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Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC PDF Download

Taiwan Earthquake and Pacific Ring of Fire

Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: Taiwan was struck by a massive earthquake registering 7.4 on the Richter Scale, marking one of the most significant seismic events in the region in at least 25 years.

  • Japan issued a tsunami warning for the Ryukyu chain of islands, extending from Taiwan to its main island of Kyushu. This island group includes Okinawa, home to large US military bases since World War II and the Cold War.

Understanding the Causes of Earthquakes in Taiwan:

  • Taiwan is situated along the Pacific "Ring of Fire," where approximately 90% of the world's earthquakes occur.
  • This region is highly susceptible to seismic activity due to the buildup of tension from the interaction of two tectonic plates: the Philippine Sea Plate and the Eurasian Plate, resulting in sudden seismic releases.
  • The mountainous terrain of Taiwan can exacerbate ground shaking, leading to landslides. Several such incidents occurred on the eastern coast near the earthquake's epicenter, resulting in fatalities and infrastructure damage.

What is the Pacific Ring of Fire?

About:

  • Also called the Pacific rim or the Circum-Pacific Belt, is an area along the Pacific Ocean that is characterised by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.
  • It is home to about 75% of the world’s volcanoes and about 90% of the world’s earthquakes occur here.

Geographical Stretch:

  • The Ring of Fire is stretched to approximately 40,000 kilometres tracing boundaries between several tectonic plates including the Pacific, Juan de Fuca, Cocos, Indian-Australian, Nazca, American, and Philippine Plates.
  • The chain runs up along the western coast of South and North America, crosses over the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, and runs down the eastern coast of Asia past New Zealand and into the northern coast of Antarctica.
  • There are several countries in the ring of fire like Indonesia, New Zealand, Papa New Guinea, Philippines, Japan, United States, Chile, Canada, Guatemala, Russia, Peru, Solomon Islands, Mexico and Antarctica.

Causes of Volcanic Activity:

  • Tectonic plates move towards each other creating subduction zones. One plate gets pushed down or is subducted by the other plate. This is a very slow process – a movement of just one or two inches per year.
  • As this subduction happens, rocks melt, become magma move to Earth’s surface and cause volcanic activity.

Recent Research:

  • The Pacific Plate, which drives much of the tectonic activity in the Ring of Fire, is cooling off.
  • The cooling process may alter the dynamics of plate boundaries, affecting subduction zones and mountain-building processes.
  • Scientists have discovered that the youngest parts of the Pacific Plate (about 2 million years old) are cooling off and contracting at a faster rate than older parts of the plate (about 100 million years old).
  • It could lead to increased stress accumulation along plate boundaries and may result in more frequent and potentially stronger earthquakes.
  • The younger parts of the plate are found in its northern and western parts, the most active parts of the Ring of Fire.

What is a Tsunami?

  • A tsunami, originating from the Japanese term meaning "harbor wave," is commonly referred to as a destructive ocean wave.
  • It is not merely a solitary wave but rather a sequence of oceanic waves, known as a wave train, triggered by various phenomena such as underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, rapid atmospheric pressure changes, or meteorite impacts.
  • However, tsunamis induced by volcanic events are comparatively infrequent.
  • Approximately 80% of tsunamis occur within the Pacific Ocean's "Ring of Fire," an area of high geological activity where volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are prevalent.
  • Tsunamis surge across the sea at speeds of up to 800 kilometers per hour, enabling them to traverse the vast expanses of the Pacific Ocean in less than a day.
  • Due to their extended wavelengths, tsunamis experience minimal energy dissipation during their journey.
  • In December 2015, the UN General Assembly designated November 5th as World Tsunami Awareness Day.

Question for Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2
Try yourself:
What is the primary factor that makes Taiwan susceptible to earthquakes?
View Solution


Global Hepatitis Report 2024

Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: The recently published Global Hepatitis Report 2024 by the World Health Organization (WHO) has spotlighted India among the nations grappling with a significant load of viral hepatitis, notably Hepatitis B and C infections.

Key Insights from the Report:

India's Hepatitis Challenge:

Prevalence:

  • India stands among the countries burdened with a high prevalence of viral hepatitis.
  • The estimated number of individuals living with Hepatitis B infection in India is 29 million (2.9 crore), while Hepatitis C infections affect 5.5 million (0.55 crore) people.
  • In 2022 alone, India reported over 50,000 new cases of Hepatitis B and 140,000 new cases of Hepatitis C, with these infections contributing to the demise of 123,000 individuals.

Drivers of Infections:

  • Hepatitis B and C are transmitted through various routes, including mother-to-child transmission, unsafe blood transfusions, contact with infected blood, and needle-sharing among drug users.
  • Despite advancements in blood safety measures, mother-to-child transmission remains a significant mode of Hepatitis B transmission in India.

Diagnosis and Treatment Coverage:

  • Merely 2.4% of Hepatitis B cases and 28% of Hepatitis C cases in India are diagnosed.
  • Treatment coverage is strikingly low, with Hepatitis B at 0% and Hepatitis C at 21%, despite the availability of cost-effective generic medications.

Challenges in Improving Outcomes:

  • Limited reach and utilization of the National Viral Hepatitis Control Program in India.
  • The imperative to broaden access to affordable diagnostic and treatment services under the program.
  • The necessity to provide treatment to all diagnosed individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to mitigate health repercussions and transmission.

Global Picture:

Mortality Trends:

  • In 2022, viral hepatitis resulted in an estimated 1.3 million global deaths, aligning with tuberculosis mortality rates.
  • Hepatitis B accounted for 83% of these fatalities, while hepatitis C contributed to 17%.
  • The escalating mortality underscores a surge in hepatitis-related liver cancer cases and deaths.

Prevalence:

  • Globally, around 304 million individuals were living with hepatitis B and C in 2022.
  • Of these, WHO estimates indicate 254 million were afflicted with hepatitis B and 50 million with hepatitis C, with 12% of the burden affecting children, notably for hepatitis B.

Barriers to Scaling Up Testing and Treatment:

  • Constraints like inadequate funding and limited decentralization have hindered the expansion of testing services.
  • Numerous countries struggle to procure hepatitis medications at affordable generic prices, resulting in elevated costs.
  • Patent-related hurdles persist, impeding access to economical hepatitis C medications in certain nations.

Way Forward

  • Treating an estimated 40 million people with hepatitis B and curing 30 million people with hepatitis C by 2026 is crucial to regain the trajectory towards elimination.
  • Targeted efforts are required to reach specific high-risk populations affected by viral hepatitis.
  • Integrate hepatitis services into primary healthcare settings to improve access for individuals across all socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Expand and improve the National Viral Hepatitis Control Program by increasing funding, broadening its scope, and enhancing coordination among stakeholders. Prioritise early diagnosis and treatment initiation through the program.

India Rejects China’s Claim Over Arunachal Pradesh

Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: China's recent move to rename certain places in Arunachal Pradesh has sparked a diplomatic dispute with India, with the latter rejecting the renaming as merely "invented" names that do not change the fact that Arunachal Pradesh is an integral part of India.

Details of the Dispute:

Chinese Action:

  • China's Ministry of Civil Affairs issued the fourth list of standardized geographical names in Zangnan, the Chinese term for Arunachal Pradesh, which Beijing claims as part of south Tibet.

India's Response:

  • India swiftly rejected China's renaming efforts, asserting that assigning new names does not alter the ground reality of Arunachal Pradesh being an integral part of India.
  • This incident follows a similar reaction from India in April 2023 when China released its third list of standardized names for 11 places in Arunachal Pradesh.

Understanding the Border Dispute:

Background:

  • The India-China border dispute pertains to long-standing territorial disagreements along their 3,488-kilometer shared border.

Key Areas of Dispute:

  1. Aksai Chin in the western sector, administered by China as part of Xinjiang but claimed by India as part of Ladakh.
  2. Arunachal Pradesh in the eastern sector, claimed entirely by China as "South Tibet" but administered by India as a northeastern state.

Absence of Clear Demarcation:

  • The border lacks clear demarcation throughout, and there is no mutually agreed Line of Actual Control (LAC) along certain stretches.

Sectors of the Border:

  • Western Sector: Ladakh
  • Middle Sector: Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
  • Eastern Sector: Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim

Military Standoffs:

  • 1962 Sino-Indian War: The border dispute escalated into the 1962 conflict, and subsequent military standoffs have occurred periodically.

Recent Confrontations:

  • Since 2013, there have been frequent military confrontations along the LAC, notably the 2017 Doklam standoff, the 2020 clash in Galwan Valley, Ladakh, and the 2022 incident in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.

How is India Responding to China's Aggressive Measures?

  • Global Strategic Alliances: India actively engages with like-minded nations to collectively address China's influence in the Indian Ocean Region.
  • QUAD: All four member nations find a common ground of being democratic nations and also support the common interest of unhindered maritime trade and security.
  • I2U2: It is a new grouping of India, Israel, the USA, and the UAE. Forming alliances with these countries strengthens India's geopolitical standing in the region.
  • India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC): Launched as an alternative trade and connectivity corridor to China's BRI, IMEC aims to strengthen India's presence in the Arabian Sea and the Middle East.
  • International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC): INSTC, formed by India, Iran, and Russia, spans 7,200 km, linking the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Caspian Sea. With Chabahar Port as a key node, it strategically counters China, providing an alternative to CPEC's Gwadar port.

India’s Necklace of Diamonds Strategy:

  • In response to China's String of Pearls strategy, India adopted the Necklace of Diamonds strategy, emphasising the encirclement of China by enhancing its naval presence, expanding military bases, and strengthening diplomatic ties with regional nations.
  • This strategy aims to counter China's military network and influence in the Indo-Pacific and Indian Ocean regions.

Infrastructure Projects Along Borders:

  • India has been actively enhancing its border infrastructure to strengthen its position along the India-China border.
  • The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) has completed 90 infrastructure projects along the India-China border, worth Rs 2,941 crore.
  • As of September 2023, 36 of these projects are in Arunachal Pradesh, 26 in Ladakh, and 11 in Jammu and Kashmir.

Cooperation With Neighbors:

  • India is actively engaging in regional partnerships with neighbouring countries to mitigate Chinese influence.
  • Recently, India has supported the development of the Gelephu mindfulness city in Bhutan.
  • Furthermore, India has strengthened ties with Nepal through a recent power pact signed during the visit of India’s External Affairs Minister to Kathmandu.
  • In 2024, the two countries signed a bilateral agreement for the export of 10,000 MW of power over the next 10 years.
  • They also inaugurated three cross-border transmission lines, including the 132 kV Raxaul-Parwanipur, 132 kV Kushaha-Kataiya, and New Nautanwa-Mainahiya lines
  • These efforts underscore India's strategy of fostering cooperation with neighbouring nations to bolster regional stability and reduce Chinese influence in the area.

The Path Ahead:

  • India should prioritize investments in enhancing border infrastructure, encompassing roads, bridges, airstrips, and communication networks. Strengthening these elements will enhance mobility and response capabilities for Indian forces.
  • There is a pressing need to modernize the armed forces by equipping them with advanced technology, equipment, and surveillance capabilities. This modernization is vital for effectively monitoring and responding to border incidents.
  • India must reinforce alliances with like-minded nations and regional organizations that share apprehensions regarding China's assertive behavior in territorial disputes. Collaborative efforts in intelligence-sharing, joint military exercises, and coordinated responses to regional challenges are imperative.
  • Efforts should be made to diversify economic ties to reduce dependence on China and bolster economic resilience. Exploring trade agreements and partnerships with countries offering alternative markets and investment opportunities will aid in this endeavor.

Question for Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2
Try yourself:
What is the estimated number of individuals living with Hepatitis B infection in India according to the Global Hepatitis Report 2024?
View Solution


India's Soil Erosion Crisis

Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: A recent study has drawn attention to the alarming prevalence of soil erosion across India, pointing to significant challenges and ramifications for agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability.

Key Findings of the Study:

  • Utilizing the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), researchers conducted a pan-India estimation of soil erosion. The equation factors in parameters such as predicted crop loss, rainfall patterns, soil erodibility, and land management practices.

Highlights of the Study:

  • Approximately 30% of India's landmass is currently experiencing "minor" soil erosion, with an additional 3% facing "catastrophic" topsoil loss.
  • The Brahmaputra Valley in Assam emerges as the nation's primary hotspot for soil erosion, signaling critical erosion levels.
  • Odisha also stands out as another hotspot for "catastrophic" erosion, attributed largely to anthropogenic interventions.
  • "Catastrophic" erosion is delineated by the loss of over 100 tonnes of soil per hectare annually.

What is the Status of Soil Erosion in India?

  • About: Soil erosion refers to the process by which soil is moved or displaced from one location to another.
  • It can occur at varying rates depending on factors such as climate, topography, vegetation cover, and human activities.

Factors Contributing Soil Erosion:

Natural Causes:

  • Wind: Strong winds can pick up loose soil particles and carry them away, especially in dry areas with sparse vegetation.
  • Water: Heavy rainfall or fast-flowing water can detach and transport soil particles, particularly on sloped land or where there's little vegetation cover.
  • Glaciers and Ice: The movement of glaciers can scrape and transport massive amounts of soil, while freezing and thawing cycles can cause soil particles to break apart and become more susceptible to erosion.

Human-Induced Factors:

  • Deforestation: Clearing forests removes trees and other vegetation that hold soil in place with their root networks.
  • This exposes the soil to the full force of wind and rain, making it more prone to erosion.
  • Poor Agricultural Practices: Conventional farming methods like excessive tilling can break down soil structure and leave it vulnerable to erosion.
  • Practices like leaving fields bare during fallow periods or using inadequate crop rotation also contribute to the problem.
  • Overgrazing: When livestock graze an area too heavily, they can damage vegetation cover, leaving the soil exposed and susceptible to erosion.
  • Construction Activities: Land clearing and excavation during construction projects disturb the soil and make it more prone to erosion, especially if proper precautions are not taken.
  • Degraded Soil in India: According to the National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, around 30% of the soil in India is degraded.
  • Of this, around 29% is lost to the sea, 61% is transferred from one place to another, and 10% is deposited in reservoirs.

What are the Challenges Related to Soil Health in India?

  • Low Organic Carbon Content: Indian soils typically have very low organic carbon content, which is crucial for fertility and water retention.
  • The soil organic carbon (SOC) content in Indian soils has declined from 1% to 0.3% in the past 70 years.
  • Nutrient Deficiencies: A significant portion of Indian soils suffer from deficiencies in major nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

Over-reliance on chemical fertilisers exacerbate this problem.

  • Water Management Issues: Both water scarcity and improper irrigation practices harm soil health. Insufficient water can lead to salinisation, while over-irrigation can cause waterlogging, both impacting soil fertility and structure.
  • Around 70% of irrigation water in India is wasted due to the poor management of the farmer.
  • Socioeconomic Factors: Land fragmentation due to population pressures and economic constraints can make it difficult for farmers to adopt sustainable practices that improve soil health.
  • The average landholding size in India is 1-1.21 hectare.

Strategies to Combat Soil Erosion and Enhance Soil Health:

  • Biochar and Biofertilizers: A synergistic approach combining biochar application with biofertilizers offers significant promise. Biochar, derived from organic materials through pyrolysis, retains nutrients and moisture, while biofertilizers enhance nutrient availability and soil vitality. This integration reduces reliance on chemical fertilizers and augments soil fertility.
  • Drone Technology for Precision Agriculture: Leveraging initiatives such as the Namo Drone Didi Scheme for soil conservation can be pivotal. Drones equipped with multispectral sensors can accurately assess soil health parameters, including nutrient levels, organic matter content, and moisture levels across expansive fields. This data facilitates precise application of fertilizers and soil amendments, minimizing wastage and optimizing efficacy. Moreover, drones enable targeted seeding and weed control, further mitigating soil disturbance.
  • Regenerative Agriculture Practices: Embracing regenerative agriculture practices such as no-till farming and compost utilization offers customized solutions tailored to diverse environments. Innovative cover cropping techniques, such as multi-species cover cropping, not only suppress weeds but also enhance soil structure and fertility. These practices promote sustainable land management while mitigating soil erosion risks.

Demographic Transition of India

Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: India's population trajectory has garnered significant attention, particularly with forecasts indicating a potential surge to 1.7 billion by 2065, as per the UN Population Division. This spotlight illuminates the ongoing evolution of the Demographic Dividend in India.

A Shift in Focus:

  • Amidst this discourse, a pivotal yet often overlooked dimension emerges—the decline in fertility rates. According to the Lancet Report, fertility rates are anticipated to plummet to 1.29 by 2051, signaling a profound demographic transition.

Government Projections vs. Research Findings:

  • Interestingly, the government's projected Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for the periods 2021-2025 (1.94) and 2031-2035 (1.73) exceeds estimates from The Lancet study and NFHS 5 data. This disjunction suggests the possibility of India's population stabilizing at a level below 1.7 billion sooner than the projected 2065 timeline.

What is the Demographic Transition and Demographic Dividend?

  • A demographic shift refers to a change in the composition of a population over time.
  • This change can occur due to various factors such as changes in birth and death rates, migration patterns, and changes in social and economic conditions.
  • A demographic dividend is a phenomenon that occurs when a country's population structure shifts from having a high proportion of dependents (children and elderly) to having a higher proportion of working-age adults.
  • This change in population structure can result in economic growth and development if the country invests in its human capital and creates conditions for productive employment.

What Factors Have Driven Demographic Transition in India?

Swift Economic Advancement:

  • The rapid pace of economic growth, particularly evident since the early 2000s, has been a primary catalyst for demographic transition. Economic progress has led to enhanced living standards, improved healthcare services, and broader educational access, collectively contributing to reduced fertility rates.

Decline in Infant and Child Mortality:

  • Decreasing mortality rates among infants and children have diminished the necessity for families to maintain larger family sizes for future support. As healthcare infrastructure improves and child mortality diminishes, families are inclined towards smaller family sizes.

Rise in Female Education and Workforce Participation:

  • The increasing educational attainment and workforce engagement of women have also played a pivotal role. As women gain education and financial independence, they opt for fewer children and postpone childbirth, resulting in a decline in overall fertility rates.

Enhanced Housing Conditions:

  • Improved housing conditions and access to basic amenities have bolstered the quality of life, influencing family planning decisions. Families tend to opt for smaller family sizes when living conditions are ameliorated.

Challenges Associated with Demographic Transition in India:

Shift in Dependency Ratio:

  • While the initial decline in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) leads to a decrease in the dependency ratio and a larger working-age populace, it eventually results in a greater proportion of elderly dependents. This places strain on resources for healthcare and social welfare, akin to scenarios observed in China, Japan, and European nations.

Non-Uniform Transition Across States:

  • The decline in fertility rates varies across states in India. Some states, notably larger ones like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Jharkhand, may experience prolonged periods to achieve replacement-level fertility. This could exacerbate regional disparities in economic development and healthcare accessibility.

Labour Productivity and Economic Growth:

  • While demographic transition has the potential to enhance labour productivity and stimulate economic growth, it also presents challenges in managing the aging workforce and ensuring adequate skills development for the younger population.

What are the Opportunities of Demographic Transition in India?

Enhanced labour Productivity:

  • The demographic transition can lead to a deceleration in population growth.
  • This can result in a higher availability of capital resources and infrastructure on a per capita basis, ultimately boosting labour productivity.

Reallocation of Resources:

  • Decreasing fertility rates enable the reallocation of resources towards education and skill development, which can lead to improved human capital and workforce productivity.
  • A declining TFR will lead to a situation where the number of children enrolling in schools is lower, as is already happening in states like Kerala.
  • This could improve educational outcomes without additional resources being spent by the state.

Increased Women Participation in Workforce:

  • A major factor responsible for the low participation of women in the workforce is their engagement in childcare at an age when they should be in the labour force.
  • With less time needed for childcare, one would expect more women to join the labour force in the coming decades.
  • The larger share of women in employment schemes like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee (MGNREGA) indicates a trend towards greater female labour force participation.

Spatial Redistribution of labour:

  • Movement of labour from regions with surplus labour to regions with growing industries can create spatial balance in the labour market.
  • This would get an impetus with the modern sectors in the southern states, and Gujarat and Maharashtra, soliciting cheaper labour from the northern states.
  • This, over the years, must result in improved working conditions, elimination of wage discrimination for migrant workers and the mitigation of security concerns in the receiving states through institutional safeguards.

Way Forward

  • As mentioned in the Asia 2050 report, if India capitalises on these opportunities by focusing on sectoral and spatial redistribution of the workforce, skill development, and increasing women's participation in the workforce, it can emerge as a major economic player in the 21st century.
  • India's demographic dividend, if harnessed effectively, can contribute significantly to global economic competitiveness.
  • The evolving population dynamics have serious implications for policy formulation, particularly regarding healthcare, education, and skill development.
  • There is a need for policies that address the specific needs of women and other marginalised groups, ensuring inclusive growth and development.

Question for Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2
Try yourself:
What is one of the major factors contributing to soil erosion in India?
View Solution


The document Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly.
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FAQs on Weekly Current Affairs (8th to 14th April 2024) Part - 2 - Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

1. What were the major impacts of the Taiwan Earthquake and its relation to the Pacific Ring of Fire?
Ans. The Taiwan Earthquake resulted in significant damage to infrastructure and loss of life. Taiwan is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, a region known for its high seismic and volcanic activity, making it prone to earthquakes.
2. What are the key findings of the Global Hepatitis Report 2024?
Ans. The Global Hepatitis Report 2024 provides insights into the burden of hepatitis worldwide, highlighting the need for increased awareness, prevention, and treatment strategies to combat this public health issue.
3. Why did India reject China's claim over Arunachal Pradesh?
Ans. India rejects China's claim over Arunachal Pradesh as it considers the region to be an integral part of its territory. The dispute over Arunachal Pradesh has been a longstanding issue between the two countries.
4. What factors contribute to India's soil erosion crisis?
Ans. India's soil erosion crisis is exacerbated by deforestation, improper land use practices, unsustainable agriculture methods, and climate change. These factors contribute to the degradation of soil quality and loss of fertile land.
5. How is the demographic transition of India impacting its population dynamics?
Ans. The demographic transition of India involves shifts in birth and death rates, leading to changes in the age structure of the population. This transition has implications for healthcare, education, labor force, and overall development of the country.
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