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Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC PDF Download

Protection of Women from Domestic Violence

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: The Delhi High Court recently underscored the inclusive nature of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act of 2005, affirming its applicability to all women regardless of their religious or social background. This assertion came in response to the dismissal of a plea lodged by a husband and his relatives challenging a court order that revived a domestic violence complaint filed by the wife.

The Scope of Domestic Violence in India:

  • According to statistics, 32% of ever-married women in India have reported encountering physical, sexual, or emotional abuse from their husbands at some point in their lives. The National Family Health Survey-5 (NFHS-5) conducted between 2019 and 2021 reveals that 29.3% of married Indian women aged 18 to 49 have experienced domestic or sexual violence, with 3.1% of pregnant women in the same age group enduring physical violence during pregnancy.
  • However, these figures likely underrepresent the true extent of the issue, as many cases go unreported. NFHS data suggests that a staggering 87% of married women subjected to marital violence refrain from seeking assistance.
  • The court's stance underscores the need for robust legal protections to combat domestic violence, emphasizing that no woman should be excluded from the umbrella of legal safeguards, regardless of her background.

What are the Factors Contributing to Domestic Violence?

Gender Disparities:

  • India's wide gender gap, as reflected in global indices, contributes to a sense of male superiority and entitlement.
  • Men may use violence to assert dominance and reinforce their perceived superiority.

Substance Abuse:

  • Alcohol or drug misuse that impairs judgement and exacerbates violent tendencies. Intoxication leads to loss of inhibitions and escalation of conflicts into physical or verbal abuse.

Dowry Culture:

  • There is a strong correlation between domestic violence and the dowry system, with instances of violence increasing when dowry expectations are not met.
  • Despite legislation prohibiting dowry, such as the Dowry Prohibition Act 1961, cases of bride burning and violence related to dowry persist.
  • Financial stressors and dependency dynamics that exacerbate tensions within relationships.

Sociocultural Norms:

  • Traditional beliefs and practices perpetuate gender roles and household power imbalances.
  • Patriarchal systems that prioritise male authority and control over women. Violence often stems from notions of ownership over women's bodies, labour, and reproductive rights, reinforcing a sense of dominance.
  • Desire for dominance and exertion of control over a partner, stemming from insecurity or entitlement.
  • Social conditioning often portrays marriage as the ultimate goal for women, reinforcing traditional gender roles.
  • Indian culture often glorifies women who exhibit tolerance and submission, discouraging them from leaving abusive relationships.

Socioeconomic Stressors:

  • Poverty, and unemployment, create additional stresses within households, increasing the likelihood of violent behaviour.
  • Mental Health Issues:
  • Untreated mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, or personality disorders that contribute to volatile behaviour.

Lack of Education and Awareness:

  • Limited understanding of healthy relationship dynamics and rights, leading to acceptance or normalisation of abusive behaviour.
  • Ignorance about legal protections against domestic violence or available support services.
  • Many women lack awareness of their rights and accept their subordinate status, perpetuating a cycle of low self-esteem and subjugation.

What are the challenges in enforcing laws against domestic violence?

Social Factors:

  • Victims often refrain from reporting domestic violence due to societal stigma, fear of retaliation, or concerns about tarnishing family reputation, complicating enforcement efforts.
  • Domestic violence incidents are frequently underreported, as victims may not recognize certain behaviors as abuse or may normalize them.

Lack of Awareness:

  • Many individuals, including victims, are unaware of their legal rights and available resources, hindering reporting and seeking legal assistance.

Dependency and Economic Factors:

  • Victims may be financially reliant on their abusers, fearing economic repercussions if they seek legal aid.

Inadequate Implementation and Training:

  • Law enforcement and judicial bodies may lack proper training on handling domestic violence cases, leading to inconsistent enforcement of laws.

Legal Hurdles:

  • Proving domestic violence in court often necessitates substantial evidence, and the absence of witnesses or physical proof can weaken cases.

Complex Family Dynamics:

  • Domestic violence frequently occurs within family units, complicating legal actions and making victims hesitant to pursue remedies.

Cultural and Regional Variations:

  • Different cultural norms influence how domestic violence is perceived and addressed, necessitating enforcement strategies tailored to diverse contexts.

Way Forward:

  • Promote a shift in societal attitudes toward gender roles and power dynamics, addressing ingrained patriarchal mindsets through initiatives targeting both men and women.
  • Mandate gender perspective training for stakeholders like law enforcement and magistrates to cultivate empathy and victim-centered approaches.
  • Ensure victims have access to free or low-cost legal representation throughout legal proceedings.
  • Implement programs providing survivors with job training and financial literacy skills to promote economic empowerment.

Question for Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2
Try yourself:
What is one of the factors contributing to domestic violence?
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Strategic Importance of A&N Islands

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: The Indian government's renewed focus on the development of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) highlights their strategic importance in the Indo-Pacific region, spurring efforts to bolster infrastructure and security.

  • The recent emphasis on constructing strategic infrastructure on the islands, both civilian and military, reflects a longstanding need for strategic maritime vision since Independence.

Strategic Significance of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands:

  • Situated 700 nautical miles southeast of the Indian mainland, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands significantly expand India's exclusive economic zone by 300,000 sq km, potentially harboring undersea hydrocarbon and mineral reserves.
  • Their strategic location straddling the Malacca Strait makes them vital for India's ability to monitor and assert influence in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • As a critical maritime chokepoint, the Malacca Strait sees over 90,000 merchant ships annually, facilitating about 30% of the world's traded goods.
  • With maritime boundaries shared with Myanmar, Thailand, Indonesia, and Bangladesh, the islands afford India substantial ocean territory under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), including exclusive economic zones and continental shelves.
  • The islands serve as a frontline defense against any threats from the East, particularly amid China's escalating presence in the Indo-Pacific.
  • Port Blair holds potential as a regional naval hub for collaborative efforts in disaster relief, medical aid, counter-piracy, search and rescue, and other maritime security endeavors.

What are the Challenges to the Development of the ANI?

The shift from India's Look East policy to a more robust Act East policy, coupled with the heightened recognition of maritime power's importance and the growing capabilities of the Chinese PLA Navy, has underscored the imperative of developing Indian island territories, particularly the Andaman and Nicobar group.

Challenges Include:

  • Lack of Prioritization: Until recently, political prioritization of the islands' strategic importance has been lacking.
  • Distance and Infrastructure: The islands' distance from the mainland poses logistical challenges for infrastructure development.
  • Environmental Regulations: Complex environmental clearance procedures and regulations on forest and tribal conservation complicate development efforts.
  • Coordination Issues: Involvement of multiple ministries and agencies leads to coordination challenges, often conflicting with short-term political gains.

Needed Strategic Infrastructure Development:

  • Maritime Domain Awareness: Strengthening surveillance and deterrence capabilities against naval threats from the East.
  • Infrastructure Improvement: Developing infrastructure to support the maritime economy, enhancing transportation and connectivity, and establishing essential services to reduce dependence on the mainland.
  • Military Presence: Increasing forces and deploying assets at the Andaman Nicobar Command (ANC) to ensure island security.
  • International Collaborations: Exploring partnerships with the Quad and Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI) for development initiatives and seeking infrastructure development concessions similar to those on India's northern borders.

POEM-3 Mission and Space Debris

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: ISRO's PSLV-C58/XPoSat mission has made headlines by achieving near-zero debris in Earth's orbit through an innovative approach. The final stage of the mission was converted into the PSLV Orbital Experimental Module-3 (POEM-3), which safely re-entered the atmosphere instead of remaining in orbit post-mission completion.

What is POEM?

  • POEM stands for PSLV Orbital Experimental Module, a groundbreaking space platform developed by the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). It repurposes the fourth stage of a PSLV rocket into a stable orbital station for conducting various in-space scientific experiments with diverse payloads.
  • POEM's maiden voyage took place during the PSLV-C53 mission in June 2022, where the fourth stage served as a stabilized platform for experiments instead of becoming space debris.
  • According to ISRO, POEM incorporates a dedicated Navigation Guidance and Control (NGC) system for attitude stabilization, crucial for controlling the orientation of aerospace vehicles within permitted limits.

POEM-3 Mission:

  • Launched as part of the PSLV C-58 mission on January 1, 2024, POEM-3 underwent a transformative mission after deploying the XpoSat satellite. The fourth stage was transitioned into POEM-3 and lowered to a 350-km orbit, significantly mitigating the risk of space debris generation.

What is Space Debris?

  • About: Space debris in the low earth orbit (LEO) mainly comprises pieces of spacecraft, rockets, and defunct satellites, and the fragments of objects that have deteriorated explosively as a result of anti-satellite missile tests.
  • The LEO extends from 100 km above the earth’s surface up to 2000 km above.
  • Debris also exists, but in smaller volumes, in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO), which is 36,000 km above the earth’s surface.
  • Risk: Space debris often flies around at high speeds of up to 27,000 kilometres per hour. Due to their sheer volume and momentum, they pose a risk to several space assets.
  • It also leads to two major risks, it creates unusable regions of the orbit due to excessive debris, and leads to the ‘Kessler syndrome (creation of more debris due to cascading collisions resulting from one collision).

The number of space objects (debris or functional equipment) greater than 10 cm in size in LEO is expected to be about 60,000 by 2030, per ISRO estimates.

  • The rise of private space agencies is exacerbating the problem.
  • Current Status: According to ISRO’s Space Situational Assessment Report 2022, the world placed 2,533 objects in space in 179 launches in 2022 alone.
  • In 2022, three major on-orbit break-up events occurred, contributing to most of the debris created that year:
  • March 2022: Intentional destruction of Russia’s Cosmos 1048 in an anti-satellite test.
  • July 2022: Break-up of the upper stage of Japanese H-2A while deploying the GOSAT-2 satellite.
  • November 2022: Accidental explosion of the upper stage of China’s Yunhai-3.

Other Related Events:

  • NASA has recently confirmed that a mysterious object, which crashed into a home in Florida, was debris from the International Space Station (ISS).
  • In 2023, an object discovered on the Western Shores of Australia was identified as debris from an ISRO rocket.
  • Related International Space Laws: Currently, there are no international space laws about LEO debris.
  • However, most space-exploring nations abide by the Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines 2002 specified by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC), which the UN endorsed in 2007.
  • The guidelines outline methods to limit accidental collisions in orbit, break-ups during operations, intentional destruction, and post-mission break-ups.

How are countries worldwide addressing the issue of space debris?

India:

  • India is actively combating space debris concerns through various initiatives. In addition to POEM missions, ISRO has established a Space Situational Awareness Control Centre to safeguard valuable assets from collisions. Project NETRA serves as an early warning system in space, detecting debris and other hazards to Indian satellites. Manastu Space, an Indian startup, focuses on in-space refuelling, satellite de-orbiting, and extending satellite lifespan.

Japan:

  • Japan's Commercial Removal of Debris Demonstration (CRD2) project is aimed at addressing space junk.

Europe:

  • The European Space Agency (ESA) has adopted a 'Zero Debris charter,' employing multiple strategies to mitigate space debris. It has set a target of achieving zero space debris by 2030.

USA:

  • NASA initiated its Orbital Debris Program in 1979 to minimize orbital debris and design equipment for tracking and removing existing debris. The newly established U.S. Space Force monitors space debris and potential collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

Future Directions:

  • Space-Based Recycling and Repurposing: Developing technologies for collecting and processing space debris in orbit to create usable materials for constructing new spacecraft or habitats, thus reducing the need for new launches from Earth.
  • Robotic Arms and Capture Mechanisms: Advancing robotic arms equipped with cameras and sensors to grapple with debris. These robots, deployed from service satellites, could capture and deorbit large debris pieces posing significant collision risks.
  • Space Traffic Management Systems: Creating sophisticated systems to track debris and predict potential collisions. This enables active satellites to manoeuvre to avoid debris, minimizing the risk of accidental collisions and further debris generation.
  • International Collaboration: Collaborating internationally to establish a comprehensive space traffic management system, ensuring the safety and sustainability of space exploration.

Question for Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2
Try yourself:
What is the strategic significance of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands?
View Solution


Right to Protection from Climate Change Impacts

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: Recently, the Supreme Court of India made a groundbreaking acknowledgment, recognizing the right to protection from climate change impacts as part of the fundamental rights to life (Article 21) and equality (Article 19) enshrined in the Indian Constitution.

  • This landmark ruling was delivered during a case concerning the conservation of the Great Indian Bustard and the Lesser Florican, highlighting the pressing need to address the intersection of climate change and human rights.

Where Climate Change and Human Rights Intersect:

  • Right to Life and Livelihood: Climate change-induced extreme weather events can endanger lives and livelihoods, forcing communities to face displacement and loss.
  • Access to Clean Water and Sanitation: Climate change can disrupt water sources, affecting people's access to clean water and sanitation.
  • Health and Well-being: Climate change exacerbates health issues, especially for vulnerable populations, impacting overall well-being.
  • Migration and Displacement: Climate change-induced events can lead to forced migration and displacement, posing challenges to rights protection.
  • Indigenous Peoples' Rights: Indigenous communities, heavily reliant on natural resources, face threats to their land, resources, and cultural heritage due to climate change.

Supreme Court's Interpretation of Constitutional Provisions Concerning Climate Change:

  • Constitutional provisions like Article 48A (environmental protection) and Article 51A(g) (wildlife conservation) implicitly guarantee protection from climate change impacts.
  • Article 21 (right to life) and Article 14 (equality before law) serve as sources of the right to a clean environment and protection against climate change effects.
  • In the MC Mehta vs Kamal Nath Case (2000), the Supreme Court affirmed that the right to a clean environment is an extension of the right to life.

Implications of the Recent Ruling:

  • This decision bolsters the legal foundation for environmental protection efforts in India and provides a framework for legal challenges against climate change inaction.
  • It aligns with the growing international recognition of the human rights dimensions of climate change, as endorsed by organizations like the UN Environment Programme and UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment.

What are the Challenges in Balancing Climate Change Mitigation with Human Rights Protection?

  • Trade-offs: Some climate mitigation measures may conflict with human rights, such as restrictions on land use for conservation projects or displacement due to renewable energy infrastructure development.
    • Finding solutions that minimise negative impacts while maximising benefits is challenging.
  • Access to Resources: Climate actions like transitioning to renewable energy or implementing carbon pricing can impact access to essential resources like energy, water, and food, especially for marginalised communities.
  • Environmental Migration: Climate-induced migration can strain social systems and lead to conflicts over resources and rights in host communities.
    • Managing migration flows in a way that respects the rights of both migrants and host populations is a multifaceted challenge.
  • Adaptation vs. Mitigation: Balancing efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) with investments in adaptation to climate impacts can be challenging.
    • Prioritising one over the other can have implications for human rights, particularly for communities already facing climate-related risks.
  • International Cooperation: Climate change is a global issue requiring international cooperation.
  • Balancing national climate goals with global responsibilities and ensuring that climate actions do not undermine the rights of vulnerable communities across borders is a complex task.

Way Forward

  • Human Rights-Based Carbon Pricing: Implementing a carbon tax with progressive rebates or dividends. Rebates can be larger for low-income households, offsetting the impact of higher energy costs and ensuring a just transition.
  • Revenue from the carbon tax could be directed towards clean energy initiatives, social safety nets for vulnerable populations, and supporting developing countries in their climate mitigation and adaptation efforts.
  • Green Technology Transfer and Capacity Building: Facilitating the transfer of green technologies to developing countries at affordable rates. This could involve relaxing intellectual property restrictions or creating technology sharing partnerships.
  • This would allow developing countries to pursue low-carbon development pathways without compromising their right to development.
  • Human Rights Impact Assessments: Conduct thorough human rights impact assessments before implementing any climate change mitigation or adaptation strategies.
  • This would help identify potential risks and ensure that solutions are designed in a way that respects and protects human rights.

India’s New Post Office in Antarctica

Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2 | Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC


Context: The Department of Posts has recently inaugurated a second branch of the post office at the Bharati research station in Antarctica, marking a significant milestone after nearly four decades.

  • Letters destined for Antarctica will now bear a new experimental PIN code, MH-1718, reflective of this newly established branch. Currently, India operates two active research stations in Antarctica: Maitri and Bharati.

Why is India's Post Office in Antarctica Significant?

Historical Context:

  • India's foray into Antarctic postal services dates back to 1984 when the first post office was set up at Dakshin Gangotri, India's initial research outpost. However, due to submersion in ice in 1988-89, Dakshin Gangotri was decommissioned.

Continuing the Tradition:

  • In 1990, India established another post office at the Maitri research station, maintaining its commitment to providing postal services in the icy expanse of Antarctica. Despite being 3,000 km apart, both Maitri and Bharati fall under the Goa postal division.

Operational Process:

  • Letters bound for Antarctica are routed to the National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR) in Goa. From there, researchers departing for Antarctica carry these letters, which are then stamped ('cancelled') at the research base, returned, and dispatched via post.

Strategic Presence:

  • The presence of an Indian post office in Antarctica holds strategic significance, as it extends India's reach beyond its territorial boundaries. Antarctica's status as a foreign and neutral territory under the Antarctic Treaty offers a unique opportunity to assert India's presence on the continent, symbolizing its dedication to scientific exploration and environmental conservation.

Antarctica's Governance:

  • The Antarctic Treaty fosters a regime of international cooperation, prohibiting military activities and emphasizing scientific research. By hosting a post office in Antarctica, India adheres to the treaty's principles, contributing to the collaborative spirit of exploration and discovery in this remote region.

What is India’s Antarctic Programme?

About:

  • It is a scientific research and exploration program under the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCPOR). It started in 1981 when the first Indian expedition to Antarctica was made.
  • NCPOR was established in 1998.

Dakshin Gangotri:

  • Dakshin Gangotri was the first Indian scientific research base station established in Antarctica, as a part of the Indian Antarctic Program.
  • However, it was submerged in ice in 1988-89 and was subsequently decommissioned.

Maitri:

  • Maitri is India’s second permanent research station in Antarctica. It was built and finished in 1989.
  • Maitri is situated in the rocky mountainous region called Schirmacher Oasis. India also built a freshwater lake around Maitri known as Lake Priyadarshini.

Bharti:

  • Bharti, India’s latest research station operation since 2012. It has been constructed to help researchers work in safety despite the harsh weather.
  • It is India’s first committed research facility and is located about 3000 km east of Maitri.

Other Research Facilities:

Sagar Nidhi:

  • In 2008, India commissioned the Sagar Nidhi, the pride of the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), for research.
  • An ice-class vessel, it can cut through thin ice of 40 cm depth and is the first Indian vessel to navigate Antarctic waters.
  • The ship is the first of its kind in the country and has been used several times for the launch and retrieval of remotely operable vehicles (ROV) and the deep-sea nodule mining system, as well as for tsunami studies.

What is the Antarctic Treaty System?

About:

  • It is the whole complex of arrangements made to regulate relations among states in the Antarctic.
  • Its purpose is to ensure in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord.
  • It is a global achievement and has been a hallmark of international cooperation for more than 50 years.
  • These agreements are legally binding and purpose-built for the unique geographical, environmental, and political characteristics of the Antarctic and form a robust international governance framework for the region.

Challenges:

  • While the Antarctic Treaty has been able to successfully respond to a range of challenges, circumstances are radically different in the 2020s compared to the 1950s.
  • Antarctica is much more accessible, partly due to technology but also climate change. More countries now have substantive interests in the continent than the original 12.
  • Some global resources are becoming scarce, especially oil. There is considerable speculation regarding nations' interests in Antarctic resources, particularly fisheries and minerals.
  • Therefore, all of the treaty signatories, but especially those with significant stakes in the continent, need to give the future of the treaty more attention.

Major International Agreements of the Treaty System:

  • The 1959 Antarctic Treaty
  • The 1972 Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
  • The 1980 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
  • The 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

Question for Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2
Try yourself:
What is the significance of India's post office in Antarctica?
View Solution


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FAQs on Weekly Current Affairs (15th to 21st April 2024) Part - 2 - Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - UPSC

1. What is the significance of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act in India?
Ans. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act in India provides a legal framework for women to seek protection from domestic violence, including physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse. It aims to prevent and redress instances of domestic violence and assist in the rehabilitation of victims.
2. How does the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act define domestic violence?
Ans. The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act defines domestic violence as any act, omission, or commission that harms or injures a woman with the purpose of coercing her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable security.
3. What are the key provisions of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act?
Ans. Some of the key provisions of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act include the right to seek protection orders, residence orders, monetary relief, custody orders, and compensation for injuries caused by domestic violence.
4. How can a woman seek help under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act?
Ans. A woman can seek help under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act by approaching the Protection Officer, the Service Providers, or the Magistrate. They can file a complaint, seek protection orders, or request assistance for legal aid, counseling, and shelter.
5. What are the penalties for violating the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act?
Ans. Violation of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act can result in imprisonment for up to one year or a fine of up to ₹20,000, or both. Repeat offenders may face stricter penalties.
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