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Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Previous Year Questions - Forest and Wildlife Resources

2022

Q1: Which of the following descriptions of forest is NOT correct?
(a) Reserved Forest - Reservation of more than half of forests
(b) Protected Forest - Reservation of 1/3 of the forests
(c) Unclassed Forest - Reservation of forest under government and private individuals.
(d) Permanent Forest - Reserved and unclassed forest for the production of timber.   (2022)
Ans: 
(d)
Reserved and protected forests are referred to as permanent forest. It is maintained for the purpose of prod ucing ti mber and ot her forest product. 

2017

Q1: In which year was the 'Indian Wildlife Protection Act' implemented in India? Describe the main thrust area of this program.  [2017]
Ans: 
(i) In the 1960s and 1970s, the conservationists demanded some rules to protect the wildlife. Conceding to their demand, the government enacted the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Under this act, an all-India list of protected species was published.
(ii) Hunting was banned to protect the remaining population of some endangered species.
(iii) Trade in wildlife was restricted and the habitats of wildlife were given legal protection. Many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries were established by central state governments and the state governments.
(iv) Several projects were announced for protecting specific animals, e.g. Project Tiger. Project Tiger was launched in 1973 to protect tigers from becoming extinct.

Q2: What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives? Analyse. [2017]
Ans: 
Biodiversity refers to diverse flora and fauna that exist in a given area. Plants, animals and human beings are interdependent. It is necessary for human beings as we get fresh air, water, food etc., from them. Thus, the existence of human beings depends on them.
Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. For example, a larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops. Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms. Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters. And so, while we dominate this planet, we still need to preserve the diversity in wildlife. Each species depends on the services provided by other species to ensure survival. It is a type of cooperation based on mutual survival that is provided by a balanced eco system. That is why when the ecosystem is disturbed survival of the species becomes difficult.

2016

Q1: 'Forests and wildlife are vital to the quality of life and environment'. Justify the statement by giving three reasons.    [2016]
Ans: Forests and wildlife are vital to the quality of life and environment. This is because the destruction of forests and wildlife leads to:
(i) Loss of cultural diversity - In addition to the loss of flora and fauna in the forest; the communities that depend on various forest produce suffer a lot.
(ii) Impact on women - In almost all rural societies, women bear the responsibility to collect fire wood, fodder and water. Depletion of these resources makes them work much harder and the tasks become more time-consuming. This often leads to various health problems in them.
(iii) Poverty - When the poor tribal population fails to get their supplies of basic items, they have to buy those by spending money that is in short supply. Thus, greater economic pressure is created on them.

Q2: 'Large-scale development projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests'. Justify this statement with relevant examples.   [2016] 
Ans: (i) Since 1951, over 5000 sq km of forest was cleared for River Valley Projects.
(ii) Clearing of forests is still continuing with projects like the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh which would inundate 40,000 hectares of forest.
(iii) Mining is another important factor behind deforestation.

2015

Q1: Analyse any four reasons for the depletion of forest resources in India. [2015]
Ans:
Reasons for the depletion of forest resources in India are:
(i) Extensive use of forest products such as wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicines, dyes, food, fuel, fodder, manure etc.
(ii) Agricultural expansion, development of railways, mining, commercial and social forestry.
(iii) Substantial forests in the tribal belts of northeastern states have been degraded by shifting cultivation (Jhumming) or slash and burn agriculture.
(iv) Large scale developmental projects like Narmada Sagar Project of Madhya Pradesh which would inundate 40,000 hectares of forests.
(v) Mining is another important factor, as in the Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal is seriously threatened by dolomite mining. It has disturbed the natural habitat of many species and migration route of animals, especially the great Indian elephant.

Q2: Describe the steps taken to conserve the flora and fauna of the country. [2015,2014]
Ans: The various steps taken to conserve the flora and fauna of the country include:
(i) Implementation of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.
(ii) Desired control on deforestation and implementing afforestation programmes.
(iii) Providing legal protection to animals by bringing and implanting laws such as banning of hunting and poaching.  
(iv) Spreading the awareness about the values of forests and its flora and fauna among the public.
(v) Setting up of biosphere reserves; 18 Biosphere Reserves have been set-up in India. Providing financial i and technical assistance to many botanical gardens.
(vi) Implementation of specific focused projects such as: ; Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other eco developmental projects. 106 national parks, 565 Wildlife sanctuaries and zoological gardens i are set-up to take care of natural heritage.

2014

Q.4. Explain any three factors responsible for the depletion of flora and fauna in India.   [2014]
Ans: 
Three major reasons which are responsible for the depletion of flora and fauna in India: (i) Agricultural expansion: After Independence agricultural expansion became the major cause of depletion of forest resources. Between 1951 and 1980, according to the Forest Survey of India, over 26,200 sq. km of fore are was converted into agricultural land all over India
(ii) Mining: It is another major factor responsible for deforestation, eg. dolomite mining has been seriously three attended the Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal. This ongoing mining has disturbed the natural habitat and blocked the migration route of a great Indian elephant.
(iii) Large-scale development projects: Since 1951, over 5000 sq km of forest was cleared for River Valley Projects Large hydro projects have inundated large forest areas.

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