Q1: Who is the supreme commander of the defence forces in India?
Ans: The President is the supreme commander of the defence forces in India.
Q2: Name the three institutions that play a key role in major decisions of the country.
Ans: Legislature, executive, and judiciary.
Q3: What is the national level government called?
Ans: The national level government is called Central Government, Union Government, or just Government of India.
Q4: What is the full form of SEBC?
Ans: SEBC stands for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes.
Q5: Who headed the Second Backward Classes Commission in 1979? What was it popularly called?
Ans: B.P Mandal headed the Second Backward Classes Commission in 1979. It was popularly called the Mandal Commission.
Q6: Mention one of the major recommendations made by the Mandal Commission.
Ans: It recommended that 27 per cent of government jobs be reserved for the socially and educationally backward classes.
Q7: What modification did the Supreme Court make in the Mandal Commission’s recommendations?
Ans: The Supreme Court said that well-to-do persons among the backward classes should be excluded from getting the benefit of reservation.
Q8: What is called Parliament?
Ans: A national assembly of elected representatives is called Parliament. It exercises supreme political authority on behalf of the people.
Q9: Which institution plays a central role in Modern democracies?
Ans: It is the Parliament that plays a central role in modern democracies.
Q10: In our country, the Parliament consists of two houses. Name them.
Ans: The Council of States or the Rajya Sabha, and The House of the people or the Lok Sabha.
Q11: Who are called civil servants?
Ans: Persons working in civil services are called civil servants.
Q12: What is the function of the civil servants?
Ans: The civil servants work under the political executive and assist them in carrying out the day-to-day administration.
Q13: Whom does the President appoint as the Prime Minister of India?
Ans: The president appoints the leader of the majority party as the Prime Minister of India.
Q14: In which matter does the Lok Sabha exercise more powers?
Ans: The Lok Sabha exercises more powers in money matters.
Q15: Who are Cabinet Ministers?
Ans: Cabinet Ministers are usually top-level leaders of the ruling party or parties who are in charge of the major ministries.
Q16: Why is parliamentary democracy in most countries often known as the Cabinet form of government?
Ans: It is not practical for all ministers to meet regularly and discuss everything; decisions are taken in Cabinet meetings. The ministers may have different views and opinions, but everyone has to own up to every decision of the cabinet.
Q17: Every ministry has secretaries. What functions do these secretaries perform?
Ans: The secretaries provide the necessary background information to the ministers to take decisions.
Q18: Who is the most powerful within the Cabinet?
Ans: Within the Cabinet, it is the Prime Minister who is the most powerful.
Q19: Who is the head of the State?
Ans: The President is the head of the State.
Q20: Who elects the President of India?
Ans: The President of India is indirectly elected by the elected Members of Parliament (MPs) and the elected Members of the Legislative Assemblies (MLAs).
Q21: What do you mean by the Presidential form of government?
Ans: In the presidential system, it is the president who is both the head of the state and the head of the government.
Q22: What is called the judiciary?
Ans: All the courts at different levels in a country put together are called the judiciary.
Q23: What does the Indian judiciary consist of?
Ans: The Indian judiciary consists of a Supreme Court for the entire nation, High Courts in the states, District courts, and the courts at the local level.
Q24: What is meant by an integrated judiciary?
Ans: An integrated judiciary means the Supreme Court controls the judicial administration in the country. Its decisions are binding on all other courts of the country.
Q25: What do you mean by ‘independence of the judiciary’?
Ans: Independence of the judiciary means that it is not under the control of the legislature or the executive. The judges do not act on the direction of the government or according to the wishes of the party in power.