|Table of contents
|Difference between TITA Parajumbles and non-TITA Parajumbles
|Approach to CAT Parajumbles
|The parajumbles must form a coherent paragraph
|The definite article ‘The’
|Pronouns can used to Connect Sentences in a Parajumble Question
|Generic ideas vis-à-vis specific ideas in a Parajumble
|Gravity of information or ideas
|Sentence Connectors should be used to connect sentences in a Parajumble
|Conclusion in a Parajumble Question
The first and the most important step while attempting CAT verbal questions is to read the question direction; many a time students go wrong just because they did not carefully read the question direction.
In parajumbles, CAT expects you to form a COHERENT paragraph; a paragraph is coherent only when:
If the right answer of a question does not have any of these, then it is no more a good question and is open to challenge.
Now, we will lay down some of the important points that the test taker must keep in mind while attempting questions on parajumbles.
Coherent paragraphs will never have an abrupt start; an abrupt start is the one in which the reader is not introduced to ‘certain concepts’ with which he must be familiar in order to completely comprehend the sentence; in other words, there are certain ‘ideas’ in the very first sentence that demand some additional or necessary information. Analyze, for instance, these two paragraphs:
Paragraph 1: Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. By Hera, Zeus sired Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus, though some accounts say that Hera produced these offspring alone. Some also include Eileithyia and Eris as their daughters. The conquests of Zeus among nymphs and the mythic mortal progenitors of Hellenic dynasties are famous.
Paragraph 2: According to Plato, a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal’s. Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended.
There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolis; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus.
The first paragraph is a coherent paragraph; the ideas expressed are clear and have both structural and logical unity.
The second paragraph is not a coherent paragraph because the part that is marked in bold makes us feel that it needs a prior introduction.
As illustrated above, if the definite article ‘the’ is followed by a common noun, then that common noun must be introduced earlier in the paragraph.
Example: On his way to Agra, Birbal met a king. Wearing a simple white gown, the king was travelling on foot.
The definite article ‘the’ can be effectively used to arrange the sentences in a logical order.
The test taker must be sharp enough to distinguish between a generic idea and a specific idea. In logical arrangement of ideas, a specific idea must come after a generic idea.
Example: India is the biggest democracy and the seventh largest country in the world. It is a country of immense diversity. It has 16 official languages, with each language having a more than thousand dialects.
‘Immense diversity’-generic idea
’16 official languages…’-specific idea
While distinguishing between a generic idea and a specific idea, the reader must be very careful. Compared with the specific ideas, the generic ideas are broader in scope and impact. Diversity, in the above example, is a generic idea because diversity can be in language, in food, in dress, and in many other things.
Diversity of culture will include diversity of languages, while diversity in languages will include variations in dialects.
Ideas or information that are of greater magnitude must be placed before ideas or information of relatively smaller magnitude, though this may not always be the rule.
Example: Germany is one of the most successful national teams in international competitions, having won a total of four World Cups (1954, 1974, 1990, 2014) and three European Championships (1972, 1980, 1996). They have also been runners-up three times in the European Championships, four times in the World Cup, and have won a further four third places. East Germany won Olympic Gold in 1976. Germany is the only nation to have won both the men’s and women’s World Cups.
Since, in football, winning the world cup is an achievement of a greater magnitude than winning the European championship or winning the Olympic Gold, the writer first speaks about Germany’s four World Cup wins followed by the other feats. This sort of logical arrangement demands general knowledge, which is not always dispensable in CAT Verbal.
Units of ideas: Once you have formed units within which the sentences are inseparable, you must look for the options that have those mandatory pairs. Use elimination to arrive at the answers.
Chronology of events: The chronology of events must be kept in mind; the conjunctions and adverbs of time will help you determine the chronology of events; the conjunctions of time such as: before, after, as, when, while, since etc. help you correctly understand the sequence of events, understand the cause and effect relationship between events, which, in turn, help you in logically arranging the sentences.
Example: Stanley Kubrick won many accolades for his film ‘Paths of Glory’ for which he won numerous awards as well. After this success, he would go on to direct Spartacus, an epic based on the life of the Thracian gladiator ‘Spartacus’.
Note the conjunction ‘after’, and how it creates a logical sequence of two events, telling us the right order in which the events occurred.
Just as the opening lines are important in introducing the paragraph, so closing lines are important in concluding the paragraph; and just as the opening lines must be generic and not abrupt, so the concluding lines must be smooth and aptly close the paragraph. The adverbial conjunctions here, too, play a very important role. The adverbial conjunctions such as hence, therefore, accordingly, consequently, thus must be noted by the test takers.
Example: Sachin Tendulkar started his test career in 1989. He went on to play the highest no of test matches and went on to become the highest scorer in both the popular versions of the game. He won the Wisden cricketer of the year in 1997. Thus, we can say that he is one of the greatest batsmen who ever took guard on the cricket pitch.
The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
Q1: 1. The Saheli Programme, run by the US Cross-Cultural Solutions, is offering a three week tour of India that involves a lot more than frenzied sightseeing.
2. Participants interested in women’s issues will learn about arranged marriages, dowry and infanticide.
3. Holiday packages include all sorts of topics, but female infanticide must be the first for tourism.
4. Interspersed with these talks and meetings are visits to cities like New Delhi and Agra, home to the Taj Mahal.
Sol: 1 should start the para as it introduces the Saheli Programme. It also states that an offer being made by the programme. 3 further takes the idea forward and gives details about it. 2 and 4 form a pair as 4 refers to some talks, the topic for which is mentioned in 2. Thus, the correct order is 1324.
Q2: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.
1. The eventual diagnosis was skin cancer and after treatment all seemed well.
2. The viola player didn’t know what it was; nor did her GP.
3. Then a routine scan showed it had come back and spread to her lungs.
4. It started with a lump on Cathy Perkins’ index finger.
Sol: Sentence 4 should be the opening sentence since it sets the scene and introduces the person suffering from cancer. Sentence 2 states that the viola player and her physician did not know what it was. ‘It’ refers to the lump on the finger. Sentence 1 should follow sentence 2 since it states what the eventual diagnosis was. The GP did not know what the lump was and later it was identified to be skin cancer. Sentence 1 states that all seemed well after the treatment, implying it was not. Sentence 3 should be the last sentence since it states that the cancer had spread to her lungs. Sentences 4213 form a coherent paragraph and hence, 4213 is the right answer.
Q3: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.
(1) The woodland’s canopy receives most of the sunlight that falls on the trees.
(2) Swifts do not confine themselves to woodlands, but hunt wherever there are insects in the air.
(3) With their streamlined bodies, swifts are agile flyers, ideally adapted to twisting and turning through the air as they chase flying insects – the creatures that form their staple diet.
(4) Hundreds of thousands of insects fly in the sunshine up above the canopy, some falling prey to swifts and swallows
Sol: 1 should be the opening sentence since it sets the context. Sentence 1 states that the woodland’s canopy receives most of the sunshine that falls on the trees. Sentence 4 continues sentence 1 by stating that thousands of insects fly above the canopy in the sunlight. The insects fall prey to the swifts and swallows. We have to decide whether the order of the remaining 2 sentences is 32 or 23. Sentence 3 states that swifts are agile flyers, adapted to chasing flying insects. Sentence 3 states that flying insects form the staple diet of the swifts. Sentence 2 states that swifts do not confine themselves to woodlands and hunt wherever they can find insects. Therefore, sentence 3 should precede sentence 2 (We cannot introduce that insects form the staple diet after stating that swifts hunt wherever they can find flying insects). Sentences 1432 form a coherent paragraph.
Therefore, 1432 is the correct answer.
Q4: The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper sequence of order of the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer:
1. In the era of smart world, however, ‘Universal Basic Income’ is an ineffective instrument which cannot address the potential breakdown of the social contract when large swathes of the population would effectively be unemployed.
2. In the era of industrial revolution, the abolition of child labour, poor laws and the growth of trade unions helped families cope with the pressures of mechanised work.
3. Growing inequality could be matched by a creeping authoritarianism that is bolstered by technology that is increasingly able to peer into the deepest vestiges of our lives.
4. New institutions emerge which recognise ways in which workers could contribute to and benefit by economic growth when, rather than if, their jobs are automated.
Sol: 4 should be the opening sentence since it states that new institutions recognize ways in which workers can contribute to the economy. The other 3 sentences provide examples and elaborate on the same and hence, sentence 4, which introduces the topic of discussion, should be the opening sentence.
2 talks about the period of industrial revolution. 1 talks about the smart world. Chronologically, 1 should follow 2. Moreover, 2 talks about an example that conformed to the point mentioned in sentence 4. On the other hand, 1 talks about an inadequacy. Therefore, 2 should have preceded 1. 3 should be the last sentence of the paragraph.
Sentences 4213 form a coherent paragraph and hence, 4213 is the correct answer.
Q5: The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper sequence of order of the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer:
1. They would rather do virtuous side projects assiduously as long as these would not compel them into doing their day jobs more honourably or reduce the profit margins.
2. They would fund a million of the buzzwordy programs rather than fundamentally question the rules of their game or alter their own behavior to reduce the harm of the existing distorted, inefficient and unfair rules.
3. Like the dieter who would rather do anything to lose weight than actually eat less, the business elite would save the world through social-impact-investing and philanthro-capitalism.
4. Doing the right thing — and moving away from their win-win mentality — would involve real sacrifice; instead, it’s easier to focus on their pet projects and initiatives.
Sol: After reading all the sentences, we know that the paragraph is about the businessmen who, instead of tackling the root causes, focus on superficial solutions. Statement 3 is the opening sentence as it introduces the topic by comparing businessmen with a dieter who is ready to do everything except eating less. Statement 2 mentions the examples of some of the specious solutions mentioned in statement 3. Statement 4 provides the reason why businessmen are hesitant to execute the genuine solutions which will bring real change. Statement 4 mentions the alternative taken by businessmen. The word ‘rather’ in statement 1 connects it with statement 4. Thus, the correct order is 3 – 2 – 4 – 1. Hence, 3241 is the correct answer.
Q6: 1. To the uninitiated listener, atonal music can sound like chaotic, random noise.
2. Atonality is a condition of music in which the constructs of the music do not ‘live’ within the confines of a particular key signature, scale, or mode.
3. After you realize the amount of knowledge, skill, and technical expertise required to compose or perform it, your tune may change, so to speak.
4. However, atonality is one of the most important movements in 20th century music.
Sol: After reading all the sentences , it can be inferred that though atonal music can sometimes sound random and chaotic, there is a lot of knowledge and skill that is required to perform atonal music.
Sentence 2 talks about what exactly atonal music is. Hence, this sentence must be the first sentence of the paragraph. Sentence 1 talks about the misconceptions of atonal music that the uninitiated make. This sentence must be the second sentence of the passage.
Sentence 4, now clears the misconception about atonality and states that it is one of the most important movements in music. Sentence 3 gives the reason why atonality is music is so difficult to attain and says that the untrained listener would change his mind when he understands the amount of knowledge and skill required to produce atonality. Therefore, sentences 4 and 3 form a block.
Therefore the correct sequence of sentences is 2-1-4-3.
Q7: 1. Living things—animals and plants—typically exhibit correlational structure.
2. Adaptive behaviour depends on cognitive economy, treating objects as equivalent.
3. The information we receive from our senses, from the world, typically has structure and order, and is not arbitrary.
4. To categorize an object means to consider it equivalent to other things in that category, and different—along some salient dimension—from things that are not.
Sol: After reading all the sentences, it can be inferred that the passage talks about how comparisons are made between objects in different aspects, and how such comparisons are important facets of cognitive ability and consequently our adaptive behaviour. Sentence 2 introduces how adaptive behavior depends on cognitive economy. Hence, it is the first sentence of the paragraph. Sentence 4 elaborates on how different objects are compared. This sentence logically follows sentence 2. Sentence 3 shows how such comparisons have structure and order, and how they are not arbitary. Hence, sentence 3 follows sentence 4. Sentence 1 is completes the passage in a way that elucidates how animals and plats are equivalent to each other by exhibiting correlatoinal structure. The correct sequence is 2-4-3-1.
|1. What is the difference between TITA Parajumbles and non-TITA Parajumbles?
|2. What is the approach to CAT Parajumbles?
|3. Can the definite article 'The' be used in a Parajumble?
|4. Can pronouns be used to connect sentences in a Parajumble question?
|5. What is the importance of differentiating between generic ideas and specific ideas in a Parajumble?