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Table of contents
Steps for Concluding an International Treaty and Bringing It into Force
Definition of "Like Product" and Its Relevance to Tariff Levels
Interpretation by Dispute Settlement Bodies
Case Studies
Purposes and Principles of the United Nations
Reforms for the UN System
Parameters of Contentious Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice
Status of Individuals in International Law, Emphasizing Human Rights Treaties
Importance of Resolution 67/19 for Determining the Statehood of Palestine
Analysis through Theories of Recognition
Nature and Scope of International Law
State Practices Relating to Observing International Law within Municipal Law
Role of Arbitration for Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes
Rights and Obligations of Coastal States and Other States
Anti-Dumping Provisions under GATT and WTO
Methods for Determination of "Dumping" and "Material Injury"
Understanding and Scope of IAC and NIAC Legal Regimes
Thresholds of Application of IAC and NIAC Legal Regimes
Impact of International Humanitarian Law on the International Refugee Crisis
Main Sources of International Environmental Law
Emergence of "Soft Law" and Principles in International Environmental Law
Influence on the Development of International Environmental Law
(i) International Terrorism
(ii) Grounds of Intervention
(iii) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

Q1: What are the various steps involved for concluding an international treaty and bringing it into force ?


Concluding an international treaty and bringing it into force is a complex and multi-step process involving negotiations, drafting, adoption, signature, ratification, and entry into force. International treaties are crucial for addressing global challenges and fostering cooperation among nations. This process is designed to ensure that parties are committed to the treaty's objectives and that it is implemented effectively.

Steps for Concluding an International Treaty and Bringing It into Force

1. Negotiation and Drafting

  • Basis: Nations discuss and negotiate the terms, objectives, and provisions of the treaty.
  • Explanation: Negotiations often take place during international conferences or meetings, involving diplomats and experts from participating countries. The outcome of these negotiations is a draft text that outlines the treaty's terms and conditions.

2. Adoption

  • Basis: After negotiations, the treaty is formally adopted by the participating states.
  • Explanation: Adoption signifies the agreement of the states involved with the draft text. The treaty is not legally binding at this stage, but it sets the foundation for further actions toward making it legally binding.

3. Signature

  • Basis: Representatives of participating states sign the treaty.
  • Explanation: Signing indicates the country's intention to be bound by the treaty's provisions. However, it does not create legal obligations until the state completes its domestic processes, such as ratification.

4. Ratification

  • Basis: Each participating state submits the treaty for ratification through its domestic legislative process.
  • Explanation: Ratification confirms a state's consent to be bound by the treaty's terms. The process may involve approval by the legislature, presidential assent, or a referendum, depending on the state's internal procedures.

5. Entry into Force

  • Basis: The treaty comes into effect on a specified date or after a certain number of states have ratified it.
  • Explanation: The treaty officially becomes legally binding on the states that have ratified it. The entry into force provisions are outlined in the treaty itself.


Concluding an international treaty and bringing it into force involves careful negotiations, drafting, adoption, signature, ratification, and entry into force. These steps ensure that states are committed to the treaty's objectives and that it is effectively implemented on an international scale. Examples of successful international treaties include the Paris Agreement on climate change, which aims to limit global warming, and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon technology. These treaties illustrate the importance of international cooperation and commitment to addressing pressing global issues through legal frameworks.

Q2: A WTO member country “X” agrees with a non-member country “Y” to reduce the tariff on product “A” to 7 percent. Can the WTO members claim the same tariff level on like product “A” from country “X” ? How have the dispute settlement bodies defined the "like product” in Article I-1 of GATT?


The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization that governs trade relations between its member nations. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), a fundamental component of the WTO, provides the legal framework for international trade. Article I-1 of GATT focuses on the principle of "most-favored-nation" (MFN) treatment, emphasizing non-discrimination in trade. Understanding the concept of "like product" is crucial in determining whether WTO members can claim the same tariff level on a product as a non-member country with whom a specific agreement has been made.

Definition of "Like Product" and Its Relevance to Tariff Levels

  • Definition of "Like Product":
    • The term "like product" refers to products that are similar in characteristics and end-use, making them directly comparable in the market.
  • Relevance to Tariff Levels:
    • If a WTO member (country X) agrees to reduce tariffs on a specific product (A) to 7 percent with a non-member country (country Y), the principle of MFN treatment under Article I-1 of GATT dictates that this reduced tariff rate should be applied to the same "like product" when traded with all WTO member countries.

Interpretation by Dispute Settlement Bodies

  • The WTO dispute settlement bodies have established criteria to define "like product" in Article I-1 of GATT:
    • Physical Characteristics: Products with similar physical properties and end uses are considered "like products."
    • Consumer Perceptions: If consumers view products as substitutes based on their characteristics and uses, they are deemed "like products."
    • Market Conditions and Pricing: Products subject to similar market conditions and price considerations are regarded as "like products."

Case Studies

  1. EC-Asbestos Case (WT/DS135/AB/R):

    • The dispute concerned France's ban on the importation and sale of asbestos and asbestos-containing products.
    • The Appellate Body affirmed that the products subject to the ban were "like products" with those not banned, based on their end-use and market conditions.
  2. Japan-Alcoholic Beverages Case (WT/DS8/AB/R):

    • Japan imposed higher taxes on imported alcoholic beverages than on domestically produced ones.
    • The Appellate Body concluded that products were "like products" and the higher taxes on imports violated the MFN principle.


The principle of MFN treatment in Article I-1 of GATT ensures non-discrimination in trade by stipulating that any tariff concessions or reductions granted to a non-member country should also be extended to "like products" when traded with WTO member countries. The definition of "like product" is crucial, encompassing physical characteristics, consumer perceptions, and market conditions. Dispute settlement bodies have established clear criteria for determining what constitutes a "like product" to maintain fair and equal treatment among trading partners. Case studies like the EC-Asbestos and Japan-Alcoholic Beverages cases illustrate the practical application of the "like product" concept in resolving trade disputes.

Q3: Discuss the purposes and principles governing United Nations. What reforms, if any, do you suggest for the UN system?


The United Nations (UN) is a global intergovernmental organization founded in 1945 to promote international cooperation and maintain peace and security. The UN operates based on established purposes and principles that guide its actions and decision-making. Additionally, there have been ongoing discussions regarding reforms to enhance the UN system's efficiency and effectiveness in addressing current and future global challenges.

Purposes and Principles of the United Nations


  1. Maintaining International Peace and Security:

    • Preventing conflicts, mediating disputes, and deploying peacekeeping missions to maintain peace and security globally.
  2. Promoting Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms:

    • Advocating for and protecting human rights, equality, and freedom for all individuals, as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  3. Fostering Social and Economic Development:

    • Encouraging sustainable economic growth, poverty eradication, education, healthcare, and infrastructure development to improve living standards.
  4. Facilitating Cooperation in International Law:

    • Encouraging adherence to international law and treaties, promoting the peaceful resolution of disputes through legal means.
  5. Serving as a Platform for Dialogue and Cooperation:

    • Providing a forum for nations to engage in dialogue, negotiate treaties, and work together to address global challenges.


  1. Sovereign Equality of States:

    • All UN member states, regardless of size or influence, have equal rights and obligations within the organization.
  2. Non-Interference in Domestic Affairs:

    • Respecting the domestic jurisdiction and sovereignty of nations, while encouraging adherence to international norms and laws.
  3. Peaceful Settlement of Disputes:

    • Encouraging peaceful resolution of conflicts through negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and judicial processes.
  4. Use of Force as a Last Resort:

    • Limiting the use of force to cases where peaceful means have failed, in line with the UN Charter, and adhering to the principles of just war.
  5. Cooperation and Collective Action:

    • Encouraging nations to work together and pool resources to address global issues such as climate change, poverty, and health crises.

Reforms for the UN System

  1. Security Council Reform:

    • Expanding the Security Council to be more representative and reflective of the contemporary geopolitical landscape, allowing for greater inclusivity and effectiveness.
  2. Enhanced Conflict Prevention and Mediation Capacities:

    • Strengthening the UN's ability to prevent conflicts by investing in early-warning systems, diplomacy, and mediation efforts.
  3. Empowering the General Assembly:

    • Enhancing the role and authority of the General Assembly to allow for more effective decision-making and better representation of all member states.
  4. Streamlined Bureaucracy and Enhanced Efficiency:

    • Implementing measures to reduce bureaucratic inefficiencies and improve the UN's ability to respond promptly and effectively to global challenges.


The United Nations plays a crucial role in fostering international cooperation, promoting human rights, and maintaining peace and security. Its purposes and principles guide its actions in these endeavors. However, to better address contemporary challenges, reforms are essential. Enhancing representation, improving conflict prevention mechanisms, empowering the General Assembly, and streamlining operations can collectively make the UN more effective in achieving its fundamental objectives. As the world evolves, adapting the UN to these changes ensures its continued relevance and effectiveness in promoting a peaceful and prosperous world.

Q4: What are the parameters of contentious jurisdiction exercisable by the International Court of Justice ?



The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, established to settle legal disputes between states and provide advisory opinions on international legal issues. Contentious jurisdiction refers to the court's authority to settle disputes submitted by parties willingly. Understanding the parameters of contentious jurisdiction is vital for comprehending the ICJ's role in resolving international disputes.

Parameters of Contentious Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice

1. Consent of Parties:

  • Basis: Contentious jurisdiction is exercised based on the consent of the parties involved in the dispute.
  • Explanation: States must voluntarily submit to the jurisdiction of the ICJ, either by accepting the court's jurisdiction in a specific case or through a treaty that confers jurisdiction.

2. Territorial Scope:

  • Basis: The ICJ can only exercise jurisdiction over disputes concerning international law within its territorial scope.
  • Explanation: The court can adjudicate disputes involving violations of international law or treaties applicable to the concerned parties within the scope of its jurisdiction.

3. Subject Matter of the Dispute:

  • Basis: The ICJ has jurisdiction over a broad range of legal issues, including disputes related to territorial boundaries, state sovereignty, human rights, and treaties.
  • Explanation: The subject matter of the dispute must fall within the ambit of international law for the ICJ to have jurisdiction.

4. Statehood and Sovereignty:

  • Basis: The ICJ can exercise jurisdiction over disputes involving states, recognizing the principle of state sovereignty.
  • Explanation: As a court primarily dealing with state-to-state disputes, the ICJ's jurisdiction is typically limited to conflicts between sovereign states.

5. Admissibility Criteria:

  • Basis: The ICJ has specific criteria for admissibility, including exhaustion of local remedies, absence of other suitable means of settlement, and the dispute being ripe for adjudication.
  • Explanation: Disputes must meet these criteria to be admissible before the ICJ.


Contentious jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice is determined by the consent of parties involved, the territorial scope of international law, the subject matter of the dispute, statehood, sovereignty, and admissibility criteria. These parameters guide the ICJ in its role of settling disputes between states and ensuring compliance with international law. It is essential for states to willingly accept the court's jurisdiction and adhere to the established criteria to have their disputes heard and resolved. The ICJ's role in exercising contentious jurisdiction is critical in maintaining international peace and resolving legal conflicts on the global stage.

Example: The case of Nicaragua v. United States (1986) is an instance where the ICJ exercised contentious jurisdiction. Nicaragua brought a case against the United States for alleged violations of international law. The ICJ, through the contentious jurisdiction granted by the parties' consent, deliberated and made judgments concerning violations of sovereignty and the use of force. This case highlighted the importance of consent and the court's role in adjudicating disputes between states.

Q5: Discuss the status of individual in International Law especially with reference to human rights treaties.


The status of individuals in International Law, particularly concerning human rights treaties, has significantly evolved over time. International law traditionally focused on states as the primary subjects, but the role and rights of individuals have gained prominence, especially with the advent of human rights treaties. Understanding this status is crucial for upholding human rights and ensuring accountability at the international level.

Status of Individuals in International Law, Emphasizing Human Rights Treaties

1. Traditional Approach:

  • Basis: Historically, international law primarily dealt with states as the primary subjects, emphasizing state sovereignty and rights and obligations between states.
  • Explanation: The legal rights and responsibilities of individuals were limited, and the focus was on state-to-state relations.

2. Emergence of Human Rights Treaties:

  • Basis: The aftermath of World War II saw an increased recognition of the need to protect individual rights, leading to the creation of human rights treaties.
  • Explanation: Treaties such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) granted individuals specific rights and established mechanisms for their protection.

3. Individuals as Rights Holders:

  • Basis: Human rights treaties recognize individuals as holders of certain rights and provide mechanisms for enforcing these rights.
  • Explanation: These treaties outline fundamental rights and freedoms, including the right to life, freedom from torture, freedom of speech, and the right to a fair trial, among others.

4. Access to International Courts and Bodies:

  • Basis: Individuals can now access international courts and bodies to seek remedies for human rights violations.
  • Explanation: Courts like the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and regional human rights courts allow individuals to bring cases against states, emphasizing accountability and justice.

5. Role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs):

  • Basis: NGOs play a vital role in representing and advocating for the rights of individuals at the international level.
  • Explanation: NGOs often submit reports, participate in hearings, and raise awareness of human rights abuses, amplifying the voices of individuals.


The status of individuals in International Law has evolved significantly, especially with the advent of human rights treaties. From a traditional focus on state sovereignty, international law now recognizes individuals as rights holders and provides mechanisms for their protection and enforcement of their rights. The emergence of human rights treaties and the role of international courts and bodies have facilitated this shift, emphasizing the importance of individual rights and accountability at the international level.

Example: The case of Aparicio v. Uruguay (1987) before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights highlighted the importance of the individual's status in international law. The Court ruled in favor of the petitioner, recognizing violations of the right to personal liberty and fair trial. This case emphasized the role of international bodies in ensuring accountability for human rights violations and upholding the rights of individuals in the international arena.

Q6: In resolution 67/19, the United Nations General Assembly decides to accord to Palestine, a non-member observer state status in the United Nations. Explain the importance of the resolution while determining the Statehood of Palestine. Analyse your arguments in the light of various theories of recognition.


United Nations General Assembly Resolution 67/19, granting non-member observer state status to Palestine, is a significant development in international relations, particularly concerning the statehood of Palestine. This resolution has implications for recognizing Palestine as a state on the international stage. Analyzing its importance through various theories of recognition sheds light on its implications and significance.

Importance of Resolution 67/19 for Determining the Statehood of Palestine

1. Recognition of Statehood:

  • The resolution acknowledged Palestine as a non-member observer state in the United Nations.
  • It affirmed Palestine's status as a political entity with defined territory and a permanent population, a crucial element of statehood.

2. Enhanced International Standing:

  • The resolution elevated Palestine's status, granting it access to various UN forums and enabling participation in discussions related to international peace and security.
  • Palestine gained a platform to raise its concerns and advocate for its interests in international matters.

3. Negotiation and Peace Process Facilitation:

  • The resolution encouraged a renewed commitment to the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.
  • It provided a basis for peaceful negotiations between Israel and Palestine, acknowledging both entities' right to exist and coexist within secure and recognized borders.

4. Promotion of Palestinian Rights:

  • The resolution underscored the importance of protecting the rights of the Palestinian people.
  • It drew attention to issues like self-determination, sovereignty, and the right to an independent Palestinian state.

Analysis through Theories of Recognition

1. Constitutive Theory:

  • Constitutive theory asserts that recognition is a necessary condition for statehood.
  • Resolution 67/19, by recognizing Palestine as a non-member observer state, aligns with this theory, legitimizing its status on the international stage.

2. Declarative Theory:

  • Declarative theory posits that statehood is based on fulfilling criteria such as a defined territory, a permanent population, a functioning government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.
  • The resolution acknowledged these criteria, affirming Palestine's fulfilment of key statehood requirements.


UN General Assembly Resolution 67/19 significantly impacted the determination of Palestine's statehood. It granted Palestine a non-member observer state status, enhancing its international standing and providing a platform for advocating its interests. Through the lens of recognition theories, particularly the constitutive and declarative theories, the resolution legitimizes Palestine's status as a state, highlighting the importance of such international recognitions in shaping the global political landscape.

Example: The case of Palestine's accession to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2015 showcases the practical implications of international recognition. By joining the ICC, Palestine sought to assert its statehood and hold accountable those responsible for alleged war crimes. This move underlines the significance of international recognition in enabling entities to engage with international institutions and seek justice for violations of international law.

Q7: Do you agree with the view that International law is merely a positive morality ? Discuss the nature and scope of International law.


The perception of international law as merely a positive morality refers to the view that it lacks the enforceability and coercive power inherent in domestic legal systems. It suggests that international law primarily operates based on norms, principles, and voluntary compliance. However, understanding the nature and scope of international law requires a comprehensive examination of its characteristics and functions.

Nature and Scope of International Law

1. Nature:

  • a. Dual Nature:
    • International law has elements of both law and morality. While it lacks a centralized enforcement authority like domestic law, it is based on recognized norms and principles.
  • b. Voluntary Compliance:
    • States voluntarily adhere to international law and norms, emphasizing consent as a fundamental principle in international relations.

2. Sources of International Law:

  • a. Treaties and Agreements:
    • Formal written agreements between states that outline rights, obligations, and responsibilities.
  • b. Customary International Law:
    • Norms and practices accepted as law due to consistent state practice and opinio juris (belief that the practice is obligatory).
  • c. General Principles of Law:
    • Fundamental legal principles recognized by civilized nations.
  • d. Judicial Decisions and Scholarly Works:
    • Judicial decisions and writings of legal scholars contribute to the formation and development of international law.

3. Scope:

  • a. Subjects of International Law:
    • States, international organizations, and, to a limited extent, individuals and non-state entities are subjects of international law.
  • b. Areas of Regulation:
    • International law governs various aspects, including human rights, armed conflict, trade, environmental protection, diplomatic relations, and more.
  • c. Universality:
    • International law aims for universality, applying to all states and entities equally to maintain global order and cooperation.

4. Enforcement Mechanisms:

  • a. Soft Law:
    • Non-binding norms and principles that encourage states to follow best practices without imposing legal obligations.
  • b. Diplomacy and Negotiation:
    • States often resolve disputes through negotiation and diplomacy, seeking peaceful solutions.
  • c. International Courts and Tribunals:
    • Institutions like the International Court of Justice (ICJ) adjudicate disputes between states based on international law.
  • d. State Responsibility:
    • States are held responsible for their actions in violation of international law, leading to reputational costs and potential sanctions.


International law possesses a dual nature, incorporating elements of both law and morality. While it lacks a centralized enforcement mechanism akin to domestic legal systems, it operates on recognized norms and principles, and states voluntarily comply with its provisions. The sources of international law encompass treaties, customary practices, general principles, judicial decisions, and scholarly works. Its scope covers various subjects, areas of regulation, and aims for universality to maintain global order. Enforcement mechanisms primarily involve soft law, diplomacy, international courts, and state responsibility. International law remains crucial in fostering cooperation, resolving disputes, and maintaining stability in the global community.

Example: The case of Nicaragua v. United States (1986) before the International Court of Justice highlighted the importance of international law in regulating state conduct. The ICJ ruled that the United States violated international law by supporting Contra guerillas in Nicaragua. This case underscored the principle of non-intervention and state responsibility in international law.

Q8: Explain the State practices relating to observing International law within the Municipal law. (ii) Explain the role of arbitration for peaceful settlement of international disputes.


Observing international law within municipal law is crucial for harmonizing domestic legal systems with international norms and obligations. States engage in various practices to ensure compliance with international law, while arbitration plays a vital role in peacefully resolving international disputes, promoting dialogue and cooperation.

State Practices Relating to Observing International Law within Municipal Law

1. Incorporation of Treaties into Domestic Law:

  • Basis: States enact legislation to incorporate international treaties and conventions into their domestic legal systems.
  • Explanation: This process aligns domestic laws with international obligations, making them enforceable at the national level. For example, the United States incorporates treaties through the process of treaty ratification and subsequent legislative actions.

2. Customary International Law and Judicial Decisions:

  • Basis: Customary international law principles are recognized and applied by domestic courts.
  • Explanation: Domestic courts consider customary international law as part of the common law or general principles of law, ensuring its application in cases. For instance, the principle of diplomatic immunity is a customary norm recognized and implemented in many domestic legal systems.

3. Reservations and Declarations:

  • Basis: States may attach reservations or declarations when ratifying treaties.
  • Explanation: Reservations allow states to modify their legal obligations under a treaty, ensuring compatibility with their domestic legal frameworks. For instance, a state may ratify a treaty on human rights with reservations regarding specific articles that may conflict with its constitution.

4. Compliance and Monitoring Mechanisms:

  • Basis: States establish monitoring bodies and mechanisms to ensure compliance with international obligations.
  • Explanation: These mechanisms monitor and report on states' compliance with international treaties, providing recommendations for enhancing domestic implementation. For example, the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of the UN Human Rights Council assesses human rights practices of states and offers recommendations for improvement.

Role of Arbitration for Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes

1. Facilitation of Dialogue and Negotiation:

  • Arbitration provides a platform for parties to engage in constructive dialogue and negotiation to resolve disputes amicably.

2. Impartial Decision-Making:

  • An independent and impartial tribunal ensures a fair judgment based on the facts and applicable law, promoting confidence in the dispute resolution process.

3. Enforcement of Awards:

  • Arbitral awards are typically enforceable in multiple jurisdictions through international conventions such as the New York Convention, enhancing the effectiveness of the resolution process.

4. Confidentiality and Flexibility:

  • Arbitration offers a confidential and flexible setting, allowing parties to maintain privacy and tailor procedures to suit their specific needs and concerns.


Aligning domestic legal systems with international law through incorporation, customary principles, reservations, and compliance mechanisms is essential for upholding states' international obligations. Arbitration, as a peaceful dispute settlement mechanism, plays a significant role in fostering dialogue, ensuring impartial decisions, enabling award enforcement, and maintaining confidentiality. These practices contribute to the effective functioning of the international legal system, promoting peaceful relations and adherence to established norms and principles.

Example: The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) has played a crucial role in peacefully settling international disputes. In the South China Sea Arbitration (2016), the PCA delivered an award in favor of the Philippines, addressing territorial and maritime disputes with China. This case highlighted the effectiveness of arbitration in resolving complex international disputes and upholding international law.

Q9: Discuss the rights and obligations of Coastal States and other States in the territorial waters and contiguous zone.


The rights and obligations of coastal states and other states in territorial waters and the contiguous zone are regulated by international law, particularly the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). These regulations define the extent of sovereignty and control of coastal states over their territorial waters and contiguous zone, as well as the rights and obligations of other states in these areas.

Rights and Obligations of Coastal States and Other States

1. Territorial Waters (Up to 12 Nautical Miles from Baseline):

  • Rights of Coastal States:

    • Sovereignty: Coastal states have full sovereignty over the territorial sea, subject to innocent passage.
    • Security and Defense: Coastal states have the right to take measures necessary to safeguard their security.
    • Resources: Coastal states have exclusive rights to exploit and conserve natural resources in the territorial sea.
  • Obligations of Coastal States:

    • Innocent Passage: Coastal states must allow foreign ships to pass through their territorial sea in a peaceful and innocent manner.

2. Contiguous Zone (12-24 Nautical Miles from Baseline):

  • Rights of Coastal States:

    • Customs and Immigration: Coastal states can enforce customs, fiscal, immigration, and sanitary laws within this zone.
  • Obligations of Coastal States:

    • Respect for Innocent Passage: Coastal states must allow foreign ships to exercise the right of innocent passage through the contiguous zone.

3. Rights and Obligations of Other States:

  • Innocent Passage: Other states have the right of innocent passage through territorial waters and the contiguous zone, subject to compliance with international law and coastal state regulations.
  • Hot Pursuit: States have the right of hot pursuit against vessels suspected of engaging in illegal activities in the territorial sea, subject to specific conditions outlined in UNCLOS.


The UNCLOS framework defines the rights and obligations of coastal states and other states in territorial waters and the contiguous zone. Coastal states have sovereign rights over their territorial sea, enabling them to enforce security measures, regulate resources, and ensure customs and immigration control. However, they are obligated to allow innocent passage for foreign vessels. The contiguous zone extends certain rights to coastal states in enforcing customs and immigration laws. Other states have the right of innocent passage, promoting peaceful navigation, and they can engage in hot pursuit under defined conditions. Striking a balance between the sovereign rights of coastal states and the rights of other states is essential for maintaining maritime security and facilitating international cooperation.

Example: The case of Ukraine v. Russia (2019) involved a dispute over the detention of Ukrainian naval vessels and their crew by Russia in the Kerch Strait. Ukraine argued that Russia violated the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea. This case underscores the importance of understanding and respecting the rights and obligations of states in territorial waters, emphasizing the need for adherence to international law, including UNCLOS.

Q10: Explain in detail the anti-dumping provisions under GATT and WTO What are the methods laid down for determination of wantind and material injury” ?


Anti-dumping provisions, governed by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), are measures implemented to counteract unfair trade practices where foreign products are sold in a domestic market at prices lower than their normal value, causing material injury to domestic industries. These provisions aim to protect domestic industries from such unfair competition.

Anti-Dumping Provisions under GATT and WTO

1. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT):

  • Basis: GATT allowed member countries to impose anti-dumping duties to counteract unfair trade practices, but the rules were relatively broad and less specific.
  • Explanation: GATT provided a framework to address dumping, focusing on fair trade practices and preventing the disruption of markets.

2. World Trade Organization (WTO):

  • Basis: The WTO Agreement on Implementation of Article VI of GATT (Anti-Dumping Agreement) sets out specific rules and procedures for imposing anti-dumping measures.
  • Explanation: The Anti-Dumping Agreement provides a more comprehensive and structured approach to counteract dumping and protect domestic industries.

Methods for Determination of "Dumping" and "Material Injury"

1. Determination of Dumping:

  • a. Price Comparison:
    • Compare the export price of the product to the importing country with its normal value in the exporting country's market.
  • b. Constructed Normal Value:
    • Determine the normal value using the cost of production in the exporting country, plus a reasonable amount for profit.

2. Determination of Material Injury:

  • a. Volume of Imports and Price Effects:
    • Assess the volume of dumped imports and their effect on prices in the domestic market.
  • b. Impact on Domestic Industry:
    • Evaluate the impact of dumped imports on the domestic industry, considering factors like production, sales, profits, and employment.
  • c. Market Share and Growth Trends:
    • Analyze market share, production trends, and the growth trajectory of the domestic industry.


The anti-dumping provisions under GATT and WTO are essential in maintaining fair trade practices and protecting domestic industries from the adverse effects of unfair competition. GATT initially established a framework to address anti-dumping measures, while the WTO Anti-Dumping Agreement provides a more specific and structured approach. The determination of "dumping" involves comparing export prices with normal values, while "material injury" assessment includes evaluating the volume and price effects of imports on the domestic industry. Effective application of these provisions helps in fostering fair competition and a level playing field in the global market.

Example: In the case of United States - Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Hot-Rolled Steel Products from Japan (2000), Japan brought a dispute to the WTO challenging the US anti-dumping measures. The WTO found that the US did not follow proper procedures in imposing the measures, emphasizing the importance of adherence to anti-dumping provisions and procedures outlined by the WTO Anti-Dumping Agreement.

Q11: What is the understanding and scope of legal regimes pertaining to International Armed Conflict (IAC) and Non-International Armed Conflict (NIAC) respectively, and what are the thresholds of application of these two regimes ?  Illustrate the impact of International Humanitarian Law on the international refugee crisis.


International humanitarian law (IHL) governs armed conflicts, encompassing International Armed Conflict (IAC) and Non-International Armed Conflict (NIAC). IAC involves conflicts between states, and NIAC involves conflicts within a state, involving non-state actors. Understanding the scope and application thresholds of these legal regimes is vital for ensuring the protection of civilians and combatants during armed conflicts. Additionally, IHL has a significant impact on addressing the international refugee crisis.

1. International Armed Conflict (IAC):

  • Scope: IAC involves armed conflicts between states, regulated primarily by the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols.
  • Characteristics: Clear distinction between parties, formal declaration of war, and comprehensive legal rules governing the conduct of hostilities.
  • Applicability: Applicable when two or more states are engaged in armed conflict, regardless of the nature or intensity of the conflict.

2. Non-International Armed Conflict (NIAC):

  • Scope: NIAC involves conflicts within a state, where at least one party is a non-state actor (rebels, organized armed groups, etc.).
  • Characteristics: The conflict may not involve a formal declaration of war, and legal rules are set by Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol II.
  • Applicability: Applicable when non-state armed groups are engaged in sustained and organized violence against governmental forces, or when two or more armed groups are fighting each other within a state.

1. Threshold for IAC:

  • Armed conflict between two or more sovereign states.
  • Formal declaration of war is not necessary; hostilities suffice.

2. Threshold for NIAC:

  • Conflict between government forces and organized armed groups, or between two or more non-state armed groups.
  • The conflict involves a certain level of intensity and organization, often assessed by factors like the duration, magnitude of violence, and the number of casualties.

Impact of International Humanitarian Law on the International Refugee Crisis

  • Protection of Civilians: IHL establishes principles safeguarding civilians during armed conflicts, reducing the displacement of people due to conflict.
  • Refugee Rights: IHL ensures the rights of refugees in accordance with humanitarian principles, such as access to humanitarian aid, protection from refoulement, and non-discrimination.
  • Role of Humanitarian Organizations: IHL guides humanitarian organizations in providing assistance and protection to refugees in conflict-affected regions, mitigating their suffering and displacement.


International humanitarian law plays a crucial role in regulating armed conflicts, be it between states (IAC) or within a state (NIAC). The thresholds of application for these legal regimes are critical in determining the rules governing armed conflict situations. Additionally, IHL significantly impacts the international refugee crisis by providing a legal framework that protects the rights and wellbeing of refugees, ensuring they receive appropriate humanitarian assistance and protection.

Example: The Syrian conflict is an example of a Non-International Armed Conflict where various non-state armed groups have engaged in sustained violence against governmental forces. The conflict has resulted in a significant refugee crisis, prompting international humanitarian responses to address the needs and rights of the affected population, demonstrating the direct impact of IHL on such crises.

Q12: treaties Evaluate the main sources of International Environmental Law. Explain and discuss in particular the emergence of “Soft Law” and principles of International Environmental Law and how this has influenced the development of this area of International Law.  


International Environmental Law (IEL) is a critical area of international law addressing global environmental challenges. Its sources have evolved over time, encompassing treaties and increasingly, "soft law" and principles. Soft law refers to non-binding instruments and guidelines, shaping IEL's development. Understanding the role of soft law and principles is vital in comprehending the trajectory of IEL.

Main Sources of International Environmental Law

1. Treaties and Conventions:

  • Legally binding agreements among states addressing specific environmental issues, setting out rights, obligations, and dispute resolution mechanisms.
  • Examples include the Paris Agreement on climate change, the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Montreal Protocol on ozone layer protection.

2. Customary International Law:

  • Evolves from consistent state practice and opinio juris (belief that the practice is obligatory).
  • Key principles, such as the duty to prevent transboundary harm, have emerged from customary international law.

3. General Principles of Law:

  • Derived from common principles shared by various legal systems, forming the basis for IEL.
  • Includes the principle of sustainable development, intergenerational equity, and the precautionary principle.

Emergence of "Soft Law" and Principles in International Environmental Law

1. "Soft Law":

  • Definition: Non-binding instruments, guidelines, and declarations that set out norms and principles without creating legal obligations.
  • Examples: Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, and various UN guidelines.
  • Influence: While non-binding, soft law shapes state behavior, facilitates cooperation, and aids in the formation of customary international law.

2. Principles of International Environmental Law:

  • Precautionary Principle: States should take precautionary measures to prevent environmental harm even if scientific certainty is lacking.
  • Polluter Pays Principle: The party responsible for pollution should bear the costs of its remediation and prevention.
  • Sustainable Development Principle: Balances environmental protection, economic growth, and social development, ensuring the needs of the present without compromising future generations.

Influence on the Development of International Environmental Law

  • Flexibility and Adaptability: Soft law allows for adaptation to changing environmental circumstances, promoting dynamic responses.
  • Consensus Building: Soft law facilitates consensus among states, aiding the development of future binding agreements.
  • Norm Development: Soft law contributes to the development of new norms and customary international law.
  • Implementation and Compliance: Principles guide state behavior, shaping the implementation and compliance with IEL.


The main sources of International Environmental Law include treaties, customary international law, and general principles of law. In recent years, the emergence of "soft law" and the adoption of environmental principles have significantly influenced the development of IEL. Soft law provides flexibility and aids in consensus building, while principles guide state behavior and encourage environmental sustainability. The integration of these sources is crucial in effectively addressing global environmental challenges and fostering sustainable development.

Example: The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992) is a notable soft law instrument in IEL. Although non-binding, it has profoundly influenced the development of IEL principles and norms. The precautionary principle and sustainable development, integral in IEL, have roots in the Rio Declaration, showcasing the impact of soft law on the evolution of IEL.

Q13: Write notes on the following: (i) International Terrorism (ii) Grounds of Intervention (iii) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

(i) International Terrorism


International terrorism involves acts of violence or intimidation carried out by non-state actors, transcending national boundaries and aiming to create fear and disrupt societal, political, or economic systems.

Key Points:

  1. Motives:

    • Political, religious, ideological, or social reasons drive terrorists to resort to violence.
    • Examples: Al-Qaeda's attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001 for ideological reasons.
  2. Transnational Nature:

    • Extends beyond national borders, challenging traditional security measures.
    • Examples: ISIS operating in multiple countries across the Middle East and beyond.
  3. Methods:

    • Use of suicide bombings, hijackings, cyber-attacks, and other violent means to spread fear and achieve objectives.
    • Examples: Bombings in public places like transportation hubs or attacks on government buildings.
  4. Impact:

    • Destabilizes societies, disrupts economies, and poses a significant threat to international peace and security.
    • Example: Ongoing conflicts in Syria and Iraq due to activities of extremist groups.


International terrorism is a complex issue necessitating international cooperation and concerted efforts to combat its root causes and manifestations.

(ii) Grounds of Intervention


Intervention in international relations refers to a state's interference in another state's affairs. Grounds for intervention are reasons or justifications used to legitimize such actions.

Key Points:

  1. Humanitarian Intervention:

    • Intervening to protect human rights or prevent atrocities, even without the consent of the state concerned.
    • Example: NATO intervention in Kosovo in 1999 to stop human rights violations.
  2. Self-Defense:

    • Acting to protect one's own state or interests from an armed attack.
    • Example: U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 after the 9/11 attacks.
  3. Preemptive Strike:

    • Launching a defensive attack to prevent an imminent attack or to neutralize a threat.
    • Example: Israel's preemption in the Six-Day War in 1967.
  4. UN Security Council Authorization:

    • Intervention with approval from the UN Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter.
    • Example: UN-authorized intervention in Libya in 2011.


Intervention can be a contentious issue, and the legitimacy of grounds for intervention should be carefully assessed within the framework of international law and norms.

(iii) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)


The NPT is a landmark treaty aimed at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

Key Points:

  1. Pillars of NPT:

    • Non-Proliferation: Prevents the spread of nuclear weapons to non-nuclear-armed states.
    • Disarmament: Encourages nuclear-armed states to reduce and eventually eliminate their nuclear arsenals.
    • Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy: Allows signatories access to nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.
  2. Nuclear-Armed States:

    • Recognizes five nuclear-armed states (USA, Russia, China, UK, France) as nuclear-weapon states.
    • Other states commit not to acquire nuclear weapons.
  3. Review Conferences:

    • Periodic review conferences to assess NPT's implementation and set future goals.
    • Example: NPT Review Conference held in 2015.
  4. Challenges:

    • Non-signatory states and concerns regarding compliance and nuclear disarmament by the nuclear-armed states pose challenges.
    • Example: North Korea's nuclear program, which led to its withdrawal from the NPT.


The NPT remains crucial in preventing nuclear proliferation and promoting disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, although challenges persist.

In summary, international terrorism presents a significant threat requiring global cooperation, intervention must be grounded in justifiable reasons and respect for international law, and the NPT is a key treaty in maintaining nuclear non-proliferation and promoting disarmament.

The document UPSC Mains Answer PYQ 2020: Law Paper 1 (Section- B) | Law Optional Notes for UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Law Optional Notes for UPSC.
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