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Conjunctions - Introduction, English Grammar Basics | General Aptitude for GATE - Mechanical Engineering PDF Download

Definition: A conjunction is a word that connects sentences or parts of a sentence together. Transitions help fluency in writing and speaking.

Coordinating Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions are short and simple transitions that are composed of two or three letters. They are used to avoid short, choppy, run-on etc. sentences. They show the way ideas/entities are related to each other.

The word FANBOYS is used as a reminder for these conjunctions:

FANBOYS - For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So:
Avoid run-on sentences and other grammatical errors by using connectives. The list of those seven coordinating conjunctions are given here.

Here are the relationships that the seven coordinators show:

For

  1. Expresses a result-cause relationship.(Because, Since)

    I will get financial aid for college (result), for I applied on the first
    day.(cause)

    She flew as much as she could (result),for she loved flying.(cause)

And

  1. Chronological order

    I went to the station(first) and waited for half an hour.(second)
    I had breakfast and left for work.
  2. Expresses surprise

    He is 13 and he speaks 3 languages?(wow really?)
  3. Adding two similar sources. 

    His job brought in several thousand dollars a month (a source of $),
    and he got another large sum from an inheritance (a second source).

Nor

  1. Expresses a relationship of addition like "and", but it's an addition of negatives 
    Worms cannot swim, nor can they walk.
    John did not like movies, nor did he care much for television.

But

  1. Expresses opposition between two ideas.

    She bought food but she forgot the drinks.
    I can understand everything but I can't speak very well.
  2. Idea of exception

    I like everything but onions.
    This website is about nothing but free English lessons.

Or

  1. Indicates alternatives

    You can come with me if you want to or you can stay home.
    We can watch a movie or have dinner outside.

Yet

  1. It expresses opposition between ideas (just like "but")
    She got the job she wanted, yet she discovered that she hated it.
    Fred is very good at math, yet he is majoring in biology.

So

  1. while for shows a result-cause relationship, "so" shows a cause-result.
    She loved flying(cause), so she flew as much as she could.(result)
    I applied on the first day, so I will get financial aid for college.

Correlative Conjunctions

Transitions that always appear in pairs and link sentence elements together are called correlative conjunctions.
Both...and, neither...nor, either...or, not only...but also...
Transitions that always appear in pairs and link sentence elements together are called correlative conjunctions.

Both...and
Connects two positives (this and that)
    She is beautiful and she is smart.
    She is both beautiful and smart.
    Both Mia and Katie are coming.

Neither ... nor

Connects two negatives(not this not that)
    She is not tall. She is not short.     She is neither tall nor short.

Neither my parents nor my friend approves my work.
Neither my friend nor my parents approve my work.

Notice the use of singular and plural verb form

Either ... or
One of two
    She is either 20 or 22 years old.
    You either come with us or I will punish you.

 

Not only...but also
Links two clauses
    She is not only beautiful but also very intelligent.
    He disappointed not only his father but also everybody else around him.

 

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions connect the dependent clause of a sentence with the independent clause and show the relationship between the two. We use a comma in between if the subordinator (when, before, because, although...) is at the beginning of the sentence.

Although it was raining, she went out for a walk.
She went out for a walk although it was raining.
Because she was tired, she went straight to the bed.
She went straight to the bed because she was tired.
After she (had) made a phone call, she left home.
She left home after she (had) made a phone call.

 

Table of Subordinating Conjunctions with their meanings and example sentences online for English learners and teachers.

Conjunctions - Introduction, English Grammar Basics | General Aptitude for GATE - Mechanical EngineeringConjunctions - Introduction, English Grammar Basics | General Aptitude for GATE - Mechanical EngineeringConjunctions - Introduction, English Grammar Basics | General Aptitude for GATE - Mechanical EngineeringConjunctions - Introduction, English Grammar Basics | General Aptitude for GATE - Mechanical Engineering

Examples of Conjunctions

In the following examples, the conjunctions are in bold for easy recognition: 

  • I tried to hit the nail but hit my thumb instead.
  • I have two goldfish and a cat.
  • I’d like a bike for commuting to work.
  • You can have peach ice cream or a brownie sundae.
  • Neither the black dress northe gray one looks right on me.
  • My dad always worked hard so we could afford the things we wanted.
  • I try very hard in school yet I am not receiving good grades.

Conjunction Exercises

The following exercises will help you gain greater understanding about how conjunctions work. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence.

1. My brother loves animals. He just brought a puppy __________ a kitten home with him.

  • But
  • Or
  • Yet
  • And

Answer: 4. My brother loves animals. He just brought a puppy and a kitten home with him.

2. I’d like to thank you ______ the lovely gift.

  • Or
  • For
  • And
  • Yet

Answer: 2.  I’d like to thank you for the lovely gift.

3. I want to go for a hike _____ I have to go to work today.

  • But
  • Yet
  • Or
  • For

Answer: 1. I want to go for a hike but I have to go to work today.

4. They do not smoke, _____ do they play cards.

  • And
  • Or
  • Nor
  • Yet

Answer: 3. They do not smoke, nor do they play cards.

5. I’m getting good grades _________ I study every day.

  • Or
  • Yet
  • But
  • Because

Answer: 4. I’m getting good grades because I study every day.

The document Conjunctions - Introduction, English Grammar Basics | General Aptitude for GATE - Mechanical Engineering is a part of the Mechanical Engineering Course General Aptitude for GATE.
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FAQs on Conjunctions - Introduction, English Grammar Basics - General Aptitude for GATE - Mechanical Engineering

1. What are conjunctions and how do they work in English grammar?
Ans. Conjunctions are words that are used to connect words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence. They help to establish relationships between different parts of a sentence. For example, some common conjunctions include "and," "but," "or," and "because."
2. What is the importance of conjunctions in English grammar?
Ans. Conjunctions play a crucial role in English grammar as they help to join different words, phrases, or clauses together. They provide coherence and clarity to sentences, allowing for a smooth flow of ideas. Without conjunctions, sentences would be fragmented and lack logical connections.
3. How many types of conjunctions are there in English grammar?
Ans. There are three main types of conjunctions in English grammar: - Coordinating conjunctions: These join words, phrases, or independent clauses of equal importance, such as "and," "but," and "or." - Subordinating conjunctions: These connect dependent clauses to independent clauses, indicating a relationship of dependence or hierarchy, such as "because," "although," and "while." - Correlative conjunctions: These work in pairs to join words or phrases with similar grammatical structures, such as "either...or," "neither...nor," and "both...and."
4. Can you provide some examples of conjunctions used in sentences?
Ans. Certainly! Here are a few examples of conjunctions used in sentences: - I like both chocolate and vanilla ice cream. - She went to the park because it was a sunny day. - You can either study for the exam or go to the party. - He is not only intelligent but also hardworking. - I will go for a walk if it stops raining.
5. What is the difference between coordinating and subordinating conjunctions?
Ans. The main difference between coordinating and subordinating conjunctions lies in the relationship they establish between the clauses they connect. Coordinating conjunctions join independent clauses of equal importance, allowing them to stand alone as separate sentences. On the other hand, subordinating conjunctions connect a dependent clause to an independent clause, indicating that the dependent clause relies on the independent clause for its meaning.
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