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Metals, Non-Metals & Metalloids | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET PDF Download

 Metals

  • The metals are characterised by their nature of readily giving up the electron and from shinning lusture. 
  • Metals comprise more than 75% of all known elements and appear on the left-hand side of the periodic table. 
  • Metals are usually solids at room temperature (except mercury). 
  • They have high melting and boiling points and are good conductors of heat and electricity. 

Metals, Non-Metals & Metalloids | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET


  • Oxides of metals are basic in nature. (Some metals in their higher oxidation state form acid oxides e.g. CrO3)

Non-Metals

  • Non-metals do not lose electrons but take up electrons to form corresponding anions. Non-metals are located at the top right-hand side of the periodic table. Non-metals are usually solids or gases at room temperature with low melting and boiling points. They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.

Metals, Non-Metals & Metalloids | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET


  • Oxides of non-metals are acidic in nature.

Metalloids

  • It is very much clear from the periodic table that non-metallic character increases as we move from left to right across a row. It has been found that some elements lying at the border of metallic and non-metallic behaviour, possess the properties that are characteristic of both metals and non-metals.
  • These elements are called semimetals or metalloids. 
  • The metalloids comprise of the elements B, Si, Ge, As, Sb and Te.
  • Oxides of metalloids are generally amphoteric in nature. 

Typical Elements

  • Third-period elements are called typical elements. These include Na, Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI.
  • The properties of all the elements belonging to a particular group resemble the properties of the corresponding typical element of that group. For example, the general properties of alkali metals (IA) can be predicted from the properties of Na, not Li, the first member of the group.
  • The properties of the elements of the second period differ in the many respect belonging to the same group due to the smaller atomic size and absence of vacant d-orbitals.

Diagonal relationship

Some elements of certain groups of 2nd period resemble much in properties with the elements of third period of next group i.e. elements of second and third period are diagonally related in properties. This phenomenon is known as diagonal relationship.

 Metals, Non-Metals & Metalloids | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET 

Diagonal relationship arises because of

(i) similar size of atom and ions
Li = 1.23 Å & Mg = 1.36 Å; Li+ = 0.60 Å & Mg2+ = 0.65 Å

(ii) similar electropositive characters

(iii) similar polarising powers (charge to radius ratio)

(iv) similarity in electronegativity values
(Li = 1.0 & Mg = 1.2; Be = 1.5 &AI = 1.5)


Similarities between properties of Li and Mg are as follows:


(a) Li and Mg both reacts directly with nitrogen to form lithium nitride (Li3N) and magnesium nitride (Mg3N2) whereas other alkali metals of I A group does not form nitride.
(b) Fluoride, carbonate and phosphate of Li and Mg are insoluble in water whereas these compounds of other alkali metals are soluble.
(c) Li and Mg both are hard metals, whereas other metals of I A group are soft.
(d) LiOH and Mg(OH)2 both are weak bases, whereas hydroxides of other elements of IA group are strong base.
(f) Metallic bond in Li and Mg both are strong compare to other alkali metals.
(g) Their melting and boiling points are high.
(h) By thermal disintegration of LiNO3 and Mg (NO3)2 ; Li2O and MgO is obtained respectively.
(I) Thermal stability of Li2CO3 and Mg CO3 is very less compare to other alkali metals and they liberates COgas easily.


Similarly, Be shows similarity to Al of IIIA group compare to other elements of IIA group which are as follows:
(a) These both elements do not provide colour to Bunsen burner.
(b) They both are comparatively stable in air.
(c) Both are insoluble in NH3, therefore, do not form blue coloured solution.
(d) There is no tendency of making peroxide and superoxide in them.
(e) Reducing power is very less due to low value of standard electrode potential in the form of oxidation potential.
(f) Be and AI both forms halogen bridge halides.


Metals, Non-Metals & Metalloids | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

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FAQs on Metals, Non-Metals & Metalloids - Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

1. What are metals, non-metals, and metalloids?
Ans. Metals, non-metals, and metalloids are classifications of elements based on their properties. Metals are typically shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, and malleable. Non-metals, on the other hand, lack these properties and are generally brittle and poor conductors. Metalloids exhibit properties intermediate between metals and non-metals.
2. How can we differentiate between metals and non-metals?
Ans. Metals can be distinguished from non-metals by their physical properties. Metals are usually solid at room temperature (except mercury), have high melting and boiling points, and are good conductors of heat and electricity. Non-metals, on the contrary, can exist in various states (solid, liquid, or gas), have lower melting and boiling points, and are poor conductors.
3. What are some examples of metalloids?
Ans. Some examples of metalloids include silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. These elements possess properties of both metals and non-metals, making them useful in various applications such as semiconductors and alloys.
4. What are typical elements?
Ans. Typical elements refer to the majority of elements that are found in the periodic table. These elements can be classified as metals, non-metals, or metalloids. They form the foundation of the periodic table and are essential for understanding the properties and behavior of various chemical elements.
5. What is the diagonal relationship in chemistry?
Ans. The diagonal relationship in chemistry refers to the similarity in properties between certain pairs of elements located diagonally to each other in the periodic table. For example, lithium (Li) and magnesium (Mg) exhibit similar behavior due to their comparable atomic sizes and ionization energies. This relationship is attributed to the parallel trends in atomic properties across periods and can be observed in other pairs of elements as well.
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