Q 1. Give three reasons for the civil war in Sri Lanka.
The distrust between the Sinhala and Tamil communities turned into a civil war.
Sinhala vs Tamils during Civil War
Following were the reasons for the civil war in Sri Lanka:
- Sinhala was declared as the only official language disregarding Tamil.
- Sinhala applicants were favoured for government jobs and higher positions in military and bureaucracy.
- Buddhism was declared as the official religion.
Q 2. Why is power-sharing desirable in a democracy or any other system of government?
- Power-sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
- It is a good way to ensure the stability of political order and unity of the nation.
- A legitimate government is one where citizens through participation acquire a stake in the system.
Q 3. Describe the power-sharing in Lebanon.
As per the agreement:
- President must belong to the Maronite sect of Catholic Christians.
- The Prime Minister must be from the Sunni Muslim community.
- The post of Deputy Prime Minister is fixed for Orthodox Christian sect and that of the speaker for Shia Muslim.
- The Christians agreed not to seek French protection and the Muslims agreed not to seek unification with Syria.
Q 4. Why is power sharing essential for a democracy?
Power sharing is essential for a democracy because it accommodates diversities of a nation.
Q 5. In the Flemish region which language did the majority of the people speak?
The Dutch language.
Q 6. What is the power of the community government in Belgium?
The community government in Belgium has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.
Q 7. In a democracy power sharing is ensured in the presence of political parties and pressure groups. Explain.
- In a democracy political parties compete with each other to gain political power. Each political party has a fair chance to come into power.
- Sometimes when no political party gets a clear majority in elections, two or more political parties come together to form a coalition government. This also ensures power sharing.
- In a democracy various interest groups of workers, business men etc. that exist, tend to influence government decisions. Their participation in the government’s activities ensures power sharing.
Q 8. Can dividing power lead to the weakening of a country?
No, dividing power cannot lead to weakening of a country. In fact division of power ensures that the rights of the minorities are protected. It also keeps the tyranny of the majority under check. It helps in national integration. People feel safe and secure in such a democratic country.
Q 9. Describe any three forms of power sharing in modern democracies.
Three forms of power sharing with examples:
- Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary.
- Power can be shared among governments at different levels - a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level.
- Power may also be shared among different social groups such the religious and linguistic groups. 'Community government in Belgium is a good example of this arrangement.
Q 10. Write one prudential and one moral reason for power sharing.
- Prudential reason for power sharing: Power sharing reduces social conflicts among social groups with different interests and aspirations Social conflicts lead to violence and instability. Power sharing ensures the stability of political order.
- Moral reason for power sharing: Power sharing is the very spirit and essence of democracy, Democracy involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have the right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.
|1. What is power-sharing?
|2. What are the different forms of power-sharing?
|3. What is the importance of power-sharing in a democracy?
|4. What are the challenges faced in implementing power-sharing in a diverse society?
|5. How can power-sharing be strengthened in a democracy?