Class 9 Exam  >  Class 9 Notes  >  Social Studies (SST) Class 9  >  Extra Questions & Answers (Part - 1) - Working of Institutions

Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Question Answers - Working of Institutions

Q1. State how the delays and complications introduced by the institutions are very useful in a democracy. [Important]

  • Working with institutions involve rules and regulations, meetings, committees and routines, often leading to delays and complications. 
  • But some of these delays are very useful as they provide an opportunity for a wider set of people to be consulted in any decision. 
  • They make it difficult to rush through a bad decision.


Q2. Even though civil servants are far more educated and have expert knowledge on various subjects, why does the ultimate power to decide matters lie with the ministers? [Important]

Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Question Answers - Working of Institutions

  • A minister is elected by the people and thus empowered to exercise the will of the people on their behalf. He is finally answerable to the people for all the consequences of her/his decision. 
  • The Minister is not expected to be an expert in the technical matters of her or his ministry. The civil servants, though far more educated, work under these ministers, and the final decisions are taken by the ministers.


Q3. Who appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, and on what basis? 

  • The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. But he cannot appoint anyone he likes. 
  • He appoints the leader of the majority party or the coalition of the parties that commands a majority in the Lok Sabha, as Prime Minister. 
  • In case no single party or alliance gets a majority, the President appoints the person most likely to secure majority support.


Q4. In which way do the cabinet ministers exercise more powers than the other ministers?

  • Cabinet ministers are the top-level leaders of the ruling party or parties and are in charge of the major ministries. 
  • Ministers of state with independent charge are on the other hand usually in charge of smaller ministries. 
  • The decisions are taken in cabinet meetings and the other ministers have to follow these decisions. They attend the cabinet meeting only if they are invited.


Q5. How has the rise of coalition politics imposed constraints on the power of the Prime Minister? 

  • The Prime Minister of a coalition government cannot take decisions as he likes. 
  • He has to accommodate different groups and factions in his party as well as among alliance partners. 
  • He also has a need to the views and positions of the coalition partners and other parties, on whose support the survival of the government depends.


Q6. Why is an independent and powerful judiciary considered essential for democracies?

Logo of Supreme Court of India Logo of Supreme Court of India 

  • Independence of the judiciary is essential in a democracy so that it does not act under the control and direction of the legislature or the executive. 
  • The judges do not act according to the wishes of the government, i.e. the party in power. 
  • Indian Judiciary is powerful in the sense that it can declare only law invalid if it is against the constitution.
  • Thus Indian judiciary acts as a guardian of the Fundamental Rights which is essential for a democracy.


Q7. What is the procedure for the removal of the judges? 

Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Question Answers - Working of Institutions

  • The procedure to remove a judge is called impeachment. 
  • An impeachment motion is passed separately by two-thirds members of the two Houses of Parliament.
  • Thus the judges who are appointed by the President cannot be removed by the President alone. Both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha have to pass a resolution by a two-thirds majority to remove a judge.


Q8. Discuss the powers and functions of the Parliament.    [CBSE 2010] 

  • Parliament is the final authority for making laws in the country. 
  • It can also change laws and make new ones in their place. 
  • It exercises control over those who run the government. 
  • In India this control is direct and full. It also controls all the money that the government has. It is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policies.


Q9. Explain the composition of the council of ministers. [2011 (T-2)] 

  • After the appointment of the Prime Minister, the President appoints other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. 
  • The ministers are usually from the party or the coalition that has the majority in the Lok Sabha. 
  • The Prime Minister is free to choose ministers as long as they are members of parliament. Council of ministers is the official name for the body that includes all the ministers. It usually has 60 to 80 ministers of different ranks.


Q10. Write about the process of appointment and removal of a judge of Supreme Court. [2011 (T-2)] 

Supreme Court of IndiaSupreme Court of India

  • The judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 
  • In practice, the senior judges of the Supreme Court select the new judges of the Supreme Court. 
  • A judge can be removed only by an impeachment motion passed separately by two-thirds members of the two houses of the Parliament.


Q11. Under what condition can a state of emergency be declared in India? Explain. [2011 (T-2)]

A state of emergency can be declared under the following conditions:

  • Increase of external aggression or armed rebellion.
  • If the government machinery of a state breaks down.
  • If there is a threat to the financial stability of the country. Under these circumstances, the President can impose a state of emergency and this is called President rule.


Q12. Which house of the parliament is more powerful in India and why? Give any four reasons for it. [2011 (T-2)] 

Parliament of IndiaParliament of India

Rajya Sabha is called the Upper House but that does not mean that it is more powerful than Lok Sabha. Our constitution does not give Rajya Sabha the same special powers over the states. But on most matters, the Lok Sabha exercises supreme power.

  • Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both Houses. The final decision is taken in a joint session but as a number of Lok Sabha members is greater, the view of the Lok Sabha prevails.
  • Lok Sabha exercises more power in money matters. Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. It can hold it only for 14 days.
  • Lok Sabha controls the council of ministers. A person who enjoys the support of the majority members in the Lok Sabha is appointed the Prime Minister.
  • If majority members of the Lok Sabha say they have no confidence in the council of ministers all ministers including the Prime Minister have to quit.


Q13. Why are political institutions important? Give any three points. [2011 (T-2)]

Governing a country involves various activities. For attending to all these activities/tasks several arrangements are made. Such arrangements are called institutions. Democracy works well when these Institutions perform these functions.

  • The Prime Minister and the cabinet are institutions.
  • The civil servants working together are responsible for taking steps to implement the minister's decisions.
  • Supreme Court is an institution where disputes between citizens are finally settled.


Q14. Give three differences between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. [2011 (T-2)] 

Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Question Answers - Working of Institutions

  • The tenure of the Lok Sabha is normally 5 years. Rajya Sabha is a permanent house of parliament with no fixed tenure.
  • The members of the Lok Sabha are elected through the voting process with the involvement of the common people, Direct Elections. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the representatives of state legislative assemblies of states and union territories, Indirect Elections.
  • The strength of the Lok Sabha ranges from 500 to 552. Presently, there are 543 seats. The strength of the Rajya Sabha ranges from 200 to 250. Currently, there are 245 seats. 


Q15. What is the tenure of the President in India? Mention the qualifications for President of India. [2011 (T-2)]

The President in India is the head of the state. His tenure is for five years.
According to Article 58 of the constitution, The Qualifications Necessary For Election As President Of India are:

  • He/she should be a citizen of India.
  • He/she should be completed the age of thirty-five years or above.
  • He/she should be qualified to become a member of the Lok Sabha.
  • He/she should not hold any office of profit under the Union or any State government, or any local or other authority.


Q16. Under what circumstances does the President exercise his discretion in the appointment of the Prime Minister? Who appoints the other ministers? [2011 (T-2)] 

  • When a party or coalition of parties gets a clear majority in the elections, the President has to appoint the leader of the majority party or the coalition that enjoys majority support in the Lok Sabha. 
  • When no party or coalition gets a majorty in the Lok Sabha, the President exercise his discretion. The President appoints a leader who in his opinion can muster majority support in the Lok Sabha. In such a case, the President can ask the newly appointed to prove majority support in the Lok Sabha within a specified time.


Q17. What is a coalition government? Why the Prime Minister of a coalition government cannot take decisions as he likes? [2011 (T-2)]

  • The rise of coalition politics has imposed certain constraints on the power of the Prime Minister. 
  • The Prime Minister of a coalition government cannot take decisions as he likes. 
  • He has to accommodate different groups and factions in his party as well as among alliance partners. 
  • He also has to heed the views and positions of the coalition partners and other parties on whose support the survival of the government depends.


Q18. What are the powers of the Prime Minister? Describe any three. [2011 (T-2)]

As the head of the government, the Prime Minister has wide-ranging powers such as:

  • He chairs cabinet meetings.
  • He coordinates the work of different Departments.
  • He exercises general supervision of different ministries. He can and does dismiss ministers. When the Prime Minister quits the entire ministry quits.


Q19. ‘‘Parliament is the supreme legislature of India.’’ Justify the statement. [2011 (T-2)] 

  • In all democracies, an assembly of elected representatives exercises supreme political authority on behalf of the people. 
  • In India, such a national assembly of elected representatives is called Parliament. At the state level, it is called Legislature or Legislative Assembly
  • Parliament is the final authority for making laws in any country. 
  • Parliaments all over the world can make new laws, change existing laws or abolish existing laws and make new ones in their place.


Q20. Distinguish between political executives and permanent executives.

Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Question Answers - Working of Institutions

The document Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Question Answers - Working of Institutions is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
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FAQs on Class 9 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Question Answers - Working of Institutions

1. What are institutions and how do they work?
Ans. Institutions are formal organizations or systems that are established to fulfill specific functions in society. They can be government bodies, educational institutions, or even social organizations. Institutions work by creating and implementing rules, regulations, and policies to maintain order and provide services to the public. They also have a hierarchical structure with designated roles and responsibilities for individuals within the institution.
2. How do institutions contribute to the smooth functioning of society?
Ans. Institutions play a crucial role in maintaining social order and ensuring the smooth functioning of society. They provide essential services such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure development. Institutions also establish and enforce laws, regulations, and policies to maintain law and order. They facilitate economic growth and development by creating a conducive environment for businesses and trade. Overall, institutions contribute to the stability and progress of society.
3. What is the importance of institutions in governance?
Ans. Institutions are essential for effective governance as they provide the framework and structure for decision-making and policy implementation. They ensure that the government functions efficiently and serves the needs of the citizens. Institutions like the legislature, judiciary, and executive branches of government help maintain a balance of power and prevent the concentration of authority. They also ensure accountability, transparency, and the protection of citizens' rights.
4. How do institutions impact economic development?
Ans. Institutions have a significant impact on economic development. They provide a stable and predictable environment for businesses and investors, which encourages economic growth. Institutions that promote fair competition, protect property rights, and enforce contracts create a favorable business climate. Good governance and effective institutions also attract foreign investment and contribute to economic stability. On the other hand, weak or corrupt institutions can hinder economic development.
5. What challenges do institutions face in fulfilling their roles effectively?
Ans. Institutions face several challenges in fulfilling their roles effectively. These challenges include corruption, lack of transparency, and bureaucratic red tape. Inefficient governance structures, inadequate funding, and political interference can also hamper institutions' functioning. Additionally, institutions may struggle to adapt to rapidly changing social, economic, and technological landscapes. Overcoming these challenges requires reforms, capacity-building, and strong leadership to ensure institutions can effectively serve society.
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