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Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Question Answers - Contemporary India - II

Short Answer Type Questions

Q1: Why is conservation of mineral resources essential? Explain any three reasons. [CBSE (Comp) 2017]
Ans:
Conservation of mineral resources is essential because:
(i) Minerals are indispensable part of our life.
(ii) It is available in limited quantity.
(iii) Takes millions of years to get formed.
(iv) They are finite and non-renewable resources.
(v) Continued extraction leads in increasing costs.

Q2: How can minerals be conserved?
Ans:
(i) We must make use of minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.
(ii) Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow the use of low grade ores at low cost.
(iii) Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving mineral resources for the future.

Q3: What is the importance of ferrous minerals?
Ans:
Importance of ferrous minerals:
(i) They account for about three-fourth of the total value of the production of metallic minerals.
(ii) They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.
(iii) India also exports substantial quantities of ferrous minerals after meeting the internal demands.

Q4. What types of iron ore are found in India?
Ans:
India is rich in good quality iron ores.
(i) Magnetite: It is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic qualities and is valuable in the electrical industry.
(ii) Haematite: It is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite, i.e., 50 per cent.

Q5. How is mineral oil found?
Ans: 
It is an odourless and colourless oil that’s made from petroleum as a by product of the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. In regions of folding, anticlines or domes, petroleum occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the unfold. The oil bearing layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow.

Q6. What are the various uses of petroleum?
Ans: (i) Petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy resource in India after coal.
(ii) It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw material for a number of manufacturing industries.
(iii) Petroleum refineries act as nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertilizer and numerous chemical industries.

Q7. Give a brief description of the HVJ pipeline.
Ans:
(i) The 1,700-km long Hazira–Vijaipur–Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassien with fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in Western and Northern India.
(ii) This artery has provided an impetus to India’s gas production.
(iii) The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas.

Q8. How is nuclear energy or atomic energy produced?
Ans:
Nuclear energy is obtained by altering the structure of an atom. When such an alteration is made, much energy is released in the form of heat and this is used to generate electricity. Uranium and thorium, which are available in Jharkhand and the Aravali ranges of Rajasthan, are used for generating atomic or nuclear power. The Monazite sands of Kerala is also rich in thorium.

Q9. What is the need of using non-conventional sources of energy?
Ans:
(i) The growing consumption of energy has resulted in the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas.
(ii) Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future, which has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy.
(iii) Increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems.
Hence, there is a primary need to use renewable energy sources like solar, wind, tidal, biomass and energy from waste material. They are called non-conventional sources of energy.

Q10: State the difference between a mineral and a rock.
Ans:
Mineral: A mineral is a homogeneous naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.

  • For example: Limestone, cuprite, etc.
  • Rock: A rock is an aggregate of different minerals. For example: The rock granite contains the minerals—quartz, feldspar and mica.

Long Answer Type Questions
Q11: How are bauxite deposits formed? In which regions is bauxite found?
Ans: 
Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks, rich in aluminium silicates. It is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron with extreme lightness, with good conductivity. They are mainly found in Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur. Odisha is the largest bauxite producing state. Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district (Odisha) are the most important bauxite deposits in the state.

Q12: How is tidal energy produced?
Ans:
Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity. Floodgate dams are built across inlets. During high tide, water flows into the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. After the tide falls outside the floodgate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to sea via a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine.

Q13: Why should we use renewable energy resources? Explain with arguments. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans: 
We should use renewable energy resources because of the:
(i) Exhaustibility of non-renewable resources.
(ii) Long years of geological formation of non-renewable resources.
(iii) Causes less pollution.
(iv) Available in abundance.
(v) Environmental friendly.
(vi) Strong dependence on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas is a threat to our environment.
(vii) Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages.
(viii) Uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future.
(ix) There is a pressing need to use renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste material.

Q14: In what forms do minerals occur?
Ans: 
Minerals generally occur in these forms:
(i) Igneous and metamorphic rocks: Minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins or lodes. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid, molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.
Example: Metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead, etc., are obtained from the veins and lodes.
(ii) In sedimentary rocks: A number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. Coal and some forms of iron ore and sedimentary minerals include gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt.
(iii) Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.
(iv) Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in the sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called ‘placer deposits’ and generally contain minerals which are not corroded by water.
Example: Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most important among such minerals.
(v) The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals, but most of these are too widely diffused to be of economic significance.
Example: Common salt, magnesium and bromine are largely derived from the ocean waters. The ocean beds, too, are rich in manganese nodules.

Q15: What are the major iron ore belts in India?
Ans:
(i) Odisha–Jharkhand Belt: In Odisha, high grade haematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts. In the adjoining Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, haematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi.
(ii) Durg–Bastar–Chandrapur Belt: It lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Very high grade haematite are found in the famous Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. It has the best physical properties needed for steel making; iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan, South Korea via the Vishakhapatnam port.
(iii) Bellary–Chitradurga-Belt Chikkamagaluru: Tumakuru belt in Karnataka has large reserves of iron ore. The Kudermukh mines located in the western ghats of Karnataka are a 100 per cent export unit. Kudermukh deposits are known to be one of the largest in the world.
(iv) Maharashtra–Goa belt: It includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. Though the ores are not of very high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited. Iron ore is exported through the Marmagao port.

Q16: What are the four main types of coal found in India?
Ans: 
(i) Anthracite: It is the highest quality hard coal. It is found in parts of Jammu and Kashmir.
(ii) Bituminous: This coal has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures. It is the most popular coal in commercial use. Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
(iii) Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content. The lignite reserves are in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu. It is used for the generation of electricity.
(iv) Peat: Decaying plants in swamps produce peat, which has low carbon content and high moisture content resulting in low heating capacity.

Q17: Differentiate between hydel power and thermal power.
Ans:
Hydel power:
(i) It is generated by fast flowing water.
(ii) It uses renewable resources.
(iii) Initially, its cost was high but later it became cheaper.
(iv) It does not cause any pollution.
Example: Bhakra Nangal project.
Thermal power:
(i) It is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas.
(ii) It uses all non-renewable resources.
(iii) Its cost is very high and its production is expensive.
(iv) It does cause pollution.
Example: Badarpur thermal plant of Delhi.

Q18: How are minerals formed in sedimentary rocks?
Ans: 
In sedimentary rocks, a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under great heat and pressure. Another group of sedimentary minerals includes gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions.

Q19: “India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources. However, these are unevenly distributed.” Comment.
OR
‘‘Minerals are unevenly distributed in India.’’ Support the statement with examples. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans:

  • Minerals are unevenly distributed in various regions of India.
  • Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals.
  • Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
  • Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.
  • The vast alluvial plains of North India are almost devoid of economic minerals.

Q20: What are the uses of copper? Give distribution of copper in India.
Ans:
(i) India is critically deficient in the reserve and production of copper.
(ii) Being malleable, ductile and a good conductor, copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.
(iii) The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 52 per cent of India’s copper.
(iv) The Singhbhum district of Jharkhand is also a leading producer of copper.
(v) The Khetri mines in Rajasthan are also famous for copper reserves.

The document Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Question Answers - Contemporary India - II is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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