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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements


NCERT QUESTIONS- General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.1: Which of the ores mentioned in Table 6.1 can be concentrated by magnetic separation method?

Ans: If the ore or the gangue can be attracted by the magnetic field, then the ore can be concentrated by the process of magnetic separation. Among the ores mentioned in table 6.1, the ores of iron such as haematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), siderite (FeCO3), and iron pyrites (FeS2) can be separated by the process of magnetic separation.

Ques 6.2: What is the significance of leaching in the extraction of aluminium?

Ans: In the extraction of aluminium, the significance of leaching is to concentrate pure alumina (Al2O3) from bauxite ore.

Bauxite usually contains silica, iron oxide, and titanium oxide as impurities. In the process of leaching, alumina is concentrated by digesting the powdered ore with a concentrated solution of NaOH at 473-523 K and 35-36 bar. Under these conditions, alumina (Al2O3) dissolves as sodium meta-aluminate and silica (SiO2) dissolves as sodium silicate leaving the impurities behind.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

The impurities are then filtered and the solution is neutralized by passing CO2 gas. In this process, hydrated Al2O3 gets precipitated and sodium silicate remains in the solution. Precipitation is induced by seeding the solution with freshly prepared samples of hydrated Al2O3.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Hydrated alumina thus obtained is filtered, dried, and heated to give back pure alumina (Al2O3).

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.3: The reaction,

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

is thermodynamically feasible as is apparent from the Gibbs energy value. Why does it not take place at room temperature?

Ans: The change in Gibbs energy is related to the equilibrium constant, K as

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements.

At room temperature, all reactants and products of the given reaction are in the solid state. As a result, equilibrium does not exist between the reactants and the products. Hence, the reaction does not take place at room temperature. However, at a higher temperature, chromium melts and the reaction takes place.

We also know that according to the equation

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Increasing the temperature increases the value of NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elementsmaking the value of NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements more and more negative. Therefore, the reaction becomes more and more feasible as the temperature is increased.

Ques 6.4: Is it true that under certain conditions, Mg can reduce SiO2 and Si can reduce MgO? What are those conditions?

Ans: 

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

The temperature range in which NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements is lesser thanNCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements, Mg can reduce SiO2 to Si.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

On the other hand, the temperatures range in which NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements is less thanNCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements, Si can reduce MgO to Mg.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

The temperature at which ΔfG curves of these two substances intersect is 1966 K. Thus, at temperatures less than 1966 K, Mg can reduce SiO2 and above 1966 K, Si can reduce MgO.

Ques 6.5: Copper can be extracted by hydrometallurgy but not zinc. Explain.

Ans: The reduction potentials of zinc and iron are lower than that of copper. In hydrometallurgy, zinc and iron can be used to displace copper from their solution.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

But to displace zinc, more reactive metals i.e., metals having lower reduction potentials than zinc such as Mg, Ca, K, etc. are required. But all these metals react with water with the evolution of H2 gas.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

As a result, these metals cannot be used in hydrometallurgy to extract zinc.

Hence, copper can be extracted by hydrometallurgy but not zinc.

Ques 6.6: What is the role of depressant in froth flotation process?

Ans: In the froth flotation process, the role of the depressants is to separate two sulphide ores by selectively preventing one ore from forming froth. For example, to separate two sulphide ores (ZnS and Pbs), NaCN is used as a depressant which selectively allows PbS to come with froth, but prevents ZnS from coming to froth. This happens because NaCN reacts with ZnS to form Na2[Zn(CN)4].

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.7: Why is the extraction of copper from pyrites more difficult than that from its oxide ore through reduction?

Ans: The Gibbs free energy of formation (ΔfG) of Cu2S is less than that of NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of ElementsandNCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements. Therefore, H2 and C cannot reduce Cu2S to Cu.

On the other hand, the Gibbs free energy of formation of NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements is greater than that ofNCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements. Hence, C can reduce Cu2O to Cu.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Hence, the extraction of copper from its pyrite ore is difficult than from its oxide ore through reduction.

Ques 6.8: Explain: (i) Zone refining (ii) Column chromatography.

Ans: (i) Zone refining:

This method is based on the principle that impurities are more soluble in the molten state of metal (the melt) than in the solid state. In the process of zone refining, a circular mobile heater is fixed at one end of a rod of impure metal. As the heater moves, the molten zone of the rod also moves with it. As a result, pure metal crystallizes out of the melt and the impurities pass onto the adjacent molten zone. This process is repeated several times, which leads to the segregation of impurities at one end of the rod. Then, the end with the impurities is cut off. Silicon, boron, gallium, indium etc. can be purified by this process.

   NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

(ii) Column chromatography:

Column chromatography is a technique used to separate different components of a mixture. It is a very useful technique used for the purification of elements available in minute quantities. It is also used to remove the impurities that are not very different in chemical properties from the element to be purified. Chromatography is based on the principle that different components of a mixture are differently adsorbed on an adsorbent. In chromatography, there are two phases: mobile phase and stationary phase. 

The stationary phase is immobile and immiscible. Al2O3 column is usually used as the stationary phase in column chromatography. The mobile phase may be a gas, liquid, or super critical fluid in which the sample extract is dissolved. Then, the mobile phase is forced to move through the stationary phase. The component that is more strongly adsorbed on the column takes a longer time to travel through it than the component that is weakly adsorbed. The adsorbed components are then removed (eluted) using a suitable solvent (eluant).

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.9: Out of C and CO, which is a better reducing agent at 673 K?

Ans: At 673 K, the value of NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elementsis less than that ofNCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements. Therefore, CO can be oxidised more easily to CO2 than C to CO. Hence, CO is a better reducing agent than C at 673 K.

Ques 6.10: Name the common elements present in the anode mud in electrolytic refining of copper. Why are they so present ?

Ans: In electrolytic refining of copper, the common elements present in anode mud are selenium, tellurium, silver, gold, platinum, and antimony.

These elements are very less reactive and are not affected during the purification process. Hence, they settle down below the anode as anode mud.

Ques 6.11: Write down the reactions taking place in different zones in the blast furnace during the extraction of iron.

Ans: During the extraction of iron, the reduction of iron oxides takes place in the blast furnace. In this process, hot air is blown from the bottom of the furnace and coke is burnt to raise the temperature up to 2200 K in the lower portion itself. The temperature is lower in the upper part. Thus, it is the lower part where the reduction of iron oxides (Fe2O3 and Fe3O4) takes place.

The reactions taking place in the lower temperature range (500 − 800 K) in the blast furnace are:

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

The reactions taking place in the higher temperature range (900 − 1500 K) in the blast furnace are:

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

The silicate impurity of the ore is removed as slag by calcium oxide (CaO), which is formed by the decomposition of limestone (CaCO3).

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

 

Ques 6.12: Write chemical reactions taking place in the extraction of zinc from zinc blende.

Ans: The different steps involved in the extraction of zinc from zinc blende (ZnS) are given below:

(i) Concentration of ore

First, the gangue from zinc blende is removed by the froth flotation method.

(ii) Conversion to oxide (Roasting)

Sulphide ore is converted into oxide by the process of roasting. In this process, ZnS is heated in a regular supply of air in a furnace at a temperature, which is below the melting point of Zn.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

(iii) Extraction of zinc from zinc oxide (Reduction)

Zinc is extracted from zinc oxide by the process of reduction. The reduction of zinc oxide is carried out by mixing it with powdered coke and then, heating it at 673 K.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

(iv) Electrolytic Refining

Zinc can be refined by the process of electrolytic refining. In this process, impure zinc is made the anode while a pure copper strip is made the cathode. The electrolyte used is an acidified solution of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4). Electrolysis results in the transfer of zinc in pure from the anode to the cathode.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.13: State the role of silica in the metallurgy of copper.

Ans: During the roasting of pyrite ore, a mixture of FeO and Cu2O is obtained.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

The role of silica in the metallurgy of copper is to remove the iron oxide obtained during the process of roasting as ‘slag’. If the sulphide ore of copper contains iron, then silica (SiO2) is added as flux before roasting. Then, FeO combines with silica to form iron silicate, FeSiO3 (slag).

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.14: What is meant by the term “chromatography”?

Ans: Chromatography is a collective term used for a family of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. The term is derived from Greek words ‘chroma’ meaning ‘colour’ and ‘graphein’ meaning ‘to write’. Chromatographic techniques are based on the principle that different components are absorbed differently on an absorbent. There are several chromatographic techniques such as paper chromatography, column chromatography, gas chromatography, etc.

Fig: ChromatographyFig: Chromatography
Ques 6.15: What criterion is followed for the selection of the stationary phase in chromatography?

Ans: The stationary phase is selected in such a way that the components of the sample have different solubility’s in the phase. Hence, different components have different rates of movement through the stationary phase and as a result, can be separated from each other.

Ques 6.16: Describe a method for refining nickel.

Ans: Nickel is refined by Mond’s process. In this process, nickel is heated in the presence of carbon monoxide to form nickel tetracarbonyl, which is a volatile complex.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Then, the obtained nickel tetracarbonyl is decomposed by subjecting it to a higher temperature (450 − 470 K) to obtain pure nickel metal.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.17: How can you separate alumina from silica in bauxite ore associated with silica? Give equations, if any.

Ans: To separate alumina from silica in bauxite ore associated with silica, first the powdered ore is digested with a concentrated NaOH solution at 473 − 523 K and 35 − 36 bar pressure. This results in the leaching out of alumina (Al2O3) as sodium aluminate and silica (SiO2) as sodium silicate leaving the impurities behind.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Then, CO2 gas is passed through the resulting solution to neutralize the aluminate in the solution, which results in the precipitation of hydrated alumina. To induce precipitation, the solution is seeded with freshly prepared samples of hydrated alumina.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

During this process, sodium silicate remains in the solution. The obtained hydrated alumina is filtered, dried, and heated to get back pure alumina.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.18: Giving examples, differentiate between ‘roasting’ and ‘calcination’.

Ans: Roasting is the process of converting sulphide ores to oxides by heating the ores in a regular supply of air at a temperature below the melting point of the metal. For example, sulphide ores of Zn, Pb, and Cu are converted to their respective oxides by this process.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

On the other hand, calcination is the process of converting hydroxide and carbonate ores to oxides by heating the ores either in the absence or in a limited supply of air at a temperature below the melting point of the metal. This process causes the escaping of volatile matter leaving behind the metal oxide. For example, hydroxide of Fe, carbonates of Zn, Ca, Mg are converted to their respective oxides by this process.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.19: How is ‘cast iron’ different from ‘pig iron”?

Ans: The iron obtained from blast furnaces is known as pig iron. It contains around 4% carbon and many impurities such as S, P, Si, Mn in smaller amounts.

Cast iron is obtained by melting pig iron and coke using a hot air blast. It contains a lower amount of carbon (3%) than pig iron. Unlike pig iron, cast iron is extremely hard and brittle.

Ques 6.20: Differentiate between “minerals” and “ores”.

Ans: Minerals are naturally occurring chemical substances containing metals. They are found in the Earth’s crust and are obtained by mining.

Ores are rocks and minerals viable to be used as a source of metal.

For example, there are many minerals containing zinc, but zinc cannot be extracted profitably (conveniently and economically) from all these minerals.

Zinc can be obtained from zinc blende (ZnS), calamine (ZnCO3), Zincite (ZnO) etc.

Thus, these minerals are called ores of zinc.

Ques 6.21: Why copper matte is put in silica lined converter?

Ans: Copper matte contains Cu2S and FeS. Copper matte is put in a silica-lined converter to remove the remaining FeO and FeS present in the matte as slag (FeSiO3). Also, some silica is added to the silica-lined converter. Then, a hot air blast is blown. As a result, the remaining FeS and FeO are converted to iron silicate (FeSiO3) and Cu2S is converted into metallic copper.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.22: What is the role of cryolite in the metallurgy of aluminium?

Ans: Cryolite (Na3AlF6) has two roles in the metallurgy of aluminium:

1. To decrease the melting point of the mixture from 2323 K to 1140 K.

2. To increase the electrical conductivity of Al2O3.

Ques 6.23: How is leaching carried out in case of low grade copper ores?

Ans: In case of low grade copper ores, leaching is carried out using acid or bacteria in the presence of air. In this process, copper goes into the solution as Cu ions.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

The resulting solution is treated with scrap iron or H2 to get metallic copper.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.24: Why is zinc not extracted from zinc oxide through reduction using CO?

Ans: The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of ZnO from Zn is lower than that of CO2 from CO. Therefore, CO cannot reduce ZnO to Zn. Hence, Zn is not extracted from ZnO through reduction using CO.

Ques 6.25: The value of NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements for formation of Cr2Ois − 540 kJmol−1 and that of Al2 O3 is − 827 kJmol−1. Is the reduction of Cr2O3 possible with Al?

Ans: The value of NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elementsfor the formation of Cr2O3 from Cr (−540 kJmol−1) is higher than that of Al2O3 from Al (−827 kJmol−1). Therefore, Al can reduce Cr2O3 to Cr. Hence, the reduction of Cr2O3 with Al is possible.

Alternatively,

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Subtracting equation (ii) from (i), we have

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

As NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements for the reduction reaction of Cr2O3 by Al is negative, this reaction is possible.

Ques 6.26: Out of C and CO, which is a better reducing agent for ZnO ?

Ans:

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Reduction of ZnO to Zn is usually carried out at 1673 K. From the above figure, it can be observed that above 1073 K, the Gibbs free energy of formation of CO from C and above 1273 K, the Gibbs free energy of formation of CO2 from C is lesser than the Gibbs free energy of formation of ZnO. Therefore, C can easily reduce ZnO to Zn.

On the other hand, the Gibbs free energy of formation of CO2 from CO is always higher than the Gibbs free energy of formation of ZnO. Therefore, CO cannot reduce ZnO. Hence, C is a better reducing agent than CO for reducing ZnO.

Ques 6.27: The choice of a reducing agent in a particular case depends on thermodynamic factor. How far do you agree with this statement? Support your opinion with two examples.

Ans: 

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

The above figure is a plot of Gibbs energy NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements vs. T for formation of some oxides.

It can be observed from the above graph that a metal can reduce the oxide of other metals, if the standard free energy of formation NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements of the oxide of the former is more negative than the latter. For example, since NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements is more negative than NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements, Al can reduce Cu2O to Cu, but Cu cannot reduce Al2O3. Similarly, Mg can reduce ZnO to Zn, but Zn cannot reduce MgO because NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements is more negative than NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements.

Ques 6.28: Name the processes from which chlorine is obtained as a by-product. What will happen if an aqueous solution of NaCl is subjected to electrolysis?

Ans: In the electrolysis of molten NaCl, Cl2 is obtained at the anode as a by product.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

At cathode: NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

At anode: NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

The overall reaction is as follows:

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

If an aqueous solution of NaCl is electrolyzed, Cl2 will be obtained at the anode but at the cathode, H2 will be obtained (instead of Na). This is because the standard reduction potential of Na (E°= − 2.71 V) is more negative than that of H2O (E° = − 0.83 V). Hence, H2O will get preference to get reduced at the cathode and as a result, H2 is evolved.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

At cathode: NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

At anode: NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

Ques 6.29: What is the role of graphite rod in the electrometallurgy of aluminium?

Ans: In the electrometallurgy of aluminium, a fused mixture of purified alumina (Al2O3), cryolite (Na3AlF6) and fluorspar (CaF2) is electrolysed. In this electrolysis, graphite is used as the anode and graphite-lined iron is used as the cathode. During the electrolysis, Al is liberated at the cathode, while CO and CO2 are liberated at the anode, according to the following equation.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

If a metal is used instead of graphite as the anode, then O2 will be liberated. This will not only oxidise the metal of the electrode, but also convert some of the Al liberated at the cathode back into Al2O3. Hence, graphite is used for preventing the formation of O2 at the anode. Moreover, graphite is cheaper than other metals.

Ques 6.30: Outline the principles of refining of metals by the following methods:

(i) Zone refining
(ii) Electrolytic refining
(iii) Vapour phase refining

Ans: (i) Zone refining:

This method is based on the principle that impurities are more soluble in the molten state of metal (the melt) than in the solid state. In the process of zone refining, a circular mobile heater is fixed at one end of a rod of impure metal. As the heater moves, the molten zone of the rod also moves along with it. As a result, pure metal crystallizes out of the melt and the impurities pass to the adjacent molten zone. This process is repeated several times, which leads to the segregation of impurities at one end of the rod. Then, the end with the impurities is cut off. Silicon, boron, gallium, indium etc. can be purified by this process.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

(ii) Electrolytic refining:

Electrolytic refining is the process of refining impure metals by using electricity. In this process, impure metal is made the anode and a strip of pure metal is made the cathode. A solution of a soluble salt of the same metal is taken as the electrolyte. When an electric current is passed, metal ions from the electrolyte are deposited at the cathode as pure metal and the impure metal from the anode dissolves into the electrolyte in the form of ions. The impurities present in the impure metal gets collected below the anode. This is known as anode mud.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

(iii) Vapour phase refining

Vapour phase refining is the process of refining metal by converting it into its volatile compound and then, decomposing it to obtain a pure metal. To carry out this process,

(i) the metal should form a volatile compound with an available reagent, and

(ii) the volatile compound should be easily decomposable so that the metal can be easily recovered.

Nickel, zirconium, and titanium are refined using this method.

Ques 6.31: Predict conditions under which Al might be expected to reduce MgO.

Ans: Above 1350°C, the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of Al2O3 from Al is less than that of MgO from Mg. Therefore, above 1350°C, Al can reduce MgO.

 

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FAQs on NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry - General Principles & Processes of Isolation of Elements

1. What are the general principles involved in the isolation of elements?
Ans. The general principles involved in the isolation of elements include the following: - Reduction: The process of reducing the metal oxide to obtain the free metal. - Electrolysis: The process of decomposing a compound using electricity. - Refining: The process of purifying the metal obtained by various methods such as distillation, liquation, etc.
2. What is the process of froth floatation?
Ans. Froth floatation is a process used for the concentration of sulphide ores. In this process, the powdered ore is mixed with water and a suitable oil. Air is blown into the mixture, causing the ore particles to stick to the oil and rise to the surface in the form of froth. The froth is then skimmed off and the concentrated ore is obtained.
3. How is copper extracted from its sulphide ore?
Ans. Copper is extracted from its sulphide ore by the following steps: - Crushing and concentration: The ore is crushed into small pieces and then concentrated by froth floatation. - Roasting: The concentrated ore is heated in the presence of excess air to convert it into copper oxide. - Reduction: The copper oxide is then reduced to copper by heating it with carbon or hydrogen gas. - Purification: The impure copper obtained is purified by electrolysis.
4. What are the different methods used for the extraction of metals?
Ans. Different methods used for the extraction of metals include: - Pyrometallurgy: This method involves the use of high temperatures to extract metals from their ores. - Hydrometallurgy: This method involves the use of aqueous solutions to extract metals from their ores. - Electrometallurgy: This method involves the use of electricity to extract metals from their ores.
5. How is aluminium extracted from its ore?
Ans. Aluminium is extracted from its ore, bauxite, by the following steps: - Purification of bauxite: The impurities present in bauxite are removed by the Bayer's process. - Electrolysis: The purified bauxite is dissolved in molten cryolite and subjected to electrolysis. Aluminium ions are reduced at the cathode to form molten aluminium, which is collected at the bottom. Oxygen is liberated at the anode.
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