Class 9 Exam  >  Class 9 Notes  >  Social Studies (SST) Class 9  >  Short & Long Question Answer: Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Class 9 History Chapter 1 Question Answers - India and the Contemporary World - 1

Q1: What different visions of the future had socialists?

Or

How did socialists’ visions of the future differ from one another?
Ans:

Socialists had different visions of the future:

  • Some believed in the idea of cooperatives. Robert Owen, a leading English manufacturer, sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA).
  • Other socialist felt that cooperatives could not be built on a wide scale only through individual initiative. They demanded that governments encourage cooperatives. In France, Louis Blanc wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist enterprises.
  • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels believed that to free themself from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled.


Q2: How was the year 1904 bad one for the Russian workers?
Ans:

  • The year 1904 was a particularly bad one for Russian workers. Prices of essential commodities rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20 per cent. The membership of workers’ associations rose dramatically.
  • When four members of the Assembly of Russian workers, which had been formed in 1904, were dismissed at the Putilov Iron works, there was a call for industrial action.
  • Over the next few days thousands of workers in St. Petersburg went on strike demanding a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions. But their condition remained the same.


Q3: How were conservatives opposed to radicals and liberals?

Or

What were the ideas of conservatives about the societal change?
Ans:

  • Radicals wanted a nation in which government was based on the majority of a country’s population. They supported women’s suffragette movement. Unlike liberals, they opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners. They were not against the existence of private property, but dislike concentration of property in the hands of a few.
  • Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals. Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives had been generally opposed to the idea of change. But the nineteenth century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.


Q4: Distinguish between the ideas of liberals and radicals.
Ans:

Class 9 History Chapter 1 Question Answers - India and the Contemporary World - 1


Q5: How were Russian industries badly affected by the First World War?

Or

The First World War had severe impact on Russian industries. Explain.

Or

How did the First World War affect the industry in Russia?
Ans:

  • Russia’s own industries were few in number and the country was cut off from other suppliers of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic Sea. Industrial equipment disintegrated more rapidly in Russia than elsewhere in Europe.
  • By 1916, railway lines began to break down. Able-bodied men were called up to the war. As a result, there were labour shortages and small workshops producing essentials were shut down.
  • Large suppliers of grain were sent to feed the army. For the people in cities, bread and flour became scarce. By the winter of 1916, riots at bread shops began to occur frequently.


Q6: Why were socialists active in the countryside in Russia through the late nineteenth century?
Ans:

  • Socialists were active in the countryside through the late nineteenth century. They formed the Socialist Revolutionary Party in 1900. This party struggled for peasant’s rights and demanded that land belonging to nobles be transferred to peasants.
  • Social democrats disagreed with socialist revolutionaries about peasants. So, they (socialist revolutionaries) kept themselves active to protect the peasants’ interests.


Q7: Who were liberals? What were their political and social ideologies?
Ans:

  • One of the groups that looked to change society in the nineteenth century were the liberals. They wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers.
  • They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against government. They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, a subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.
  • But liberals were not democrats. They did not believe in universal adult franchise. They felt that men of property mainly should have the right to vote. They were also against women’s right to vote.


Q8: How were the critics of planned economy and collectivisation treated by Stalin’s and his sympathizers?
Ans:

  • Many people criticised the confusion in industrial production under the Planned Economy and the consequences of collectivisation Stalin and his sympathisers charged these critics with conspiracy against socialisation.
  • Accusations were made throughout the country, and by 1939, over 2 millions were sent to prison or labour camps. Most were innocent of the crimes, but no one spoke for them.
  • A large number of people were forced to make false confessions under torture and were executed. Several among them were talented professionals.


Q9: Describe the economic condition of Russia before 1905. (Imp)
Ans:

The social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905 was quite backward.

  • Social conditions: There was no equality among the working class. Workers were a divided group. Some had strong links with the villages from which they came. Others had settled in cities permanently. Workers were divided by skill. Workers whose jobs needed skill and training considered themselves aristocrats among other workers.
    Women were discriminated against. They were paid less than men. Divisions among workers showed themselves in dress and manners too. But there was unity among them. They could go on a strike when they disagreed with employers about dismissals or work conditions.
  • Economic conditions: Before 1905, the vast majority of Russia’s people were agriculturists. About 85% of the Russian population earned their living from agriculture. In the empire, cultivators produced for the market as well as for their own needs and Russia was a major exporter of grain. There were few industries. Craftsmen undertook much of the production, but large factories existed alongside craft workshops.
    Many factories were set up in the 1890s, when Russia’s railway network was extended, and foreign investment in industry increased. Coal production doubled and iron and steel output quadrupled. In spite of these improvements, Russia’s economic condition remained backward. There was acute employment problem among the workers.
  • Political conditions: Politically too Russia was a backward country. All political parties were illegal in Russia before 1914. The Russian peasants formed the Socialist Revolutionary Party in 1900, This party struggled for peasants’ rights and demanded that land belonging to nobles be transferred to peasants. But as they were not a united group, they were not considered to be part of a socialist movement started by Lenin .


Q10: How did industrialisation change the lives of people in Europe?
Ans:

Industrialisation changed the lives of people in Europe in the following ways:

  • It brought men, women and children to factories. They were forced to work long hours at poor wages.
  • Unemployment was common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods.
  • Workers had no facility of housing and sanitation. These problems were growing with the growth of towns.


Q11: Why did socialists believe that private property was the root of all social ills of the time? (Imp)
Ans:

Socialists argued that individuals own the property that gave employment but the men with property were concerned only with personal gain and not with the welfare of those who made the property productive. So if a society as a whole rather than single individuals controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests . Socialist wanted this change and campaigned for it.

Q12: How you say that liberals were not democrats?

Or

What were the ideas that liberals cherished?
Ans:

  • One of the groups that looked to change society in the nineteenth century were the liberals. They wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers.
  • They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against government. They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, a subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.
  • But liberals were not democrats. They did not believe in universal adult franchise. They felt that men of property mainly should have the right to vote. They were also against women’s right to vote.


Q13: How you say that liberals were not democrats?

Or

What were the ideas that liberals cherished?
Ans:

  • One of the groups that looked to change society in the nineteenth century were the liberals. They wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers.
  • They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against government. They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, a subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.
  • But liberals were not democrats. They did not believe in universal adult franchise. They felt that men of property mainly should have the right to vote. They were also against women’s right to vote.


Q14: How did the First World War on the ‘Eastern front’ differ from that on the ‘Western front’?
Ans:

The First World War on the ‘Eastern Front’ differed from that on the ‘Western Front’ in the following ways:

  • In the west, armies fought from trenches stretched along eastern France. After September 1914 the front remained relatively unchanged until the end of the war in 1918. The eastern front was longer and so lower troop concentrations. As a result, trenches proved less effective. Armies moved a good deal and fought battles leaving large casualties. Defeats were shocking and demoralising. Russian army lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916.
  • The western front was fought between France, Great Britain and the US. The eastern front was mainly Russia and it was colder. Not that conditions were much better on the western front but the winter wasn’t as cold and long as on the eastern front.


Q15: How were the Bolsheviks different from the Mensheviks?
Ans:

Class 9 History Chapter 1 Question Answers - India and the Contemporary World - 1


Q16: What was the Duma? How far was it successful?
Ans:

  • The Duma: Duma, an elected consultative Parliament, was created by the Tsar of Russia during the 1905 Revolution. In the beginning it promised that it would be a representative assembly and that its approval would be necessary for the enactment of legislation. But the fundamental laws, issued in April 1906, before the first Duma met in May 1906, deprived it of control over state ministers and limited its ability to initiate legislation effectively.
  • However, the Tsar dismissed the First Duma within 75 days and the re-elected second Duma within three months. He did not want any questioning of his authority or any reduction in his power. He changed the voting laws and packed the third Duma with conservative politicians, liberals and revolutionaries were kept out. The fourth Duma was also of limited political influence. Thus the Duma was reentered right from the start, and people knew it.


Q17: What was Stalin’s collectivisation programme? How were peasants treated who resisted his programme?
Ans:
Stalin’s collectivisation programme:

  • Collectivisation was a policy of forced consolidation of individual peasant, households into collective farms called ‘Kolkhozes’. It was carried out by the Soviet Government in the late 1920s – early 1930s. Stalin introduced this system to overcome the food crisis which was rampant in the country at that time and to increase peasant labour productivity. The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farm.
  • Many peasants protested such attempts and destroyed livestock to show their anger. But Stalin’s collectiviasation programme did not bring the desired results. The food supply situation turned even worse in subsequent years because production did not increase immediately.
  • Peasants were not happy with Stalin’s collectivisation programme because their land had been taken away to establish state-controlled large farms. They resisted the authorities and destroyed their livestock. These peasants were severely punished. Many were deported and exiled. Although Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation, it treated such cultivation unsympathetically.


Q18: Mention three major changes that Stalin introduced in industry.
Ans:

  • Stalin headed the Bolshevik Party after the death of Lenin in 1924. He introduced a process of centralised planning. He deputed officials to assess how the economy could work and set targets for a five-year period. On the basis they made the Five Year Plans. The government fixed all prices to promote industrial growth during the first two ‘Plans’.
  • Stalin continued the policy of nationalisation initiated by Lenin. As a result, many industries and banks were nationalised.
  • Rapid construction of factory sites began. In the city of Magnitogorsk, the construction of a steel plant was achieved in three years.


Q19: How did the outlook of conservatives change after the French Revolution?
Ans:

  • The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic change in a way in which society was structured. Before the eighteenth century it was the aristocracy and church which controlled economic and social power. Suddenly, after the revolution, it seemed possible to change this.
  • Even conservatives changed their outlook after the French Revolution. They opened up their minds to the need for change.
  • They accepted that some change was inevitable but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.


Q20: Who was Lenin? What do you know about his ‘April Theses’? Why were some people in the Bolshevik Party initially surprised by it?
Ans:

  • Lenin was the leader of the radical socialist Bolshevik movement that toppled the Tsarist regime in 1917 and head of the first government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). He was exiled for taking part in the 1905 Revolution. In April 1917, he returned to Russia from his exile.
  • Lenin and the Bolsheviks had opposed the war since 1914. Now he felt it was time for Soviets to take over power. He declared that the war be brought to a close, land be transferred to the peasants, and banks be nationalised. These three demands were Lenin’s ‘April Theses’. He also argued that the Bolshevik Party rename itself the Communist Party to indicate its new radical aims.
  • Many people in the Bolshevik Party were initially surprised by the April theses. They thought that the time was not yet ripe for a socialist revolution and the provisional government needed to be supported.


Q21: How was Kerenskii’s Provisional Government overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917?

Or

Why did the Kerenskii Government in Russia fall?
Ans:

  • Lenin was very apprehensive of Kerenskii’s Provisional Government. He feared that the Provisional Government would set up a dictatorship in Russia. In September, he began discussions for an uprising against the government, Bolshevik supporters in the army, Soviets and factories were brought together. On 16 October 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. The Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet under Leon Trotskii to organise the seizure. The date of event was kept a secret.
  • The uprising began on 24 October. However, Prime Minister Kerenskii had already left the city to arrange for the troops. At dawn, pro-government military men seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers. Pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace. The Military Revolutionary Committee acted swiftly. It ordered its supporters to seize the government offices and arrest ministers.
  • Late in the day, the ship Aurora shelled the Winter Palace. Other vessels sailed down the river Neva and took over various military points. By night, the city was under the committee’s control and the ministers had surrendered. At a meeting of the all Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd, the majority approved the Bolshevik action. Uprisings took place in other cities. There was heavy fighting especially in Moscow. Ultimately the Bolsheviks succeeded in controlling the Moscow Petrograd area by December.


Q22: Enlist the factors that led to the 1905 Revolution in Russia. What were its consequences?
Ans:

  • There were Several factors that led to the Russian Revolution in 1905
  • Tsar’s Autocratic rule was not tolerable now. The Tsar was an inefficient and corrupt ruler. He failed to look after the interest of the common man.
  • Liberals in Russia were very active. They campaigned to end the poor state of affairs in their country. Together with the social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries, they worked with peasants and workers to demand a constitution.
  • The miserable condition of the Russian workers aggravated the situation. They were living a very hard life due to rise in prices of essential goods and decline in real wages. They went on a strike to fulfil their demands.
  • The incident of Bloody Sunday made the situation worst. In this incident over 100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded. It angered the whole Russia. Strikes took place all over the country.

Consequences of the 1905 Revolution

  • An elected consultative Parliament or Duma was created.
  • Most of the trade unions and committees were declared illegal. However, these continued to work unofficially.
  • Severe restrictions were placed on political activity.
  • The Tsar changed the voting laws and packed the Duma with conservative politicians who never questions his (Tsar’s) authority.


Q23: Mention the positive and negative aspects of the Bolshevik government on Soviet Union and its people.
Ans:

Positive aspects:

  • The Bolshevik government came in power in 1917 under the leadership of Lenin. Lenin and his supporters had opposed the war since 1914. So, when he came to power, he declared that the war be brought to a close. In March 1918, despite opposition by their political allies, the Bolsheviks made peace with Germany at Brest Litovsk.
  • The Bolsheviks were totally opposed to private property. So, banks and industries were nationalised, so that they might not remain individual’s property.
  • Land and other means of production were declared the property of the entire nation. Labour was made compulsory for all. This ended the exploitation of the poor by the hands of the capitalists and landlords.

Negative aspects:

  • Since land was declared social property, So peasants began to seize the land of the nobility. In cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements.
  • Russia became a one-party state. Trade unions were kept under party control. The secret police punished those who criticised the Bolsheviks. Thus, on one hand, the party stood for socialism and for change and so many welcomed it but on the other hand, the party encouraged censorship which disillusioned many.


Q24: Why did Stalin introduce collectivisation and what were the consequences of his policies?

Or

What was the collectivisation policy of Stalin? How did peasants react to this policy?

Or

What were the major changes that Stalin introduced in the field of agriculture through his collectivisation programme?
Ans:

  • Stalin believed that he would increase the efficiency of farming by developing modern farms. Collectivisation would mean that the peasant strip farms would be amalgamated and this would enable the sharing of resources such as machinery between the collective farms instead of the small peasant holdings. The mechanised equipment itself would enable the extraction of greater surpluses than the peasant strip farm.
  • Collectivisation would end the scope of grain shortages and eliminate the influential and well-to-do farmers who were responsible for acute problem of grain supplies. The government fixed prices at which grain must be sold but these farmers refused to sell their grain to government buyers at these prices and thus hoarded grain.
  • From 1929, the Stalin forced all peasants to cultivate farms (kolkhoz). The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farms. Peasants worked on the land, and the kolkhoz profit was shared.
  • Stalin’s collectivisation policy angered the peasants. They resisted the authorities and destroyed their livestock. Between 1929 and 1931, the number of cattle fell by one-third. Those who resisted collectivisation, were severely punished. Many were deported and exiled. Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation, but treated such cultivators unsympathetically.


Q25: Describe how Petrograd led the February Revolution of 1917 that brought down the monarchy in Russia.
Ans:
Main events and effects of the February Revolution:

  • On 22 February, a lockout took place at a factory on the right bank of the river Neya.On 23 February, workers in fifty factories called a strike in sympathy. In many factories, women led the way to strikes. Demonstrating workers crossed from the factory quarters to the centre of the capital—the Nevskii Prospekt. However the government suppressed their agitation by imposing curfew.
  • On 25 February, the government suspended the Duma. Politicians spoke out against the measure.Demonstrators returned in force to the streets of the left bank on the 26th. On the 27th, the Police Headquarters were ransacked. The streets crowded with people raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy. The government tried to control the situation but nothing happened. The regiments supported the workers. Eventually ‘Soviet’ or ‘Council’ was formed.
  • On 2nd March, the Tsar abdicated and Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a provisional government to run the country. The February revolution was not led by any political party but people themselves led it. Petrograd had brought down the monarchy and gained an important place in the history of Soviet Union. Trade unions became active and their number grew.
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