Q1: Who called the Right to Constitutional Remedies as ‘the heart and soul of the Constitution?
Ans: Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar called the Right to Constitutional Remedies as ‘the heart and soul of the Constitution’.
Q2: Women in Saudi Arabia are subjected to many public restrictions. Give one example.
Ans: The testimony of one man is considered equal to that of two women.
Q3: What are rights?
Ans: Rights are reasonable claims of persons recognised by society and sanctioned by law.
Q4: When do the socially recognised claims acquire real force?
Ans: The socially recognised claims acquire real forces when they are written into law.
Q5: When is it called violation or infringement of rights?
Ans: When fellow citizens or the government do not respect the rights recognised by society, it is called violation or infringement of rights.
Q6: What can citizens do in case of violation of their rights?
Ans: In case of violation of their rights, citizens can approach courts to protect their rights.
Q7: What are called Fundamental Rights?
Ans: In India, like most other democracies in the world, the basic rights of the citizens are written down in the Constitution. These rights are fundamental to our life and are called Fundamental Rights.
Q8: What is called the rule of law?
Ans: The rule of law means that everyone is equal before the law. No person is above the law. There cannot be any distinction between a political leader, government official and an ordinary citizen.
Q9: What does the word ‘equality’ mean?
Ans: Equality means giving everyone an equal opportunity to achieve what one is capable of.
Q10: What does ‘Freedom’ mean in practical life?
Ans: In Practical life freedom means absence of interference in our affairs by others—be it other individuals or the government.
Q11: Why is freedom of speech and expression essential for an individual?
Ans: Our ideas and personality develop only when we are able to freely communicate with others.
Q12: The Constitution says that no person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. What does it mean?
Ans: It means that no person can be killed unless the court has ordered a death sentence. It also means that a government or police cannot arrest or detain any citizen unless he has proper legal justification.
Q13: What is meant by ‘right against exploitation?
Ans: It means that every citizen has a right not to be exploited. If it happens, one can approach the courts to get justice.
Q14: What idea is secularism based on?
Ans: Secularism is based on the idea that the state is concerned only with relations among human beings, and not with the relations between human beings and God.
Q15: Give one feature of a secular state.
Ans: A secular state does not establish any one religion as an official religion.
Q16: What is meant by the Right to Constitutional Remedies?
Ans: It is possible that sometimes our fundamental rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies, or by the government. When any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through courts. This is called the Right to Constitutional Remedies.
Q17: What do you know about the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India?
Ans: The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is an autonomous public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993. It focuses on helping the victims secure their human rights.
Q18: What is the Right to Information Act?
Ans: Parliament has enacted a law giving the right to information to the citizens. This act was made under the Fundamental Right to freedom of thought and expression. We have a right to seek information from the government offices.
Q19: Is the right to property a Fundamental Right?
Ans: No, the right to property is not a Fundamental Right but it is a Constitutional right.
Q20: Name two rights which are not Fundamental Rights but are Constitutional rights.
Ans: Right to property, Right to vote in elections.