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Plant Life Chapter Notes | Science Class 5 PDF Download

Introduction

Did you know that all living things, including plants, have a special ability to make more of their own kind? We can study reproduction in plants in two parts:

1. Reproduction in Plants through Seeds
2. Reproduction in Plants through Other Parts, which we call "Vegetative Propagation."

Plant Life Chapter Notes | Science Class 5

While most plants reproduce through seeds, some clever plants use their roots, stems, and leaves to create new plants. Let's dive into this fascinating world of plant reproduction and discover how it all works!

Question for Chapter Notes: Plant Life
Try yourself:Which process involves the growth of new plants from vegetative parts like roots, stems, and leaves?
View Solution

Vegetative Propagation

The root, stem and leaf are called vegetative parts. The growth of new plants from vegetative parts is known as vegetative propagation.

1. Plants from Roots

  • Certain roots, such as those of sweet potato, dahlia, carrot, and radish, can sprout new plants. 
  • For example, if we slice off the top part of a carrot and put it in the soil, it will grow into a new plant.

2. Plants from Leaves

  • Sometimes, plants can grow from leaves. 
  • Bryophyllum is one such plant that makes new plants from its leaves. 
  • Small buds grow along the edge of the parent leaf. 
  • Eventually, they drop off and grow into new plants on the ground. Each bud can create a new baby plant.

BryophyllumBryophyllum

3. Plants from Underground Stems

Underground stems are modified structures of certain plants. They are of three types namely, rhizome, tuber and bulb.

  • Rhizomes, like those in ginger and turmeric, have roots growing from their bottom and green leaves from their top. 
  • Tubers, such as potatoes and artichokes, are swollen parts with nodes or eyes, each capable of sprouting into new plants. 
  • Bulbs, like onions and garlic, are also underground stems with buds on their sides that grow into shoots.

4. Plants from Spores

  • Plants like ferns and fungi such as mushrooms and bread mould grow from tiny particles called spores. 
  • These spores are located underneath fern leaves.

SporesSpores

5. Plants from Layering

  • Some plants can also be grown through a method called layering. 
  • In this process, the side branches are bent down towards the ground and covered with damp soil, leaving the tip exposed. After some time, new roots start to grow. 
  • Plants like jasmine and lemon reproduce using this method.

LayeringLayering

6. Runners

  • A runner is a stem that grows flat along the ground, above it. 
  • Examples of runners are strawberries and grass
  • At the tip of the runner, buds can grow into new plants.

RunnersRunners

7. Suckers

  • Suckers are a lot like runners. They're underground stems that grow horizontally, just like runners.
  • But, unlike runners, suckers start underground and then come up to make a new plant. 
  • Mint plants are an example of suckers. 

8. Plants from Cones

  • Trees like cedar, pine, redwood, hemlock, and firs in hilly areas reproduce through cones.

9. Plants from Stems

  • Certain plants such as roses, hibiscus, and money plants can be propagated through stem cuttings. The original plant from which the stem is taken is referred to as the mother plant. 
  • The stem cutting is planted in soil, and after some time, it develops into a new plant.
  • Potatoes, onions, and ginger are examples of plant stems that can generate new plants. Potatoes have buds, known as eyes, on them. 
  • Any portion of a potato containing an eye has the potential to sprout and grow into a new plant.

Rose from StemRose from Stem

Cutting
In this method, the stems of the plants are cut into many small pieces. Each piece can develop into a new plant.

Advantages of Vegetative Propagation

  • Growing new plants through vegetative propagation is quicker.
  • It's a handy way to grow plants without seeds, like grapes and bananas.
  • Plants grown through vegetative propagation bloom and bear fruit faster than those grown from seeds.

Reproduction Through Seeds

Plants with flowers are known as flowering plants. When flowers mature, they become fruits which hold seeds. Therefore, flowers are the reproductive parts of flowering plants.

Growing Plants from Seeds

  • Seeds are present inside fruits. New plants grow from seeds. Let us study the structure of a kidney bean seed.
  • Plants produce many seeds, but not all of them grow into new plants. Some seeds are eaten by animals or humans, while others may be weak or destroyed by wind or rain. Some seeds simply don't get the right conditions to grow. When a healthy seed gets the proper conditions—enough air, water, and warmth—it sprouts into a baby plant called a seedling. This process is known as germination.

GerminationGermination

  • During germination, the seedling relies on food stored in its seed leaves, called cotyledons. It uses this stored food until it can grow its own roots and leaves. 
  • Once the seedling has used up the food in the cotyledons, they shrink and fall off. The seedling continues to grow, developing in size and producing leaves that create food for the plant through photosynthesis. Meanwhile, the plant's roots absorb water and minerals from the soil.

Question for Chapter Notes: Plant Life
Try yourself:The process by which a plant grows from a seed
View Solution

Seed Dispersal

  • When many seeds are planted too closely together, they compete for nutrients and struggle to receive enough sunlight, air, water, and space. 
  • This often leads to the death of many seedlings. It's important to scatter seeds over a wide area to ensure each seedling has adequate resources to grow. 
  • Some plants naturally scatter their seeds to prevent overcrowding. This process is known as seed dispersal. Certain seeds have adaptations that help them disperse. 
  • They may be carried away by wind, water, animals, or humans, which are known as agents of dispersal.

1. Dispersal by wind

Seeds with lightweight and hair-like or wing-shaped structures are spread by the wind. Examples include cotton and dandelion seeds, which have fine hairs and are effortlessly carried by the wind.

Seed Dispersal by WindSeed Dispersal by Wind

2. Dispersal by water

Seeds from certain plants can float on water and get carried away by it. For example, the lotus plant has a light, spongy fruit that floats on water, while coconuts have a fibrous covering that aids in their flotation. Both lotus and coconut seeds are dispersed by water.

Seed Dispersal by WaterSeed Dispersal by Water

3. Dispersal by animals

Birds and animals consume fruits, and sometimes the seeds of these fruits remain unchanged as they pass through their digestive systems. This aids in the dispersal of seeds from the plant. Certain seeds, such as cocklebur, datura, and tiger claw, have spines or hooks that allow them to attach to the bodies of animals or birds, facilitating their transportation. Similarly, humans and animals consume fruits like mangoes, jamuns, and cherries, and discard their seeds, which also leads to their dispersal.

4. Dispersal by explosion

Some fruits like pea, poppy, balsam and bean burst open, scattering the seeds away from the plant.

Parts of a Flower

The important parts of a flower include sepals, petals, stamen, and pistil.

Parts of a FlowerParts of a Flower

  • Sepals are leaf-like structures at the bottom of the flower that protect the bud.
  • Petals, often brightly colored, enhance the flower's beauty and attract insects for pollination.
  • The stamen, the male part, consists of a filament supporting an anther containing pollen grains.
  • The pistil, the female part, comprises three components: the ovary (containing ovules), the style, and the stigma.
  • The flower is connected to a stalk called the pedicel, which enlarges to form the receptacle at the flower's base.

Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Most flowering plants reproduce through seeds. This involves the following steps:

Reproduction in Flowering PlantsReproduction in Flowering Plants

  1. Grown-up plants make flowers.
  2. Flowers have both male and female components.
  3. The male parts hold tiny grains called pollen.
  4. Pollination happens when pollen from one flower moves to the female part of the same flower or a different one.
  5. After pollination, petals and stamens drop off. The ovary grows into a fruit, and ovules become seeds, a process known as fertilization.
  6. These seeds give rise to new plants, completing the plant's life cycle.

Question for Chapter Notes: Plant Life
Try yourself:After fertilization, ovules convert into
View Solution

Agriculture

  • Agriculture involves growing plants on a large scale for various purposes, including food production. Crops are plants of a particular type grown extensively in a specific area during a specific season. 

AgricultureAgriculture

  • Farmers cultivate different crops in different seasons: summer-grown and monsoon-harvested crops are called kharif crops (e.g., rice, maize), while those grown in winter and harvested in spring are called rabi crops (e.g., wheat, gram). 
  • Vegetables like cauliflower and peas thrive in winter, while brinjal and gourd prefer summer. Different plants require different types of soil: rice and jute prefer clayey soil with good water retention, wheat, jowar, and bajra grow well in sandy soil, cotton prefers black soil, and tea plants thrive in hilly areas like Assam and Darjeeling.

Stages of Agriculture

Stages of AgricultureStages of Agriculture

  1. The field is ploughed, which means digging and turning over the soil with a plough. This helps loosen the soil.
  2. Manures and chemical fertilizers are added to the soil to make it richer in nutrients.
  3. Seeds are sown.
  4. The crop is irrigated, which means supplying water to the land through pipes or channels so that the crop can grow.
  5. The crop is sprayed with chemicals called pesticides to keep pests away and protect it.
  6. The crop is harvested, which means cutting and collecting it.

Protecting the Crops

  • Crops must be shielded from animals, birds, and insects both before and after harvesting. 
  • Fencing around fields prevents larger animals like cows and buffaloes from accessing the crops, while scarecrows deter birds. 
  • Pesticides are used to ward off insects during crop growth. After harvesting, crops are stored carefully to safeguard them from insects, small animals, and moisture. 
  • Grains and pulses are kept in sealed containers to maintain freshness.

The document Plant Life Chapter Notes | Science Class 5 is a part of the Class 5 Course Science Class 5.
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FAQs on Plant Life Chapter Notes - Science Class 5

1. What is vegetative propagation in plants?
Ans. Vegetative propagation in plants is a method of reproduction where new plants are grown from a part of a parent plant, such as a stem, root, or leaf, without the need for seeds.
2. How does vegetative propagation differ from reproduction through seeds?
Ans. Vegetative propagation involves growing new plants from a part of a parent plant, while reproduction through seeds requires the use of seeds to grow new plants.
3. What are some common methods of vegetative propagation?
Ans. Some common methods of vegetative propagation include cutting, layering, grafting, and tissue culture.
4. Why is vegetative propagation important in agriculture?
Ans. Vegetative propagation allows farmers and gardeners to produce multiple plants with desirable traits quickly and efficiently, helping to maintain genetic diversity and improve crop yield.
5. How can farmers use vegetative propagation to improve crop production?
Ans. Farmers can use vegetative propagation to propagate plants with desirable traits, such as disease resistance or high yield, ensuring a more consistent and productive crop harvest.
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