises me not to smoke.


Rules for Negative Sentences


Singular subject + does not + first form of verb +
Plural subject + do not + first form of verb +
Example: 
(a) Reena does not watch television.
(b) We do not smoke.
(c) She does not write a letter to her friend.
(d) They do not like to swim.


Rules for Interrogative Sentences


Do/does + subject + first form of verb + ?
Question word +-do/does + subject + first form of verb + ?
Example: 
(a) Do you play cricket?
(b) Does she wash clothes?
(c) Does he not go to school daily?
(d) Why do you weep now?
(e) Whose book do you read?
(f) Whom do you teach?
(g) Which subject does Garima not want to read?
(h) Who teaches you English?
(i) Why do you not complete your homework?


II. The Present Continuous Tense

Statements


Form. Subject + is lam/are + Present Participle (Bare infinitive + ing or verb + ing)
Examples:

  • I am writing a letter.
  • Uday is reading a book.
  • Children are playing in the field.

Spelling Rules:
While adding ‘ing’ to the first form of the verb, remember the following:

  1. If the verb ends in ‘e’, this final ‘e’ is dropped before adding ‘ing’; as—
    come — coming,    use — using,
    tease — teasing,    waste — wasting.
    Exception. dye — dyeing; die — dying.
  2. When the verb is of one syllable and has a vowel before the final consonant, double the final consonant before adding ‘ing’; as—
    hit—hitting, run—running, shop—shopping.
  3. If the verb is of two or more syllables with stress falling on the last syllable, double the final consonant before adding ‘ing’; as—
    begin — beginning, submit — submitting.
  4. If the verb ends in a single ‘l’ preceded by a vowel, double the ‘l’ before adding ‘ing’; as—fulfill—fulfilling.
    compel —compelling; quarrel —quarrelling.

Interrogative Sentences


Form. Is/ am/ are + Subject + Present Participle ……………….. ?
Examples:

  • Is Madhu watching television?
  • Are they coming to the party?
  • Why are you making a noise?

Note. The ‘wh’ – question word comes before is/am/are.

Negative Sentences


Form. Subject + is / am / are + not + Present Participle.
Examples:

  • We are not going out today.
  • Hemant is not flying a kite now.
  • I am not wasting my time.

Negative Interrogative Sentences


Form. Is I am/are + Subject + not + Present Participle + ?

Examples:

  • Is the gardener not watering the plants now?
  • Are they not coming to the party this evening?

Important Note:
The following verbs are not normally used in the present continuous tense (The non-conclusive actions can be conveyed by using the Simple Present):

  • Verbs of Perception: see, hear, smell, notice.
  • Verbs of Thinking: think, feel, know, mean, mind, remember, forget, believe, imagine, agree, doubt, understand etc.
  • Verbs of Feeling: admire, adore, care, desire, wish, love, hate, like, dislike, forgive, want.
  • Verbs of Possession: have, owe, own, belong, possess.
  • Verbs of Appearance: appear, seem, resemble, etc.
  • Miscellaneous Verbs: consist, contain, cost, depend, etc.

Examples:

  • I smell something burning.
  • He thinks he left his diary in his office.
  • It is raining, but she wants to go home.

Adverbs. The Present Continuous Tense is often used with the words these days, at this time, at present, at the moment, etc.

The Use of Present Continuous Tense

  1. To describe the continuity of an action going on at the moment of speaking; as—
    She is singing now.
    Look! The postman is coming.
    You are speaking too fast, I can’t follow you.
  2. To describe ah action in process, but not necessarily going on at the time of speaking; as—
    I am writing a play these days.
    What is your sister doing now-a-days?
    We are still exporting coal to Japan.
  3. To express an action definitely planned for the near future; as—
    He is leaving for Delhi tomorrow.
    What are you doing in the evening?
    I am taking my mother to the art gallery this afternoon.
  4. To express a temporary situation; as—
    Anju is sitting in a chair.
    Mother is cooking food now.
    We are enjoying the situation.
  5. To express an action that has become a habit but is annoying/unpleasant to others; as—
    You are always asking for more?
    He is always making excuses.
    He is always indulging in baseless gossips.

III. The Present Perfect Tense

Statements


Form. Subject + has/have + Past Participle (III form of the verb)
Examples:

  • I have lost my pen.
  • He has posted all the invitations.
  • She has finished her work.
  • They have left for Agra today.

Negative Sentences


Form. Subject + has not/have not + Third form of the Verb

  • I have not taken your book.
  • He has not solved all his sums.
  • They have not sold their old house yet.

Interrogative Sentences


Forms. Has /Have + Subject + Third form of the Verb + ……………… ?

  • Have you lost your purse?
  • Has he won the first prize?
  • Have they scored the winning goal?

Important Note.

  • ‘Has’ is always used with singular subjects and ‘have’ with plural subjects,
  • The subjects ‘you’ and ‘I’ take ‘have’ with them.

Adverbs. The Present Perfect Tense is used with the words :
Yet, as yet, so far, ever since, already, just, just now, presently, once, twice, etc.

The Use of the Present Perfect Tense

  1. To express an action that has been recently completed; as—
    He has just received an e-mail.
    I have solved two questions so far.
    Have you finished your meals?
  2. To describe an action which has just occurred, but the time is not given; as—
    I have watered the plants.
    He has sent a message.
    They have contacted all their friends.
  3. To describe a past event, having some connection with the present; as—
    She has been to Shimla twice.
    I have seen this film.
    He has never failed in any public examination.
  4. To express an action having taken place in the Past and continuing in the present; as—
    We have lived here for ten years.
    He has known her for three years.
    I have not heard from you for over a year.

IV. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Form. Subject + has/have + been + Present I participle (I form of verb +ing)
In negative sentences ‘not’ is placed between has/have and been, while in Interrogative sentences, ‘has’ or ‘have’ is placed before the subject, whereas ‘been’ follows the subject.
Examples:

  • We have been waiting for you for an hour.
  • He has been living in this house since 1995.
  • It has not been raining since morning.
  • Has she been working in this firm for two months?

The Use of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense

  1. To express an action which began in the past but is still going on; as—
    She has been reading a book since morning.
    I have been lying in bed for an hour.
    Note. ‘Since’ and Tor’ are used with the Perfect Tenses. ‘Since’ is used with a point of time eg. since morning, since Monday, since 15th, since May, since 4 O’clock, since 1985 etc.
    ‘For’ is used with a period of time eg. for two hours, for three months, for many years etc.
  2. To express an action which began in the past and has been just completed, but whose result is still the present; as—
    My clothes are dirty, because I have been washing my car.
    I have been clearing my room since morning and I am very much tired now.
  3. To express an action in a sentence which begins with ‘For how long’ or ‘Since when’; as—
    Since when have you been waiting for me?
    For how long has he been suffering from fever?
The document Notes: Present Tense | Class 11 English Grammar is a part of the Class 11 Course Class 11 English Grammar.
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FAQs on Notes: Present Tense - Class 11 English Grammar

1. What is the simple present tense?
Ans. The simple present tense is used to describe actions that are habitual, general truths, or regular occurrences. It is formed by using the base form of the verb, such as "I eat," "She runs," or "They play."
2. How is the present continuous tense formed?
Ans. The present continuous tense is formed by using the present tense of the verb "to be" (am, is, are) and adding the present participle (-ing form) of the main verb. For example, "I am studying," "He is reading," or "They are playing."
3. What is the difference between the present perfect tense and the simple past tense?
Ans. The present perfect tense is used to talk about actions that happened in the past but have a connection to the present. It is formed by using the present tense of the verb "to have" (have, has) and the past participle of the main verb. On the other hand, the simple past tense is used to talk about actions that happened and completed in the past. It is formed by using the past tense of the main verb. For example, "I have seen that movie" (present perfect) versus "I saw that movie yesterday" (simple past).
4. When do we use the present perfect continuous tense?
Ans. We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about actions that started in the past, are still ongoing, and have a connection to the present. It is formed by using the present perfect tense of the verb "to have" (have, has), the past participle of the verb "to be" (been), and the present participle (-ing form) of the main verb. For example, "She has been studying for three hours."
5. Can the present perfect tense be used to talk about finished actions?
Ans. Yes, the present perfect tense can be used to talk about finished actions. However, it is important to note that the focus is on the result or impact of the action in the present rather than the specific time the action occurred. For example, "I have finished my homework" indicates that the homework is now completed and has an impact on the present situation.
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