Admixtures | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE) PDF Download

Anything added in the concrete other than water, cement, sand and coarse aggregate in order to modify its property is termed as admixture. Admixtures are generally of following types:–
(1) Plasticizers
(2) Superplasticizers 
(3) Retarders
(4) Accelerators
(5) Air entraining admixtures.
(1) Plasticizers: 
-These are organic substances or mixture of organic and inorganic substances and are primarily used for their water reducing capacity; maintaining the desired workability of a concrete mix. In other words it has a property of enhancing workability at a given water-cement ratio in compare to concrete mix without Plasticizers.
-These are primarily used for their water reducing capacity; maintaining the desired workability of a concrete mix. In other words it has a property of enhancing workability at a given water-cement ratio in compare to concrete mix without Plasticizers.
-These are primarily used for their water reducing capacity; maintaining the desired workability of a concrete mix. In other words it has a property of enhancing workability at a given water-cement ratio in compare to concrete mix without Plasticizers.

Ex. Lignosulphonates and their derivatives, hydroxylated carboxylic acids and carbohydrates. These admixtures are generally added in the preparation of concrete to be used in heavily reinforced structure.
 

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What is the purpose of using plasticizers in concrete?
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(2) Super plasticizers :
These are the modified versions of plasticizers that allow the reduction of water upto 30% unlike plasticizers in which it can be only reduced upto 15%.
Chemicals: Modified Ligno- sulphates, Sulphonated Melamine Formaldehyde Condensate (SMF) ,Sulphonated Napthalene Formaldehyde Condensate (SNF)

(3) Retarders:
Retarding admixtures slow down the rate of hydration of cement in its initial stage and increase the initial setting time of concrete. These are also called as retarders and used especially in high temperature zones where concrete will set quickly.
The quick setting in some situations may lead to discontinuities in structure, poor bond between the surfaces, creates unnecessary voids in concrete etc. Retarders are useful to
eliminate this type of problems.
Commonly used retarding admixture is calcium sulphate or gypsum. Starch, cellulose products, common sugar, salts of acids are some other retarders. Most of water reducing admixtures are also acts as retarding admixtures and they are called as retarding plasticizers.eliminate this type of problems.

(4) Accelerators:
Accelerating admixtures are used to reduce the initial setting time of concrete. They speed up the process of initial stage of hardening of concrete hence they are also called as accelerators. These accelerators also improves the strength of concrete in it early stage by increasing the rate of hydration.

Earlier hardening of concrete is useful in several situations such as early removal of formwork, less period of curing, emergency repair works, for constructions in low temperature regions etc.
Some of the accelerating admixtures are triethenolamine, calcium formate, silica fume, calcium chloride, finely divided silica gel etc. Calcium chloride is the cheap and commonly used accelerating admixture.

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(5) Air entraining Admixtures:
-These are type of admixtures that entrap million of air bubble in between the voids of the cement particles that act as flexible ball bearing slipping parts one over each other, thereby helps in modifying the properties of concrete w.r.t. plasticity, workability, bleeding, segregation, permeability and frost action.

Example :
(1) Natural wood resins
(2) Animals and plants oil and fats
(3) Hydrogen peroxide
(4) Aluminum powder

The document Admixtures | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE) is a part of the Civil Engineering (CE) Course Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical).
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FAQs on Admixtures - Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE)

1. What are admixtures in civil engineering?
Admixtures in civil engineering refer to substances that are added to concrete or mortar mixtures to enhance their properties or improve their performance. These substances are typically added in small quantities and can modify various characteristics of the concrete, such as workability, strength, durability, and setting time.
2. Why are admixtures used in concrete?
Admixtures are used in concrete for several reasons. They can improve the workability of the concrete, making it easier to place and finish. Admixtures can also enhance the strength and durability of concrete, making it more resistant to chemical attack, freezing and thawing, and abrasion. Additionally, admixtures can help control the setting time of concrete, allowing for better construction scheduling and reducing the risk of early stiffening or delayed hardening.
3. What are the different types of admixtures used in civil engineering?
There are various types of admixtures used in civil engineering, including water-reducing admixtures, accelerating admixtures, retarding admixtures, air-entraining admixtures, and superplasticizers. Water-reducing admixtures are used to reduce the amount of water needed to achieve a desired workability, while accelerating admixtures speed up the setting and hardening process. Retarding admixtures slow down the setting time, air-entraining admixtures create small air bubbles in the concrete to improve its durability, and superplasticizers improve the flowability of concrete without increasing water content.
4. How are admixtures added to concrete mixtures?
Admixtures can be added to concrete mixtures either during the mixing process or during the batching stage. For liquid admixtures, they are typically added to the mixing water before it is combined with cement, aggregates, and other ingredients. Powdered or granular admixtures can be added directly to the concrete mix during the batching process. It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions and dosage recommendations when adding admixtures to ensure optimal performance and avoid any negative effects on the concrete.
5. Are admixtures safe to use in concrete?
Yes, admixtures that comply with industry standards and guidelines are generally safe to use in concrete. However, it is important to use admixtures from reputable manufacturers and follow their recommended dosage rates. Improper use of admixtures or using low-quality products can potentially affect the performance and durability of the concrete. Therefore, it is crucial to consult with experts or refer to technical data sheets provided by the manufacturers to ensure the safe and effective use of admixtures in concrete construction.
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