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Mnemonics: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants | Biology Class 12 - NEET PDF Download

This document will help you remember important information about Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants in a fun and easy way. Inside, you'll find mnemonics—memory tricks—that will make it easier for you to remember key concepts, examples related to Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants.

Mnemonics: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants | Biology Class 12 - NEET

 Whether you're studying for an exam, preparing for a quiz, or simply looking to enhance your understanding of Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants, these mnemonics will serve as valuable memory tools. Utilize them alongside your regular study routine to reinforce your knowledge and increase your recall ability.

Happy mnemonic learning!

Flower Structure and Function

Mnemonic: Clever Ants Gather Colorful Flowers Frequently

  • C: Calyx
  • A: Androecium
  • G: Gynoecium
  • C: Corolla
  • F: Flower
  • F: Filament

Mnemonic Explanation: In this mnemonic, each word starts with the corresponding letter, representing a specific part of the flower structure "Clever Ants Gather Colorful Flowers Frequently.".

Parts of FlowerParts of Flower

Pollination

Mnemonic: Birds Wing Efficiently

  • B: Birds
  • W: Wind & water
  • E: External agents

Mnemonic Explanation: Mnemonic for different pollination mechanisms using the given letters: "Birds Wing Efficiently."

(a) Agents of Pollination

Mnemonic: Birds are After Insects

  • B: Birds
  • A: Animals
  • I: Insects

Mnemonic Explanation: Mnemonic for different agents of pollination using the given letters: "Birds are After Insects."

Mnemonics: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants | Biology Class 12 - NEET

(b) Self-pollination and Cross-pollination

Mnemonic: Self Transfer Allows Cross-pollination

  • - Self-pollination: Self-pollination is a type of pollination in which pollen from the anther of a flower lands on the stigma of the same flower or another flower on the same plant. In this process, the plant transfers its own pollen to its own stigma, leading to fertilization and seed formation.
  • T - Transfer:  It reminds us that in self-pollination, the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma occurs within the same flower or plant.
  • A - Autogamy: Autogamy is another term for self-pollination, where the transfer of pollen occurs within the same flower.
  • - Cross-pollination: Cross-pollination, on the other hand, is a type of pollination in which pollen from the anther of one flower is transferred to the stigma of a different flower, either on the same plant or another plant of the same species. 

Mnemonic Explanation: Mnemonic for self-pollination and cross-pollination using the given letters: "Self Transfer Allows Cross-pollination."

Microsporogenesis


Mnemonic: MEGS - Microsporocyte Engages in Gamete Synthesis!"

  • "M": Represents Microsporocyte or Microspore Mother Cell (MMC). The process of microsporogenesis begins with the microsporocyte, a diploid cell found in the anther's sporangium.
  • "E": Represents Engages. The MMC undergoes a series of divisions, known as meiosis, resulting in the formation of microspores.
  • "G": Represents Gamete Synthesis. Each microspore undergoes mitotic divisions and differentiates into a male gametophyte, which is the pollen grain.
  • "S": Represents Sporangium. The anther contains sporangia, where microsporogenesis takes place.

Explanation of Microsporogenesis:

Microsporocyte: Within the anther, the microsporocytes are diploid cells that undergo meiosis, resulting in the formation of four haploid microspores.

Engages: During meiosis, the microsporocyte engages in the process of cell division, reducing the chromosome number by half, from diploid (2n) to haploid (n).

Gamete Synthesis: Each microspore further differentiates into a male gametophyte, known as the pollen grain. The pollen grain contains two cells - the generative cell, which will give rise to two sperm cells, and the tube cell, which forms the pollen tube.

Sporangium: The anther contains sporangia, where microsporogenesis takes place. These sporangia are responsible for producing and releasing pollen grains.

Megasporogenesis

Mnemonic: "MASH - Megasporocyte Activates Spore Hormones!"

  • "M": Represents Megasporocyte. Megasporogenesis begins with the megasporocyte, a diploid cell found in the ovule's nucellus.
  • "A": Represents Activates. The megasporocyte undergoes a series of divisions, known as meiosis, resulting in the formation of megaspores.
  • "S": Represents Spore. Each megasporocyte gives rise to four haploid megaspores.
  • "H": Represents Hormones. Hormonal regulation is crucial during megasporogenesis.

Explanation of Megasporogenesis:

Megasporocyte: Within the ovule's nucellus, the megasporocyte is a diploid cell that undergoes meiosis, resulting in the formation of four haploid megaspores.

Activates: During meiosis, the megasporocyte activates the process of cell division, reducing the chromosome number by half, from diploid (2n) to haploid (n).

Spore: Each megasporocyte gives rise to four haploid megaspores, but only one of these megaspores survives and becomes functional.

Hormones: Hormonal regulation is crucial during megasporogenesis to control the development and selection of the functional megaspore, which will eventually develop into the female gametophyte (embryo sac).


Double Fertilization

Mnemonic: EGG + 2P = Zygote + 3P

  • EGG: Represents the egg cell (female gamete) in the ovule.
  • + 2P: Represents the two polar nuclei (female gametes) in the ovule.
  • = Zygote: Represents the fusion of one sperm cell with the egg cell, forming the zygote.
  • + 3P: Represents the fusion of the other sperm cell with the two polar nuclei, forming the triploid endosperm.

Mnemonic Explanation: Using this mnemonic, you can easily remember the main components and steps of double fertilization in flowering plants.

Mnemonics: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants | Biology Class 12 - NEET 

Post-fertilization Changes

Mnemonic: "SEED - Sprout, Embryo, Endosperm Develop!"
  • "S": Represents Seed formation. After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, which consists of the embryo, endosperm, and seed coat.
  • "E": Represents Embryo development. The zygote undergoes mitotic divisions and develops into the embryo, which is the future plant.
  • "E": Represents Endosperm development. The primary endosperm nucleus, formed by the fusion of the second male gamete and two polar nuclei, develops into the endosperm, which provides nourishment to the developing embryo.
  • "D": Represents Development. The seed undergoes further growth and development, preparing it for germination and sprouting into a new plant.

Apomixis & Polyembryony

Mnemonic: "ASAP": Represents the first letters of the words "Asexual Seeds And Polyembryony," which remind us of the key concepts associated with these terms.

  • "Asexual Seeds": Refers to apomixis, which is a type of asexual reproduction in plants where seeds are formed without the process of fertilization. The ovule develops into a seed without the involvement of male gametes (pollen).
  • "And Polyembryony": Refers to polyembryony, which is a condition where multiple embryos develop from a single fertilized egg or from different egg cells within the same ovule.
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