Q1. Mention any two stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do.
Ans: Stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do are:
Q2. What are some of the pressures that boys experience?
Ans: Some of the pressures that boys experience are:
Q3. Why does government of India conduct census every 10 years?
Ans: India has a census every 10 years, which counts the whole population of the country. It also gathers detailed information about the people living in India – their age, schooling, what work they do, and so on. We use this information to measure many things, like the number of literate people, and the ratio of men and women.
Q4. What is Sultana’s Dream about?
Ans: This story imagined a woman called Sultana who reaches a place called Ladyland. Ladyland is a place where women had the freedom to study, work, and create inventions like controlling rain from the clouds and flying air cars. In this Ladyland, the men had been sent into seclusion – their aggressive guns and other weapons of war defeated by the brain-power of women.
Q5. List one reason why learning the alphabet was so important to women like Rashsundari Devi, Ramabai and Rokeya?
Ans: Learning the alphabet was so important to women like Rashsundari Devi, Ramabai and Rokeya because alphabet is the building block of literacy. After learning that, they were able to put an impact on the societies by writing stories, letters, and autobiographies.
Q6. What do you understand Women’s Movement?
Ans: Women and girls now have the right to study and go to school. There are other spheres – like legal reform, violence and health – where the situation of women and girls has improved. These changes have not happened automatically. Women individually and collectively have struggled to bring about these changes. This struggle is known as the Women’s Movement.
Q7. Who set up a mission in Khedgaon near Pune in 1898? What was the mission about? How did the mission help the women?
Ans: Ramabai set up a Mission in Khedgaon near Pune in 1898, where widows and poor women were encouraged not only to become literate but to be independent. They were taught a variety of skills from carpentry to running a printing press, skills that are not usually taught to girls even today. Ramabai’s Mission is still active today.
Q8. “Rashsundari Devi was not a superstitious woman”. Discuss.
Ans: Rashsundari Devi was a housewife from a rich landlord’s family. At that time, it was believed that if a woman learnt to read and write, she would bring bad luck to her husband and become a widow. She was not superstitious, so she took this belief as false and taught herself how to read and write in secret, well after her marriage. At the age of 60, she wrote her autobiography in Bangla.
Q9. Mention the changes that occurred with emergence of new ideas about education and learning in 19th century?
Ans: In the nineteenth century, many new ideas about education and learning emerged. Schools became more common and communities that had never learnt reading and writing started sending their children to school. But there was a lot of opposition to educating girls even then. Yet many women and men made efforts to open schools for girls. Women struggled to learn to read and write.
Q10. How do you think stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, affect women’s right to equality?
Ans: Stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, affect women’s right to equality:
Q11. Why was Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain stopped from learning Bangla and English? How did she learn these languages?
Ans: She was stopped from learning Bangla and English. In those days, English was seen as a language that would expose girls to new ideas, which people thought were not correct for them. Therefore, it was mostly boys who were taught English. Rokeya learnt to read and write Bangla and English with the support of her elder brother and an elder sister.
Q12. Write short note about Rashsundari Devi and her contribution to society in improving women situation.
Ans: Rashsundari Devi was born in West Bengal, some 200 years ago. At the age of 60, she wrote her autobiography in Bangla. Her book titled Amar Jiban is the first known autobiography written by an Indian woman. Rashsundari Devi was a housewife from a rich landlord’s family. At that time, it was believed that if a woman learnt to read and write, she would bring bad luck to her husband and become a widow. Despite this, she taught herself how to read and write in secret, well after her marriage.
Q13. Though literacy rates have increased since independence then what is the major concern?
Ans: According to the 1961 census, about 40 per cent of all boys and men were literate compared to just 15 per cent of all girls and women. In the most recent census of 2001, these figures have grown to 76 per cent for boys and men, and 54 per cent for girls and women. This means that the proportion of both men and women who are now able to read and have at least some amount of schooling has increased. But, the concern is that, the percentage of the male group is still higher than the female group. The gap has not gone away.
Q14. Write brief note about Ramabai?
Q15. Give a brief life sketch of Laxmi Lakra?
Q16. Why do you think that the percentage of Adivasi girls and boys leaving school is higher than that of any other group?
Ans: There are several reasons why children from Dalit and Adivasi and communities leave school.
Q17. “Poor girls drop out of school because they are not interested in getting an education.” Re-read the last paragraph on page 62 and explain why this statement is not true.
Ans: Poor girls do not drop out of school because they are not interested in getting an education. They leave the school because of the following reasons:
Q18. Can you describe two methods of struggle that the women’s movement used to raise issues? If you had to organise a struggle against stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, what method would you employ from the ones that you have read about? Why would you choose this particular method?
Ans: Two methods of struggle that the women’s movement used to raise issues were:
If I had to organise struggle against stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, I would like to employ campaigning method as what pressure cannot do, awareness about the issue can do effectively.
Q19. Explain the term Stereotype, Discrimination, Violation and Sexual harassment.