Switching | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE) PDF Download

Switching is process to forward packets coming in from one port to a port leading towards the destination. When data comes on a port it is called ingress, and when data leaves a port or goes out it is called egress. A communication system may include number of switches and nodes. At broad level, switching can be divided into two major categories:

  • Connectionless: The data is forwarded on behalf of forwarding tables. No previous handshaking is required and acknowledgements are optional.

  • Connection Oriented:  Before switching data to be forwarded to destination, there is a need to pre-establish circuit along the path between both endpoints. Data is then forwarded on that circuit. After the transfer is completed, circuits can be kept for future use or can be turned down immediately.

Circuit Switching

When two nodes communicate with each other over a dedicated communication path, it is called circuit switching.There 'is a need of pre-specified route from which data will travels and no other data is permitted.In circuit switching, to transfer the data, circuit must be established so that the data transfer can take place.

Circuits can be permanent or temporary. Applications which use circuit switching may have to go through three phases:

  • Establish a circuit

  • Transfer the data

  • Disconnect the circuit

Switching | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Circuit switching was designed for voice applications. Telephone is the best suitable example of circuit switching. Before a user can make a call, a virtual path between caller and callee is established over the network.

Message Switching

This technique was somewhere in middle of circuit switching and packet switching. In message switching, the whole message is treated as a data unit and is switching / transferred in its entirety.

A switch working on message switching, first receives the whole message and buffers it until there are resources available to transfer it to the next hop. If the next hop is not having enough resource to accommodate large size message, the message is stored and switch waits.

Switching | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

This technique was considered substitute to circuit switching. As in circuit switching the whole path is blocked for two entities only. Message switching is replaced by packet switching. Message switching has the following drawbacks:

  • Every switch in transit path needs enough storage to accommodate entire message.

  • Because of store-and-forward technique and waits included until resources are available, message switching is very slow.

  • Message switching was not a solution for streaming media and real-time applications.

Packet Switching

Shortcomings of message switching gave birth to an idea of packet switching. The entire message is broken down into smaller chunks called packets. The switching information is added in the header of each packet and transmitted independently.

It is easier for intermediate networking devices to store small size packets and they do not take much resources either on carrier path or in the internal memory of switches.

Switching | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Packet switching enhances line efficiency as packets from multiple applications can be multiplexed over the carrier. The internet uses packet switching technique. Packet switching enables the user to differentiate data streams based on priorities. Packets are stored and forwarded according to their priority to provide quality of service.

Circuit Switching VS Packet Switching

CIRCUIT SWITCHING
PACKET SWITCHING
In circuit switching there are 3 phases
 i) Connection Establishment.
 ii) Data Transfer.
 iii) Connection Released.
In Packet switching directly data transfer takes place .
In circuit switching, each data unit know the entire path address which is provided by the source
In Packet switching, each data unit just know the final destination address intermediate path is decided by the routers.
In Circuit switching, data is processed at source system only
In Packet switching, data is processed at all intermediate node including source system.
Delay between data units in circuit switching is uniform.
Delay between data units in packet switching is not uniform.
Resource reservation is the feature of circuit switching because path is fixed for data transmission.
There is no resource reservation because bandwidth is shared among users.
Circuit switching is more reliable.
Packet switching is less reliable.
Wastage of resources are more in Circuit Switching
Less wastage of resources as compared to Circuit Switching

 

The document Switching | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE) is a part of the Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Course Computer Networks.
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FAQs on Switching - Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

1. What is Computer Science Engineering (CSE)?
Ans. Computer Science Engineering (CSE) is a branch of engineering that combines principles of computer science and engineering to design, develop, and analyze computer systems and software. It involves both hardware and software aspects of computer technology, including computer architecture, programming languages, algorithms, data structures, and more.
2. How can I switch to Computer Science Engineering (CSE) from a different engineering branch?
Ans. To switch to Computer Science Engineering (CSE) from a different engineering branch, you typically need to follow these steps: 1. Check the eligibility criteria: Ensure that you meet the necessary academic requirements for the switch, such as minimum GPA, specific courses, and prerequisites. 2. Research the curriculum: Familiarize yourself with the CSE curriculum and identify any gaps in your knowledge that you may need to fill. 3. Seek guidance from academic advisors: Consult with academic advisors or faculty members in the CSE department to understand the process and get advice on the best approach. 4. Prepare for entrance exams (if applicable): Some institutions may require you to clear entrance exams specifically for switching to CSE. Prepare for these exams accordingly. 5. Apply for a transfer: Submit the necessary application forms and documents to request a transfer to the CSE department. The specific process may vary between institutions, so follow the guidelines provided by your university.
3. What are the career opportunities in Computer Science Engineering (CSE)?
Ans. Computer Science Engineering (CSE) offers a wide range of career opportunities in various sectors. Some of the common career paths for CSE graduates include: 1. Software Engineer/Developer: Designing, developing, and maintaining software applications and systems. 2. Data Scientist/Analyst: Analyzing and interpreting complex data sets to extract valuable insights. 3. Network Engineer: Designing, implementing, and managing computer networks. 4. Cybersecurity Expert: Protecting computer systems and networks from cyber threats. 5. Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning Engineer: Developing algorithms and models for intelligent systems. 6. Web Developer: Designing and creating websites and web applications. 7. Database Administrator: Managing and organizing large-scale databases. 8. IT Consultant: Providing strategic advice and solutions for technology-related challenges in organizations.
4. How can I prepare for Computer Science Engineering entrance exams?
Ans. To prepare for Computer Science Engineering (CSE) entrance exams, you can follow these tips: 1. Understand the exam pattern: Familiarize yourself with the structure, format, and syllabus of the specific entrance exam you are preparing for. 2. Gather study materials: Gather relevant textbooks, reference books, and online resources that cover the topics mentioned in the syllabus. 3. Create a study plan: Develop a comprehensive study plan that allocates time for each subject and topic. Set realistic goals and stick to the plan. 4. Practice previous year question papers: Solve previous year question papers to get familiar with the exam pattern and identify areas where you need to improve. 5. Take mock tests: Regularly take mock tests to simulate the exam environment and assess your preparation level. Analyze your performance and work on your weaknesses. 6. Seek guidance: If possible, join coaching classes or seek guidance from experienced tutors who can provide expert tips and guidance. 7. Stay updated: Stay updated with the latest developments in the field of computer science and engineering through online resources, forums, and industry publications.
5. What skills are important for a successful career in Computer Science Engineering (CSE)?
Ans. Some important skills for a successful career in Computer Science Engineering (CSE) include: 1. Programming: Proficiency in programming languages such as Java, C++, Python, etc., to develop software applications and algorithms. 2. Problem-solving: The ability to analyze complex problems, break them down into smaller components, and devise effective solutions. 3. Critical thinking: The capacity to evaluate different approaches, identify potential issues, and make informed decisions. 4. Algorithm design and analysis: Understanding and implementing efficient algorithms to solve computational problems. 5. Data structures: Knowledge of different data structures and their appropriate usage for efficient data manipulation and retrieval. 6. Communication: Effective communication skills to collaborate with team members, present ideas, and explain technical concepts to non-technical stakeholders. 7. Continuous learning: A mindset of continuous learning and adaptability to keep up with the rapidly evolving field of computer science and engineering. 8. Attention to detail: Being meticulous and paying attention to details while coding, debugging, and testing software applications. Note: The given article title and exam were not provided, so the above questions and answers are based on a general understanding of Computer Science Engineering (CSE).
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