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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 - Development

Q1: Development of a country can generally be determined by:
(a) It's per capita income
(b) Its average literacy level
(c) Health status of its people
(d) All the above
Ans: (d) All of the above
Sol: The country’s development depends on the following factors

  • In general, a country’s growth is decided by its per capita income, its average level of literacy as well as the health status of the people in the nation.
  • A country’s growth is a general concept that improves people’s per capita income and living standards. It also lowers the poverty, the rate of crimes as well as the illiteracy of individuals. 
  • Development not just depends on the economic factors of a country but is also dependent on resources that are available for the people of a country to use.
  • Two aspects of development are
    Economic growth or increase in people’s income.
    Social progress includes literacy, health and the provision of public services.

Q2: Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(a) Bangladesh
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Nepal
(d) Pakistan

Ans: (b) Sri Lanka
Sol:HDI of Sri Lanka is 73 which is much higher than Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which have 139,145 and 147 respectively.

Q3: Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs 5000. If the income of three families is Rs 4000, Rs 7000 and Rs 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(a) Rs 7500
(b) Rs 3000
(c) Rs 2000
(d) Rs 6000
Ans:
(d)

Sol:

Total income of three families = 5000 + 4000 + 3000 = 14000
Total income of four families = 5000 × 4 = 20000
Income of the fourth family = 20000 - 14000 = 6000

Q4: What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Ans:
The criterion used in classifying countries is the per capita income of a nation. This criterion is used by the World Bank in its World Development Reports. Per capita income is nothing but the average income. Average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. Hence, the right measure used in comparing different nations is comparison of average incomes of nations.

Countries with per capita income of US$ 1035 or less are called low-income countries. As per 2012, rich countries are the countries with per capita income of US$ 12616 per annum and above. In 2012 per capita income of India was just US$ 1530 per annum, hence it was classified in the category of low middle income countries. Generally developed countries are the rich countries, excluding some small countries and countries of the Middle East.
Limitations
1. Per capita income is useful for comparison but it doesn’t show the distribution of income.
2. It also ignores other factors such as infant mortality rate, literacy level, healthcare, etc.
3. Per capita income does not give the true picture as there is a huge population which does not earn at all like children and the senior citizens but they are also included while calculating per capita income. National income rises but its distribution make the rich richer and the poor poorer.

Q5: In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?
Ans: World bank only uses per capita income for measuring development while UNDP uses many other factors like infant mortality, healthcare facility education level which help in improving the quality of life and helps in making the citizens more productive. As per HDI- 2014, India’s rank is 135. On the other hand, the World Bank uses per capita income as the only criterion for measuring development and classifying the countries as rich and poor. Per capita income is useful for comparison, it does not tell us how income is distributed.

Q6: Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
Ans: We use averages because different countries have different populations, so calculating the average helps in getting an estimated answer which can be used to compare different things at different levels.
There are limitations to calculating averages because this does not give any information about the distribution of a thing between people.
Example: If we calculate the per capita income of two countries A and B with 5 people each, the salary of five people in country A is Rs.23,000, Rs.22,000, Rs.23,500, Rs.28,000 and Rs.25,000 and the income of people living in country B are Rs.1,50,000, Rs. 22,000, Rs.50,000, Rs.4000, Rs.2500.
The average income of country A will be Rs.24,300, and that of country B will be Rs.45,700. This proves that the average of country B is higher than that of country A, and yet there is a disparity in the income distribution of country B and the income is evenly distributed in country A.

Q7: Kerala, with a lower per capita income, has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Ans: Yes, Per capita income is not a useful criterion and should not be used to compare states for the reasons mentioned below:
(a) The literacy rate, infant mortality rate, healthcare facilities, etc. are better in Kerala in comparison to Haryana.
(b) The per capita income is only calculated by calculating the average income of the people of the state, irrespective of any other factor.
(c) Similarly in some states, the Public Distribution System functions well and the health and nutritional status of people of such states are certainly likely to be better.
(d) Money cannot buy all the goods and services that you need to live well. Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services.
(e) The better Human Development Index of Kerala is due to adequate basic health and educational facilities. More average income doesn't mean all people have access to basic facilities. There can be a huge disparity in the distribution of income because of which Punjab has a lower ranking in Human Development.

Q8: Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?
Ans: The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India are electricity, coal, crude oil, cow dung and solar energy. At present, consumption of energy in India is too high in comparison to its production and reserves. India’s known reserves of oil are expected to last about 30-40 years only. So, therefore, other possibilities fifty years from now could include ethanol, bio-diesel, nuclear energy and better utilisation of wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, tidal energy, wave energy, hydroelectric energy and biomass energy especially with the imminent danger of oil resources running out.

Q9: Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Ans: Without sacrificing the quality of the environment for future generations, sustainable development can be described as an approach to the economic development of a nation.
The Sustainable Development Goals are

  • To encourage the kind of growth that minimizes environmental issues.
  • Without sacrificing the quality of the atmosphere for future generations, to address the needs of the current generation.

For growth, the problem of sustainability is relevant because It demands that resource reserves, including exhaustible natural and environmental resources, be maintained. Recent studies suggest that because of overuse, groundwater in India is exhausted. Its groundwater supplies are overused by 1/3 of the population.

Q10: "The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person". How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
Ans:  The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. This statement is relevant to the discussion of development as both resources and development go hand in hand. For the sustainability of development, the maintenance of resources is very crucial. Needs can be fulfilled whereas greed can never be satisfied because greed increases with every want to be fulfilled. As the statement claims, the Earth has enough resources- renewable as well as non-renewable to satisfy everyone’s needs; however, these need to be used with a view to keep the environment protected so that a balance of production and use is maintained and shortages are avoided.

Q11: List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Ans: Few examples of environmental degradation:

  • Deforestation
  • Soil erosion
  • Falling levels of groundwater
  • Depletion of the ozone layer and combustion from automobiles causing extreme air pollution
  • Water Pollution

Q12: For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 - Development

Ans:
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 - Development


Q13: The following table shows the proportion of adults (aged 15-49 years) whose BMI is below normal (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2015-16. Look at the table and answer the following questions.
NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 - Development

(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) Can you guess why around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.
Ans: 
(i) The nutritional level of people of Kerala is quite higher than the people – both males and females of Madhya Pradesh. Their ratio of the under-nourished is less than that of Madhya Pradesh i.e more per cent of males and females are undernourished in Madhya Pradesh.
(ii) There is enough food in the country, even then 40% of the people in the country are undernourished because:

  • A large number of people are so poor that they cannot afford nutritious food.
  • In most of the states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) does not function properly and the poor people cannot get food items at cheaper rates.
  • There is a lack of educational and health facilities in many parts of the country. So many people remain backward and poor. As such, they are unable to get nutritious food.
The document NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 - Development is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 - Development

1. What is the meaning of development?
Ans. Development refers to the process of improving the economic, social, and political well-being of individuals and societies.
2. What are the different types of development?
Ans. There are various types of development, including economic development, social development, human development, and sustainable development.
3. How is economic development measured?
Ans. Economic development is often measured using indicators such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), per capita income, and poverty rates.
4. What is the importance of social development?
Ans. Social development focuses on improving the quality of life and well-being of individuals and communities. It includes aspects such as education, healthcare, gender equality, and social justice.
5. How does sustainable development contribute to environmental conservation?
Ans. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It emphasizes the importance of environmental conservation, resource management, and reducing carbon footprints.
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