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Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC PDF Download

Northern Ireland Conflict

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

Context: Recently, a pro-Irish unity politician made history by becoming the first Nationalist First Minister of Northern Ireland amid political deadlock reflecting the region's complex divisions.

  • Rooted in its troubled past, the move signals a potential shift towards reconciliation and inclusive governance.

How did Northern Ireland Come into Being?

The Troubles:

  • Northern Ireland was the site of a 30-year civil war (1968-1998) known as ‘The Troubles’ between the Republicans and the Unionists, which killed over 3,500 people.
  • It also had a religious aspect to it with the Republicans being mostly Catholic and the Unionists being largely Protestants.
  • Northern Ireland was formerly part of the Ulster province, which lies to the north of modern-day Ireland.

Conflict Between Protestants and the Irish Catholics:

  • Conflict between the Protestants and the Irish Catholics goes all the way back to 1609, when King James I started an official policy of migration wherein people from England and Scotland were encouraged to move to Ulster to work in his various plantations there.
  • The religious war that was being waged in much of Europe at the time, between the Protestants and the Catholics, made its presence felt in Ulster as well.
  • However, a much stronger resistance was brewing. Ireland at the time was under the rule of England.

Resistance Against the Colonial English Rule:

  • The growing resistance against colonial English rule, especially after the Potato Famine of 1845 where over 1 million Irish people died due to disease and starvation, cemented these sectarian and religious differences.
  • Finally, in 1916, in the middle of the First World War, during Easter week, Ireland rose up in arms against colonial rule under the leadership of the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

Forming of Northern Ireland:

  • After a bloody war, it was able to gain independence from England with the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921.
  • However, Ireland was split into two territories. As there was a protestant majority in Ulster, out of the 32 counties in Ireland, six remained with the U.K, forming the region of Northern Ireland.

What is the Background of Political Deadlock in Northern Ireland?

  • The political deadlock in Northern Ireland stemmed from the disagreement over the implementation of border controls between Britain and the Island of Ireland following Brexit.
  • When the United Kingdom left the European Union, Northern Ireland, as part of the UK, became the only province with a land border with an EU member state, the Republic of Ireland.
  • To address this issue, the UK and the EU devised the Northern Ireland Protocol as part of the Brexit deal. This protocol aimed to prevent the reintroduction of a hard border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland by shifting the trade border to Irish ports, effectively creating a sea border between Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK.
  • However, this arrangement was contentious, particularly for the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), which objected to what it saw as undermining Northern Ireland's status within the UK and violating the principles of the Good Friday Agreement.
  • The DUP's objection to the Northern Ireland Protocol led to their withdrawal from the power-sharing government, as they believed the protocol threatened Northern Ireland's position within the UK and violated the principles of the Good Friday Agreement, which emphasised free movement of goods and people across borders.
  • Ultimately, the resolution of the deadlock came through a renegotiation of the border controls and assurances regarding Northern Ireland's status within the UK, leading to the DUP's agreement to return to government.

What is the Good Friday Agreement?


  • The Good Friday Agreement, also known as the Belfast Agreement, is a historic peace treaty signed on 10th April, 1998, in Northern Ireland.
  • It aimed to bring an end to the violence and conflict that had plagued the region for decades, particularly during the period known as "The Troubles."

Key Provisions:

  • Power Sharing: The agreement established a devolved government in Northern Ireland, with power shared between Unionists (who generally want Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom) and Republicans (who generally seek reunification with Ireland). This power-sharing arrangement was intended to ensure that both communities had a voice in governing Northern Ireland.
  • Consent Principle: It recognized the principle of consent, meaning that the status of Northern Ireland would not change without the consent of a majority of its people. This provision allowed for the possibility of reunification with Ireland through a referendum, but only if the majority of people in Northern Ireland voted for it.
  • Human Rights: The agreement emphasised the importance of human rights and equality for all citizens of Northern Ireland, regardless of their background or political beliefs.
  • Decommissioning of Weapons: While the agreement did not explicitly require the immediate disarmament of paramilitary groups, it set out a process for the decommissioning of weapons held by such groups. This process was meant to take place in parallel with the implementation of other aspects of the agreement.
  • Cross-Border Cooperation: The agreement encouraged cooperation and reconciliation between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, as well as between the UK and Ireland more broadly. It promoted economic, social, and cultural ties across the border, while also recognizing the sovereignty and territorial integrity of both states.


The success of the Good Friday Agreement will depend on the ability of all stakeholders to transcend divisions, embrace diversity, and build a shared future grounded in mutual respect and understanding. Only through sustained commitment to peace and reconciliation can Northern Ireland fully realise its potential as a society that celebrates its rich cultural heritage while forging a common path towards prosperity and unity.

Question for Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2
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What was the purpose of the Good Friday Agreement?
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Bail Under UAPA

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

Context: Recently, the Supreme Court refused bail to an accused involved in an alleged Khalistan module, stating that the principle of 'bail is rule, jail is the exception' is not applicable under the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA).

How the Provision of Bail Evolved under UAPA?

  • 2008: The UAPA Amendment Act, 2008 introduced Section 43D (5), which required a Court to deny bail if there were reasonable grounds to believe that the case against the accused was prima facie true.
    • It requires the accused to convince the court that it is unreasonable to consider the accusations as prima facie true.
    • By shifting this burden onto the accused, the fundamental principle of criminal law, which presumes innocence until proven guilty, is altered within the framework of the UAPA.
  • 2016: In the Angela Harish Sontakke v State of Maharashtra, the judiciary granted bail despite Section 43D (5)'s stringent provisions, considering the extended period of custody and the likelihood of a swift trial, emphasising the need for balance between the alleged offence and the accused's time in jail.
  • 2019: The National Investigation Agency v Zahoor Amhad Shah Watali judgment provided a narrow interpretation of Section 43D (5), stating the court must accept the NIA's version of events without delving into the merits of the case, thus making bail harder to secure after charges are framed by the NIA.
  • 2021: In Union of India v K.A. Najeeb, the Supreme Court highlighted the possibility of granting bail based on the violation of Article 21 rights due to prolonged incarceration (being imprisoned or detained).
    • The State of NCT of Delhi v Devangana Kalita case saw the Delhi High Court separating evidence from NIA inferences, leading to bail granted on the basis of the NIA's failure to establish a prima facie case.
  • 2023: The Supreme Court, in the Vernon Gonsalves v State of Maharashtra case, diverged from the previous Watali ruling on the "prima facie true" test for granting bail, emphasising the need for evidence analysis.
    • However, in the recent case, a two-judge bench denied the bail exclusively following the Watali precedent, overlooking the Gonsalves ruling.
    • The conflicting interpretations by different benches raise questions about the consistency and application of bail provisions under UAPA.

What is UAPA?

  • Background: On 17th June 1966, the President had promulgated the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Ordinance “to provide for the more effective prevention of unlawful activities of individuals and associations”.
  • The introduction of the stringent measure sparked uproar in Parliament, resulting in the government retracting it.
  • Subsequently, the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act of 1967, which differed from the ordinance, was enacted instead.
  • About: UAPA is a law that aims to prevent unlawful activities and deal with terrorism. It is also known as the "Anti-Terror law".
  • Unlawful activities are defined as actions supporting or inciting the cession or secession of any part of India, or actions questioning or disrespecting its sovereignty and territorial integrity.
  • The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is empowered by the UAPA to investigate and prosecute cases nationwide.


  • It underwent multiple amendments, in 2004, 2008, 2012 and most recently in 2019, expanding provisions related to terrorist financing, cyber-terrorism, individual designation, and property seizure.

Related Concern:

  • Low Conviction Rate: Under the UAPA, 4,690 persons were arrested between 2018 and 2020, but only 3% were convicted.
  • Subjective Interpretation: The broad definition of unlawful activities allows for subjective interpretations, making it vulnerable to potential misuse against specific groups or individuals based on their identity or ideology.
  • Limited Judicial Review: The 2019 amendment empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorists without any judicial review, raising concerns about due process of law and the potential for arbitrary designations.

Way Forward

  • Enhanced Oversight: Implementing robust oversight mechanisms to prevent misuse of the UAPA, including regular reviews of its implementation and strengthening judicial scrutiny to ensure adherence to constitutional principles and human rights standards.
  • Clearer Definitions: There is a need to refine and narrow down the definition of unlawful activities to minimise subjectivity and potential for misuse.
  • Time-bound Investigations and Trials: Establish clear timelines for investigations and trials to prevent prolonged detentions and ensure efficient judicial processes.

Development and Promotion of Jute Industry

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

Context: The Standing Committee on Labour, Textiles, and Skill Development recently released the Fifty-Third Report on the 'Development and Promotion of the Jute Industry.'

Report Highlights:

Jute Industry's Potential:

  • The jute industry holds a significant position in India's economy, especially in West Bengal. Jute, known as the 'golden fibre,' is a sustainable and eco-friendly material ideal for safe packaging.

India's Global Jute Production Share:

  • India is a key player in the global jute market, contributing 70% of the world's jute output. Around 90% of the produced jute is consumed domestically.

Production and Export Data (2022-23):

  • In 2022-23, jute goods production reached 1,246,500 metric tons (MT), with exports totaling 177,270 MT, marking a 56% increase from 2019-20.

Import Data:

  • India imported 121.26 thousand MT of raw jute, primarily from Bangladesh.

Major Challenges:

  • High procurement costs due to complex processes.
  • Insufficient raw material despite efforts to boost cultivation.
  • Obsolete mills requiring technological upgrades.
  • Competition from synthetic materials.
  • Labor issues, particularly in West Bengal.
  • Infrastructure challenges like power supply and transportation.

News Brief:

  • The Fifty-Third Report on 'Development and Promotion of the Jute Industry' by the Standing Committee on Labour, Textiles, and Skill Development highlights the industry's potential, India's global position, production and export data, and challenges faced, including procurement, raw material, obsolete mills, competition, labor, and infrastructure.

What are the Key Recommendations of the Standing Committee?

Modernising and Upgrading Technology:

  • There is a need to encourage jute mills to invest in state-of-the-art machinery and technology to enhance productivity and elevate product standards.
  • Foster partnerships with research institutions to drive innovation and progress.

Efficient Raw Material Procurement:

  • Streamline the process of acquiring raw jute to minimise expenses. Promote contract farming initiatives and offer incentives to farmers to boost jute cultivation.

Enhanced Quality Control and Standardisation:

  • Reinforce quality control protocols to maintain uniform excellence in jute products. Establish and enforce stringent standards for jute goods.

Skill Enhancement and Training:

  • Empower jute workers with comprehensive training programs to refine their expertise.
  • Place emphasis on honing skills in weaving, dyeing, and value-added processes.

Market Expansion:

  • There is a need to pioneer exploration into untapped global markets for jute products.
  • Promote jute-based handicrafts and lifestyle commodities to broaden market reach.

Research and Development Promotion:

  • Allocate resources for research endeavours focused on advancing jute-related innovations.
  • Encourage collaborative efforts between industry players and research entities.

Promoting Jute Products:

  • Launch awareness campaigns spotlighting the eco-friendly attributes and sustainability of jute.
  • Educate consumers on the merits of choosing jute products.

Policy Advocacy:

  • Formulate policies that incentivize jute cultivation and value addition.
  • Extend financial assistance to jute mills for the adoption of cutting-edge technologies.

What Government Initiatives are Supporting the Jute Industry?

Export Market Development Assistance (EMDA) Scheme:

  • The EMDA program, initiated by the National Jute Board (NJB), encourages manufacturers and exporters of jute products to participate in international fairs worldwide. It aims to promote the export of lifestyle and other Jute Diversified Products (JDPs).

Jute Packaging Materials (Compulsory Use in Packing Commodities) Act 1987:

  • This act was enacted to ensure the mandatory use of jute packaging material in the supply and distribution of certain commodities.
  • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has extended mandatory packaging of 100% food grains and 20% sugar in diversified jute bags for the Jute Year 2023-24.

Jute Geotextiles (JGT):

  • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has approved a Technical Textiles Mission which includes Jute Geo-Textiles.
  • JGT is one of the most important diversified jute products. It can be applied in many fields like civil engineering, soil erosion control, road pavement construction and protection of river banks.

Minimum Support Price for Jute:

  • Jute Corporation of India (JCI) is the Price Support Agency of the Govt. of India for jute, to protect the interest of the Jute Growers through procurement of Raw Jute under the MSP fixed by the government from time to time and also to stabilise the raw jute market for the benefit of the jute farmers and the jute economy as a whole.

Golden Fibre Revolution and Technology Mission on Jute and Mesta:

  • They are two of the government initiatives to boost jute production in India.
  • Due to its high cost, it is losing the market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly nylon.


  • It is an e-government initiative which was launched in December 2016 to promote transparency in the jute sector.
  • It provides an integrated platform for procurement of sacking by Government agencies.

Question for Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2
Try yourself:
Under the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA), what is the burden of proof on the accused when seeking bail?
View Solution

Gupteswar Forest as Biodiversity Heritage Site

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

Context: The pristine Gupteswar Forest, situated near the Gupteswar Shiva temple in Odisha’s Koraput district, has been designated as the 4th Biodiversity Heritage Site (BHS) of the state.

Key Points about Gupteshwar Forest:

Area and Cultural Significance:

  • Covering 350 hectares, the forest holds deep cultural roots with its sacred groves, historically revered by the local community.

Flora and Fauna Diversity:

  • The forest is home to an extensive variety of flora and fauna. It boasts at least 608 faunal species, including 28 mammal species.

Notable Species:

  • Among the fauna, the forest is home to notable species like the mugger crocodile, kanger valley rock gecko, sacred Grove Bush Frog, and various avifauna such as black baza, Jerdon’s baza, Malaber trogon, common hill myna, white-bellied woodpecker, and banded bay cuckoo.
  • Additionally, the limestone caves within the forest host eight species of bats, two of which are categorized as near-threatened by the IUCN: Hipposideros galeritus and Rhinolophus rouxii.

Floral Diversity:

  • The forest also boasts a rich array of flora, including threatened medicinal plants such as the Indian trumpet tree and Indian snakeroot.

What is a Biodiversity Heritage Site?


  • Biodiversity Heritage sites (BHS) are well-defined areas that are unique, ecologically fragile ecosystems with a high diversity of wild and domesticated species, the presence of rare and threatened species, and keystone species.

Legal Provision:

  • As per provision under Section 37(1) of ‘The Biological Diversity Act, 2002’ State Governments are empowered to notify in the official gazette, in consultation with ‘local bodies’, areas of biodiversity importance as Biodiversity Heritage Sites.


  • Creation of BHS may not put any restriction on the prevailing practices and usages of the local communities, other than those voluntarily decided by them. The purpose is to enhance the quality of life of the local communities through conservation measures.

First BHS of India:

  • Nallur Tamarind Grove in Bengaluru, Karnataka was the first Biodiversity Heritage Site of India, declared in 2007.
  • According to the National Biodiversity Authority, India has a total of 45 Biodiversity Heritage Sites as of February 2024.

Last Five Additions to BHS:

  • Haldir Char Island West Bengal (May 2023)
  • Birampur-Baguran Jalpai West Bengal (May 2023)
  • Tungkyong Dho Sikkim (June 2023)
  • Gandhamardan Hill Odisha (March 2023)
  • Gupteswar Forest Odisha (Feb 2024)

Potential of Lakshadweep

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

Context: Lakshadweep's strategic location near international shipping routes has drawn attention to its potential to emerge as a logistics hub, prompting neighboring Mangaluru to explore ways to strengthen historical business ties.

Tourism and Logistics Potential of Lakshadweep:


  • Lakshadweep's unspoiled beaches, coral reefs, and clear waters make it an attractive tourist destination. With proper infrastructure development and sustainable tourism practices, it could become a premier hotspot for tourists.

Trade and Logistics:

  • Located near international shipping routes, Lakshadweep has the potential to become a vital logistics hub. Its proximity to Mangaluru, a major port in coastal Karnataka, presents opportunities for trade partnerships and cargo handling. With proposed port connectivity and infrastructure development, Lakshadweep could facilitate smoother trade operations, benefiting local businesses and the regional economy.

Regional Growth:

  • The development initiatives proposed for Lakshadweep, as outlined in the Interim Budget 2024-25, are expected to not only benefit the islands but also contribute to regional growth, especially in areas like Mangaluru. The Union Finance Minister announced plans for port connectivity, tourism infrastructure, and amenities on Indian islands, including Lakshadweep, to foster domestic tourism. Improved connectivity and cruise routes could boost tourism and economic activities in both Lakshadweep and its neighboring regions.

Ecological Significance:

  • Lakshadweep's designation as a restricted area highlights its ecological importance. Suggestions to anchor cruise vessels at sea instead of constructing large infrastructure on the islands reflect a commitment to sustainable practices.

What are the Concerns Related to Development in Lakshadweep?

Environmental Impact:

  • The delicate ecosystem of the islands, including coral reefs and marine life, is vulnerable to damage from construction, pollution, and increased human activity.
  • Sustainable development practices and stringent environmental regulations are necessary to mitigate these risks.

Socio-cultural Impact:

  • The traditional way of life and cultural heritage of the indigenous communities in Lakshadweep could be at risk with rapid development and increased tourism.

Infrastructure Development:

  • The lack of adequate infrastructure, including transportation, accommodation, and healthcare facilities, poses a significant challenge to tourism and trade in Lakshadweep.
  • Developing modern infrastructure while preserving the islands' natural beauty and unique character requires careful planning and investment.

Security Concerns:

  • Lakshadweep's proximity to international shipping routes and its designation as a restricted area raise security concerns. Balancing security needs with the promotion of tourism and trade requires coordinated efforts between government agencies and stakeholders.

Community Engagement:

  • Engaging local communities in the planning and implementation of development projects is crucial for their success and sustainability.
  • Ensuring that the benefits of development are equitably distributed among residents and that their concerns are addressed is essential for fostering social cohesion and support for growth initiatives.


  • Addressing these concerns and challenges will require a concerted effort from government agencies, private sector stakeholders, civil society organizations, and local communities.
  • By adopting a holistic and inclusive approach to development, Lakshadweep can overcome these challenges and realise its full potential as a sustainable and thriving island destination.

Question for Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2
Try yourself:
What is the purpose of designating an area as a Biodiversity Heritage Site (BHS)?
View Solution

Rights of Forest Dwellers and Thanthai Periyar Sanctuary

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

Context: Recent developments concerning the notification of the Thanthai Periyar Sanctuary in Tamil Nadu have raised concerns among forest-dwellers regarding the potential denial of their rights under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006 (FRA).

What are the Concerns Regarding the Notification of the Thanthai Periyar Sanctuary?

  • The notification excludes six tribal forest villages from the sanctuary, limiting them to a small area of 3.42 sq. km, without recognizing them as revenue villages.
  • The notification imposes restrictions on cattle-grazing activities, which may disrupt the traditional practices of the Bargur cattle, a traditional breed native to the Bargur forest hills.
  • The notification does not address the consent of the forest rights holders or the gram sabha, as mandated by the FRA, 2006.


  • In March 2022, the Madras High Court revised a previous order imposing a complete ban on cattle grazing in all of Tamil Nadu's forests and limited the ban to National Parks, Sanctuaries, and Tiger Reserves.
  • Tamil Nadu is the only state in the country with such a ban.
  • This order contradicts the FRA 2006, which recognizes the grazing and traditional resource access of nomadic or pastoralist communities. This order applies to all forests, including National Parks, Sanctuaries, and Tiger Reserves. Grazing rights are community rights of the habitation-level villages and are to be regulated by their gram sabhas.

What is the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006?


  • FRA, 2006 acknowledges the rights of forest-dwelling tribal communities and traditional forest dwellers to forest resources, essential for their livelihoods, habitation, and socio-cultural needs.
  • The Act rectifies the historical injustice faced by these communities by recognizing their symbiotic relationship with forests, which was previously overlooked by forest management policies.

Forest Dwellers Rights Under FRA, 2006:

  • Under the FRA, forest dwellers are granted individual rights such as self-cultivation and habitation, as well as collective or community rights including grazing, fishing, access to water bodies, and traditional seasonal resource access for nomadic and pastoral communities.
  • The Act also recognizes the rights of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), intellectual property rights, customary rights, and the right to protect, regenerate, or manage community forest resources sustainably.
  • Additionally, it provides for the allocation of forest land for developmental purposes to meet the basic infrastructural needs of forest-dwelling communities.
  • Importantly, the FRA works in conjunction with other relevant legislation such as the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Settlement Act of 2013, to safeguard forest dwellers from eviction without proper rehabilitation and settlement.
    • The Act further enjoins upon the Gram Sabha (village assembly), to play a central role in the implementation of the Act.
    • The Gram Sabha is also a highly empowered body under the Act, enabling the tribal population to have a decisive say in the determination of local policies and schemes impacting them.
    • FRA requires and authorises the gram sabha to determine and recognise forest rights and protect and preserve the forests, wildlife, and biodiversity within their customary and traditional boundaries, including inside Protected Areas.
  • Violations of the FRA, particularly concerning Scheduled Tribes, are considered crimes under the 2016 amendment to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989.
  • FRA states that converting forest villages into revenue villages is one of the forest rights of forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers.

The document Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly.
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FAQs on Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st February 2024) Part - 2 - Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

1. What is the significance of Bail Under UAPA?
Ans. The Bail Under UAPA is a provision that allows for the granting of bail to individuals who have been detained under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act. This provision is important as it ensures that individuals are not held in detention indefinitely without being given the opportunity to seek bail.
2. How does the Development and Promotion of Jute Industry benefit the economy?
Ans. The Development and Promotion of Jute Industry can benefit the economy by creating job opportunities, boosting exports, and promoting sustainable agricultural practices. Jute products have a high demand both domestically and internationally, making it a lucrative industry for economic growth.
3. Why is Gupteswar Forest designated as a Biodiversity Heritage Site?
Ans. Gupteswar Forest is designated as a Biodiversity Heritage Site due to its rich biodiversity, unique ecosystem, and cultural significance. This designation helps in the conservation and protection of the forest's flora and fauna, as well as promoting sustainable tourism practices.
4. What is the potential of Lakshadweep in terms of development?
Ans. Lakshadweep has the potential for development in various sectors such as tourism, fisheries, and renewable energy. The islands' natural beauty, marine biodiversity, and strategic location make it an attractive destination for investment and sustainable development initiatives.
5. What are the rights of Forest Dwellers in Thanthai Periyar Sanctuary?
Ans. Forest Dwellers in Thanthai Periyar Sanctuary have rights to access and use forest resources for their livelihoods, as per the Forest Rights Act. These rights include the right to collect non-timber forest products, grazing rights, and the right to protect and conserve the forest ecosystem.
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