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Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Question Answers - Nationalism in India

Short Answer Questions

Q1: Analyse the circumstances that led Gandhiji to choose the abolition of the salt tax as the most important demand of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Ans: Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

  • Salt was consumed by all classes of people, by the rich and poor alike. It was one of the most essential items of food.
  • The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
  • Abolition of salt tax could affect the British economically as salt tax and monopoly over its production provided a large revenue to the government.

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Question Answers - Nationalism in IndiaQ2: Describe any three features of the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930.

Ans: The three features of the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 were:
(i) The first feature was that the Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non- Cooperation Movement of 1921-22. People were asked by Gandhiji not only to refuse cooperation but to break colonial laws. Thousands in the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories. Peasants refused to pay revenue taxes, village officials resigned and many forest people violated forest laws.

(ii) The second feature was that different social groups joined the movement for different reasons. The peasant communities in the countryside thought it was a fight against high revenues charged by the government. The poorer peasantry joined it in the hope that their unpaid rent would be remitted. The business class joined it as they wanted protection against the import of goods and to expand their own industries.

(iii) Another important feature was the large-scale participation of women in the movement. Thousands of women participated in the protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. Women, moved by Gandhiji’s call, began to see service to the nation as the sacred duty of women.

Q3: “Some icons and symbols were used for unifying the people and inspiring within them the feeling of nationalism.” Give two pieces of evidence in support of the statement.

Ans:

(i) The image of Bharat Mata came to be identified with India, the motherland. She was first painted by Abanindranath Tagore as an ascetic figure-calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Later the image was painted by many other artists and acquired different forms. In one image Bharat Mata is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and behind an elephant, both symbols of power

(ii) The flag became a symbol of nationalism. During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag was designed with eight lotus flowers representing eight provinces of British India and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. Gandhiji designed the Swaraj Flag.

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Question Answers - Nationalism in India

 Q4: Describe briefly the ‘Salt March’ undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi. 

Ans:

  • Mahatma Gandhi chose ‘Salt’ as a powerful symbol that could unite the nation. After a warning, the Viceroy in his letter of 31 January 1930, that the tax on salt was the most oppressive Act of British rule, he launched a Civil Disobedience campaign in March 1930. 
  • He started his famous ‘Salt March’ accompanied by 78 trusted volunteers. The distance to be covered was 240 miles from Gandhiji’s Ashram in Sabarmati to Gujarat’s coastal town of Dandi. The volunteers walked about 10 miles a day for 24 days
  • On 6 April, he reached Dandi and ceremoniously violated the law and manufactured salt by boiling seawater. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi, wherever he stopped on his way, he urged them to defy the British peacefully for Swaraj. 
  • His Civil Disobedience Movement, unlike the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-22, asked people not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws.

Q5: Describe briefly any three economic effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement. 

Ans: The effects of Non-Cooperation on the economic front were:

  • Foreign goods were boycotted
  • Liquor shops were picketed
  • Import of foreign cloth was halved as it was burnt in huge bonfires.
  • Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.

Q6: Mention any three efforts made by Gandhiji to get Harijans their rights.

Ans: Gandhiji believed that Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the untouchables Harijans, as the children of God,

(i) He organised satyagraha to secure their entry into temples, access to public wells, tanks, roads, and schools.
(ii) He himself cleaned the toilets to dignify the work of the sweepers.
(iii) He persuaded upper castes to change their heart and give up the ‘sin of untouchability.’

Q7: Explain the new economic and political situations created during the First World War in India. 

Ans: India was forced to become a partner in the War, which was between England and Germany. There was forced recruitment in rural areas which caused widespread anger among the people. They turned against the government. They joined the national movement. In the economic field, the war led to huge expenditure on defense, so the British increased the taxes, customs duties and introduced the income tax. Prices of all articles increased which caused great hardships to the common people. The prices doubled between 1913-1918. In 1918-19, 1920-21 crops failed in many parts of India, leading to an extreme shortage of food. Famine was accompanied by influenza epidemic. It is estimated (according to the Census of 1921) that nearly 12 to 13 million people perished due to famine and disease.

Q8: Mention three main proposals concerning the Non-Cooperation Movement, as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi.
OR
What led to the spread of the Non-Cooperation movement to the countryside? Explain any three factors.

Ans: Gandhiji proposed that:

  • The movement should unfold in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles awarded by the government.
  • Then a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
  • Then, in case the government used repression, a full disobedience campaign would be launched.

Q9: Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? Explain any three reasons. 

Ans:

  • This Act had been passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the opposition of Indian members.
  • It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed the imprisonment of leaders without trial for two years.
  • Mahatma Gandhi was emboldened with the success of Champaran Satyagraha, Kheda Satyagraha, and Ahmedabad Mills Satyagraha. He wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.

Q10: Describe the three satyagraha movements organised by Gandhiji between 1916-18.

OR

How did Mahatma Gandhi successfully organise satyagraha movements in various places just after arriving in India? Explain by giving three examples. 

Ans: Gandhiji successfully organise satyagraha movements in various places just after arriving in India. The movement started in 1916 from Champaran Bihar, where Gandhiji inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system. The second satyagraha movement took place in the very next year of the Champaran movement.

In 1917, at kheda district of Gujarat, the second satyagraha completed successfully. Here the peasants were not able to pay the revenue, because of crop failure and a plague epidemic and demanding that revenue collection be relaxed.

The third movement was held in 1918. Gandhiji went to Ahmedabad to organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Q11: Explain the features of the boycott and the Swadeshi Movement. 

Ans:The word “Swadeshi” is a Sanskrit word. The literal meaning of the word Swadeshi is: of one’s own country.

  • Swadeshi movement a part of the Indian Independence movement was a successful strategy to remove the British Empire from power and improve economic condition in India through following principles of Swadeshi or Self-Sufficiency. Strategies of the Swadeshi movement involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic-made products and production techniques.
  • A boycott is a form of consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organisation, or country as an expression of protest usually for political reasons. During the National Movement, it began with the Surrender of titles that the government has awarded and a boycott of civil services, army, police, court and Legislative Council, schools, and foreign goods.

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Question Answers - Nationalism in India

Q12: Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? Explain the reasons.

OR

What was the Rowlatt Act? How did the Indians show their disapproval of this Act? 

Ans: During the Indian struggle for Independence, the British government passed a law named after Sidney Rowlatt who was a government official, whose work was to find out who was behind Indian independence support and stop the changes responsible for the Independence were mainly. Three officers in this commission and all were Britishers. Indian freedom fighters called it “Black Law”. This Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed the detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. The opposition against this law started with a hartal by Gandhi. Rallies were organised in many cities, workers stopped working, went on strike. Shops and workshops were closed. In this way, the reaction of the people came out against this Act.

Q13: Explain the immediate effects of the Lahore session of the Indian National Congress of December 1929. 

Ans: The Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress of December 1929 was held under the presidency of Pt. J.L. Nehru. The session formalized the demand for ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India. It was decided that the day of 26 January 1930 would be celebrated as the Day of Independence. But the decision of the Lahore Session was unable to attract good attention. By taking the idea from this Purna Swaraj agenda Gandhiji planned ‘Dandi March’ (to break salt the law) as the initial step for Civil Disobedience.

Q14: “Method of reinterpretation of history was followed to encourage a feeling of nationalism.” Give any three arguments to support this statement. 

Ans: Method of reinterpretation of history was followed to encourage a feeling of nationalism was very good. This is human nature that we love the things on which we feel proud same as we love our nation but when our nation has something special. At that time to awaken the feeling of nationalism many things practiced but the main part was History writing. The Indians started writing glorious events like stories full of bravery, courage and nation love. They started developing writing concern with beautiful art and architecture, great spiritual bases of India. Some personalities were presented as national heroes like – Shivaji, Maharana Pratap, and others. So it developed a nationalist style of history writing which revived the people’s pride in their past achievements.

Q15: What was the limitation of the Civil Disobedience Movement? 

 Ans:The limitation of Civil Disobedience was that some different groups were not moved together with this concept.

  • The ‘untouchables’ or Dalits were not moved by the abstract concept of swaraj. From around the 1930s, they had begun to call themselves Dalits or oppressed. Many Dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, demanding reserved seats in the educational institutions and a separate electorate. They believed only political empowerment would resolve the problem of their social disabilities. Dalit participation in Civil Disobedience Movement was limited particularly in Maharashtra.
  • Some of the Muslim political organisations in India were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. A large section of Muslims felt alienated from congress. From the mid-1920s, the congress had come to be associated with Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Maha–Sabha. Hindu Muslim riots became frequent. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities. During the Civil Disobedience Movement, there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between the two communities.

Long Answer Questions

Q1: What was Satyagraha Explain some of the Satyagrahas launched by Gandhiji.

Ans: Satyagraha was a non-violent method of mass agitation against the oppressor. The method suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, there is no need for physical force to fight the oppressor.
(i) Gandhiji used the Satyagraha technique successfully against injustice in South Africa.
(ii) In 1916 A.D., he fought for justice for the tenants of Champaran, and the Government had to pass an Act for the welfare of the peasants of Champaran in 1918 A.D.
(iii) He started the Kheda Satyagraha in which Gandhiji asked the people not to pay the taxes due to the failure of crops. Ultimately, the Government had to bow, and the payment of taxes was deferred to the next year.
(iv) Again in 1918 A.D., Gandhiji intervened in the Mill Workrs’ Strike at Ahmedabad, and helped them to get their pay raised, for which he had started a fast unto death.

Q2: What were the circumstances which led to the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movement

Ans: 
(i) Conditions Created by the First World War: The First World War was fought from 1914 to 1918.

• It led to huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by taxes.

• Due to war prices increased many times leading to extreme hardship for common people.

• Crops failed in 1918-19 resulting in acute shortage of food.

• Many people lost their lives in the war and due to epidemic.

• Forced recruitment in the army caused widespread anger.

(ii) Gandhiji’s Return and Satyagraha:
Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in 1915 where he had successfully fought against the racist regime with his new method of mass agitation and nonviolence known as Satyagraha. In India he launched satyagraha movements at various places. These satyagrahas provided base to the Non-Cooperation Movement.

(iii) The Rowlatt Act: The Act was passed by the Imperial Legislative Assembly. The act provided enormous powers to police. The police got the power to arrest anyone without any trial. The aim of the act was to repress political activities.

(iv) Jallianwalla Bagh: The Jallianwala Bagh added fuel to the fire. People were already agitating against the Rowlatt Act. People had gathered to protest against the new act in the Jallianwala Bagh. General Dyer entered the park and ordered fire killing many people. As the news spread, crowds took to the streets.

(v) United Struggle: The fear of harsh treaty on the Ottoman emperor (the Khalifa) brought the Muslims close to Gandhiji. A young generation of Muslim leaders like Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali was in favour of a united mass action against the Britishers.

Jallianwala Bagh MassacreJallianwala Bagh Massacre

Q3: What was the reaction of the people against the Rowlatt Act.

Ans:
(i) 
Gandhiji called for a country-wide Hartal on 6th April, 1919. But he was arrested.
(ii) There were disturbances in Delhi, Ahmedabad and Punjab. In Amritsar, two popular leaders, Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saif- ud-din Kitchlew, were arrested. The people took out a procession in Amritsar to protest against these arrests, and demanded the release of their leaders.
(iii) A public meeting was announced for the 13th April, 1919, at the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar against the arrest of the leaders.
(iv) General Dyer marched there and killed more than 1,000 people.
(v) As the news of the Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many North Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.

Q4: Explain the course of the Non- Cooperation Movement in the towns.

Ans: 
(i) The movement in the cities: The Movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.

(ii) Boycott of council elections: The Council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras (Chennai), where the Justice Party, the party of the non­Brahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power, something that usually only Brahmans had an access to.

(iii) Swadeshi: The Non-Cooperation Movement had a great impact on the Indian textile industry. Swadeshi goods, especially cloth got a great impetus. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.

(iv) Impact on industry: In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. Due to this, the demand of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. The increase in demand provided a big relief to the vanishing textile industry of India.

(v) Movement in the countryside: Though people in the countryside interpreted the idea of ‘Swaraj’ in their own way but they participated in the movement on large scale. In Awadh, peasants launched the movement against the talukdars and landlords. Whereas the plantation workers launched the movement against the tea estate owners.

Q5: Explain the course of the  Non-Cooperation Movement in the countryside. 

Ans:
(i) Participants: In the countryside, the movement was led by peasants, tribals, and local leaders. For example, in Awadh, it was Baba Ramchandra a sanyasi, who had earlier been to Fiji as an indentured labour.
(ii) Why the rural people participated: The movement here was not against the Britishers but against talukdars and landlords. The problems of the rural people were different from those of the urban people:

  • The talukdars and landlords were demanding very high rents and a variety of other taxes.
  • Peasants had to do begar and work at the landlord’s farms without any payment.
  • The peasants had no security of tenure. They were regularly evicted so that they could acquire no security of tenure.
  • As the problems of the people were different, their demands were also different. The peasant movement demanded :
    - Reduction of revenue
    -Abolition of begar
    -Redistribution of land
    -Social boycott of oppressive landlords.

(iii) Ways of protests: The Movement in the countryside had a different angle. In many places, Nai-dhobi bandhs were organized by the Panchayats to deprive the landlords of the services of barbers, cobblers, washermen, etc. Even national leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru went to villages in Awadh to know the grievances of the people. By October, the Awadh Kissan Sabhas were set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra, and a few others.
When the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked. The movement turned violent which was not liked by some of the Congress leaders.

Q6: Describe the events leading to the Salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.

Ans: 
(i) Failure of the Simon Commission: The Simon Commission was constituted in response to the nationalist movement. But the Commission failed to satisfy the Indian people and the leaders. All the parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations. In an effort to win them over the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of dominion status. But even this failed to satisfy the leaders.

(ii) Purna Swaraj: In December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalised the demand of ‘Puma Swaraj’ or full independence for India. It was declared that 26th January, 1930, would be celebrated as the Independence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for complete independence. But the celebrations attracted very little attention. So Mahatma Gandhi had to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more concrete issues of everyday life.

(iii) Rejection of Gandhi’s Eleven Demands: On 31st January, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi, in a statement, put forward Eleven Demands to correct the wrongs done to the Indians. He assured the Viceroy that he would withdraw the Civil Disobedience on British Government’s acceptance of these demands. However, Gandhi’s demands were declared to be unrealistic by the Viceroy.

(iv) Economic Causes: The Great Depression of 1929 had a deep impact on the Indian economy, especially on agriculture. Prices of agricultural produce began to fall from 1926, and collapsed after 1930. As the demand for agricultural goods fell and export declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvest, and to pay their revenue. The government refused to lower the taxes. So by 1930, the farmers were in poor condition.

(v) Support from business class: The business class was keen on expanding their business and were against the colonial policies that restricted business activities. They decided to provide financial support to the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was launched.

Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Question Answers - Nationalism in India

Q7: ‘Large sections of Muslims did not respond to the call for a united struggle during the Civil Disobedience Movement.’ Explain.

Ans: 
(i) Association of Congress with Hindu Mahasabha: After the decline of the Non­-Cooperation – Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s, the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.

(ii) Communal Clashes: As relations between the Hindus and the Muslims worsened, each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu- Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.

(iii) Issue of demand for separate electorates: Some of the Muslim leaders demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims which was not supported by the Congress leaders.

(iv) Status of Muslims in Hindu majority state: Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.

(v) Issue of reserved seats in the Central Assembly: Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded reservation of seats for the Muslims in the Central Assembly but this was not acceptable to the Congress leaders. So Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.

Q8: Explain the progress of the Civil Disobedience Movement in the countryside.

Ans: 
(i) In the countryside, rich peasant communities-like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh-were active participants.

(ii) They participated in the Movement because they suffered the most due to the economic depression. As their cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.

(iii) They demanded a reduction in revenue but the government refused to do so. This led to a widespread resentment. These rich landlords participated in the boycott programmes, and refused to pay revenues. For them, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.

(iv) But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised. So when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them did not participate.

(v) The poor peasantry also participated on a large scale in a hope that their unpaid rent to the landlords will be remitted.

The document Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Question Answers - Nationalism in India is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Question Answers - Nationalism in India

1. What is nationalism in India?
Ans. Nationalism in India refers to the political and social movement that aimed at achieving independence and self-governance for India from British colonial rule. It emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and it played a crucial role in shaping the Indian freedom struggle.
2. Who were the key leaders of the Indian nationalist movement?
Ans. The Indian nationalist movement was led by various prominent leaders who played crucial roles in India's struggle for independence. Some of the key leaders include Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Annie Besant.
3. What were the major methods used by the Indian nationalists in their struggle for independence?
Ans. Indian nationalists employed various methods and strategies in their struggle for independence. These included non-violent protests, civil disobedience movements, boycotts of British goods, mass marches, strikes, and acts of non-cooperation. The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, also played a pivotal role in organizing and coordinating these efforts.
4. How did nationalism in India impact the freedom struggle?
Ans. Nationalism in India played a significant role in mobilizing the masses, creating a sense of unity and national identity, and fostering a spirit of resistance against British colonial rule. It provided a common platform for people from diverse backgrounds to come together and fight for a common cause, ultimately leading to India's independence in 1947.
5. What were some of the key events and movements associated with nationalism in India?
Ans. There were several key events and movements associated with nationalism in India. These include the Partition of Bengal in 1905, the Swadeshi Movement, the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement, the Quit India Movement, and the Salt March led by Mahatma Gandhi. These movements played a crucial role in galvanizing public support and challenging British authority in India.
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