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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Exercise 10.1

Q1: Represent graphically a displacement of 40 km, 30° east of north.
Ans: 
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Here, vector OP represents the displacement of 40 km, 30° East of North.

Q2: Classify the following measures as scalars and vectors.
(i) 10 kg 
(ii) 2 metres north-west 
(iii) 40°
(iv) 40 watt 
(v) 10–19 coulomb
(vi) 20 m/s2
Ans: (i) 10 kg is a scalar quantity because it involves only magnitude.
(ii) 2 meters north-west is a vector quantity as it involves both magnitude and direction.
(iii) 40° is a scalar quantity as it involves only magnitude.
(iv) 40 watts is a scalar quantity as it involves only magnitude.
(v) 10–19 coulomb is a scalar quantity as it involves only magnitude.
(vi) 20 m/s2 is a vector quantity as it involves magnitude as well as direction.

Q3: Classify the following as scalar and vector quantities.
(i) time period                                   
(ii) distance                                       
(iii) force
(iv) velocity                                     
(v) work done
Ans: (i) Time period is a scalar quantity as it involves only magnitude.
(ii) Distance is a scalar quantity as it involves only magnitude.
(iii) Force is a vector quantity as it involves both magnitude and direction.
(iv) Velocity is a vector quantity as it involves both magnitude as well as direction.
(v) Work done is a scalar quantity as it involves only magnitude.

Question 4: In Figure, identify the following vectors.

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraAns: (i) Vectors  a and  d are coinitial because they have the same initial point.
(ii) Vectors b and d are equal because they have the same magnitude and direction.
(iii) Vectors a and  c are collinear but not equal. This is because although they are parallel, their directions are not the same.

Q5: Answer the following as true or false.
(i) a and b are collinear.
(ii) Two collinear vectors are always equal in magnitude.
(iii) Two vectors having same magnitude are collinear.
(iv) Two collinear vectors having the same magnitude are equal.
Ans: 
(i) True.
Vectors  a and b are parallel to the same line.
(ii) False.
Collinear vectors are those vectors that are parallel to the same line.
(iii) False.
It is not necessary for two vectors having the same magnitude to be parallel to the same line.
(iv) False.
Two vectors are said to be equal if they have the same magnitude and direction, regardless of the positions of their initial points.

Exercise 10.2

Q6: Compute the magnitude of the following vectors:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Ans: The given vectors are:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q7: Write two different vectors having same magnitude.
Ans:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q8: Write two different vectors having same direction.
Ans: 
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q9: Find the values of x and y so that the vectors NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra are equal.
Ans: The two vectors will be equal if their corresponding components are equal.
Hence, the required values of x and y are 2 and 3 respectively.

Q10: Find the scalar and vector components of the vector with initial point (2, 1) and terminal point (–5, 7).
Ans: The vector with the initial point P (2, 1) and terminal point Q (–5, 7) can be given by,
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Hence, the required scalar components are –7 and 6 while the vector components are

Q11: Find the sum of the vectors   NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q12: Find the unit vector in the direction of the vector  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Ans: The unit vector  in the direction of vector  is given by .
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q13: Find the unit vector in the direction of vector , where P and Q are the points (1, 2, 3) and (4, 5, 6), respectively.
Ans: The given points are P (1, 2, 3) and Q (4, 5, 6).
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q14: For given vectors,  and  , find the unit vector in the direction of the vector 
Ans:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q15: Find a vector in the direction of vector  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Ans:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q16: Show that the vectorsNCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra  are collinear.
Ans: 
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q17: Find the direction cosines of the vector NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Ans:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q18: Find the direction cosines of the vector joining the points A (1, 2, –3) and B (–1, –2, 1) directed from A to B.
Ans: The given points are A (1, 2, –3) and B (–1, –2, 1).
 NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q19: Show that the vector  is equally inclined to the axes OX, OY, and OZ.
Ans: 
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Therefore, the direction cosines of
Now, let α, β, and γbe the angles formed by  with the positive directions of x, y, and z axes.
Then, we have
Hence, the given vector is equally inclined to axes OX, OY, and OZ.

Q20: Find the position vector of a point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q whose position vectors are  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebrarespectively, in the ration 2:1
Ans: The position vector of point R dividing the line segment joining two points
P and Q in the ratio m: n is given by:
        i.  Internally:
    NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
(i) The position vector of point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q internally in the ratio 2:1 is given by,
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
(ii) The position vector of point R which divides the line joining two points P and Q externally in the ratio 2:1 is given by
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q21: Find the position vector of the mid point of the vector joining the points P (2, 3, 4) and Q (4, 1, – 2).
Ans: The position vector of mid-point R of the vector joining points P (2, 3, 4) and Q (4, 1, – 2) is given by,
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q22: Show that the points A, B and C with position vectors NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra, NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra respectively form the vertices of a right angled triangle. 
Ans: Position vectors of points A, B, and C are respectively given as
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

Q23: In triangle ABC which of the following is not true:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Ans: On applying the triangle law of addition in the given triangle, we have:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Hence, the equation given in alternative C is incorrect.
The correct answer is C.

Q24: If  are two collinear vectors, then which of the following are incorrect
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
C. the respective components of  are proportional
D. both the vectors  have same direction, but different magnitudes
Ans: If  are two collinear vectors, then they are parallel.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Thus, the respective components of  are proportional.
However, vectors  can have different directions.
Hence, the statement given in D is incorrect.
The correct answer is D.

Exercise 10.3

Q1: Find the angle between two vectors  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra and vector NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra with magnitudes √3  and 2, respectively having NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Ans:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ2: Find the angle between the vectorsNCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraAns: The given vectors are .
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraNCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ3: Find the projection of the vector NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra on the vector NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ4: Find the projection of the vector NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra  on the vector  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQuestion 5: Show that each of the given three vectors is a unit vector
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraNCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraNCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ6:  Find NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra, if NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Ans:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraNCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ7: Evaluate the product NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraAns: 
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ8: Find the magnitude of two vectors a and b, having the same magnitude and such that the angle between them is 60° and their scalar product is 1/2.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ9: Find NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra, if for a unit NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Ans:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ10: Show that  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra is perpendicular to  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra  ,for any two nonzero vectors a and b.
Ans: 
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ11: If , then what can be concluded about the vector ?
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ12: If NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra are unit vectors such that NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra, find the value of  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra
Ans:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ13: If either vector a = 0, then b = 0. But the converse need not be true. Justify your answer with an example.
Ans: 
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ14:
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraAns: The vertices of ΔABC are given as A (1, 2, 3), B (–1, 0, 0), and C (0, 1, 2).
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ15: Show that the points A (1, 2, 7), B (2, 6, 3) and C (3, 10, –1) are collinear.
Ans: The given points are A (1, 2, 7), B (2, 6, 3), and C (3, 10, –1).
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ16: Show that the vectors 2i - j k, i - 3j - 5k and 3i - 4j - 4k  form the vertices of a right angled triangle.
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraQ17: NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra nonzero vector of magnitude ‘a’ and λ a nonzero scalar, then NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra is unit vector if
(A) λ = 1
(B) λ = –1    
(c) a = | λ|
(d) a = 1/| λ|

Ans:  Vector NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra is a unit vector if  NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraNCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector AlgebraNCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

The document NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra is a part of the JEE Course Mathematics (Maths) for JEE Main & Advanced.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 - Vector Algebra

1. What are the basic concepts of vector algebra?
Ans. Vector algebra deals with vectors, which are quantities that have both magnitude and direction. Basic concepts include addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, dot product, cross product, and vector projection.
2. How is vector algebra used in physics and engineering?
Ans. Vector algebra is used in physics and engineering to represent physical quantities such as force, velocity, and acceleration. It helps in analyzing and solving problems involving motion, forces, and other physical phenomena.
3. What is the significance of vector algebra in computer graphics?
Ans. Vector algebra is essential in computer graphics for defining shapes, positions, and movements of objects in a 2D or 3D space. It is used to calculate lighting effects, animations, and rendering techniques in programs and games.
4. How can one determine the angle between two vectors using vector algebra?
Ans. The angle between two vectors can be found using the dot product formula: the angle = cos^(-1)((A • B) / (|A| * |B|)), where A and B are the two vectors. This calculation is crucial in various applications, including physics and engineering.
5. Can vector algebra be used to solve real-world problems?
Ans. Yes, vector algebra is widely used to solve real-world problems in various fields such as physics, engineering, computer science, and economics. It helps in analyzing and modeling physical phenomena, designing structures, and optimizing processes.
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