Q1: Explain how land use is influenced by physical and human factors.
Ans: Land use is influenced by physical factors like topography, soil, climate, and water availability, and human factors like population density and technology. These factors determine how land is utilized, whether for agriculture, forestry, urban development, or conservation.
Q2: Discuss the significance of water as a renewable resource and the reasons for freshwater scarcity.
Ans: Water is a vital renewable resource, essential for life. Freshwater scarcity is often due to over-exploitation, pollution, and location-specific availability (like glaciers or underground reserves), impacting its accessibility for human use.
Q3: What are the major threats to soil as a resource, and how can they be mitigated?
Ans: Major threats to soil include erosion, depletion, and pollution mainly due to deforestation, overgrazing, and excessive use of chemicals. Mitigation strategies include soil conservation methods like mulching, contour ploughing, and using sustainable agricultural practices.
Q4: Describe the interdependence of flora, fauna, and humans in the ecosystem.
Ans: Flora, fauna, and humans are interdependent within an ecosystem. Plants provide oxygen, food, and shelter; animals contribute to pollination, decomposition, and as part of the food chain; humans depend on both for food, resources, and ecological balance.
Q5: How does the topography of a region influence its land use pattern?
Ans: Topography affects land use patterns by determining the suitability of land for various purposes like agriculture, forestry, and urban development. Plains are often used for farming, while hilly areas may be used for grazing, forestry, or left undisturbed due to difficulty in cultivation.
Q6: Explain the role of weathering in soil formation.
Ans: Weathering is the breaking down of rocks and minerals on Earth’s surface, contributing to soil formation. It involves physical, chemical, and biological processes that break down rocks into smaller particles, mixing with organic matter to form soil.
Q7: Discuss how human activities are affecting the balance in the ecosystem.
Ans: Human activities like deforestation, pollution, urbanization, and overexploitation of resources disrupt the natural balance in ecosystems, leading to loss of biodiversity, habitat destruction, and ecological imbalances.
Q8: What are the consequences of land degradation?
Ans: Land degradation leads to reduced soil fertility, increased risk of natural disasters like floods and landslides, loss of biodiversity, and diminished land utility for agriculture and other human needs.
Q9: How does vegetation affect the water cycle?
Ans: Vegetation impacts the water cycle by transpiring water into the atmosphere, influencing rainfall patterns, and helping in groundwater recharge by slowing surface runoff, thus playing a crucial role in maintaining the water cycle.
Q10: Describe the various types of soil erosion and their impact on the environment.
Ans: Soil erosion types include water erosion (rain wash, riverine), wind erosion, and due to human activities (like deforestation, overgrazing). These lead to loss of topsoil, reduced soil fertility, and can contribute to environmental degradation.
Q11: Explain how different climates influence the types of natural vegetation.
Ans: Climate, mainly temperature and rainfall, determines the type of natural vegetation. Tropical climates support dense forests, temperate climates favor deciduous forests, and arid climates lead to shrublands or deserts.
Q12: Discuss the importance of water conservation and methods to achieve it.
Ans: Water conservation is crucial due to its limited availability. Methods include rainwater harvesting, efficient irrigation practices like drip irrigation, recycling and reusing water, and reducing wastage in daily use.
Q13: What role do national parks and wildlife sanctuaries play in conservation?
Ans: National parks and wildlife sanctuaries are designated areas for protecting biodiversity, conserving wildlife and their habitats, and maintaining ecological balance by preventing exploitation and degradation of natural resources.
Q14: Explain the process of land reclamation and its significance.
Ans: Land reclamation involves converting unusable land into usable form, like converting marshy or desert lands for agriculture or urban development. It's significant for increasing usable land area, supporting agriculture, and urban expansion.
Q15: How does industrial development affect land and water resources?
Ans: Industrial development often leads to land degradation, water pollution, and depletion of resources. It can cause soil contamination, overuse of water, and release of industrial effluents into water bodies, impacting ecosystems and human health.
|1. What are the major factors that affect soil formation?
|2. How does water scarcity impact land resources?
|3. What are the threats to natural vegetation and wildlife resources?
|4. How does soil erosion impact land resources?
|5. What are the conservation measures for land, soil, water, natural vegetation, and wildlife resources?