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6. Magnetic Lines and Their Characteristics

The space surrounding a magnet or magnetic configuration in which its effects are perceptible is called the magnetic field of the given magnet or magnetic configuration.

Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET

In order to visualize a magnetic field graphically, Michael Faraday introduced the concept of lines.

According to him a line is an imaginary curve the tangent to which at a point gives the direction of the field at that point.

Regarding magnetic field it is worth noting that :

(i) Outside a magnet, field are from north to to south pole while inside from south to north, i.e., magnetic lines are closed curves i.e., they appear to converge or diverge at poles.

(ii) The number of magnetic lines of field originating or terminating on a pole is proportional to its strength. μ0 lines are assumed to be associated with a unit pole. so if a body encloses a pole of strength m, total lines linked with the body (called magnetic flux) will be μ0(m).

(iii) Magnetic lines of field can never intersect each other because if they intersect at a point, intensity at that point will have two directions which is absurd.

(iv) Magnetic lines of field have a tendency to contract longitudinally like a stretched elastic string (producing attraction between opposite poles) and repel each other laterally (resulting in repulsion between similar poles)

Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET

(v) Number of lines of field per unit area, normal to the area at a point, represents the magnitude of field at that point. so crowded lines represent a strong field while distant lines represent weak field. Further, if the lines of force are equidistant and straight the field is uniform otherwise not

Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET

(vi) In a region of space where there is no magnetic field, there will be no lines of field. This is why, at a neutral point (where resultant field is zero) there cannot be any line of field.

(vii) Magnetic lines of field originate from or enter in the surface of a magnetic material at any angle.

(viii) Magnetic lines of field exist inside every magnetised material

(ix) As mono-poles do not exist, the total magnetic flux linked with a closed surface is always zero, i.e.,

Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET

This law is called Gauss's law for magnetism.

Magnetic field line due to some important structure

1. Straight current carrying wire

Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET

2. Circular coil

Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET

3. Solenoid

Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET

The document Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics | Physics Class 12 - NEET is a part of the NEET Course Physics Class 12.
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FAQs on Magnetic Lines & Their Characteristics - Physics Class 12 - NEET

1. What are magnetic lines?
Ans. Magnetic lines, also known as magnetic field lines, are imaginary lines used to represent the direction and strength of a magnetic field. They show the path that a hypothetical north magnetic pole would take if placed in the magnetic field.
2. What are the characteristics of magnetic lines?
Ans. The characteristics of magnetic lines include: - They are always closed loops, forming continuous paths. - The density of magnetic lines represents the strength of the magnetic field, with closer lines indicating a stronger field. - Magnetic lines never intersect each other. - The direction of the lines represents the direction of the magnetic field, pointing from the north pole to the south pole.
3. How are magnetic lines formed?
Ans. Magnetic lines are formed due to the presence of a magnetic field. When a magnet or an electric current passes through a conductor, it generates a magnetic field around it. The magnetic lines are then formed based on the direction and strength of this magnetic field.
4. What is the significance of magnetic lines?
Ans. Magnetic lines help in visualizing and understanding the behavior of magnetic fields. They provide a way to study the direction, strength, and shape of magnetic fields. Magnetic lines also help in determining the interaction between magnets and other magnetic materials.
5. Can magnetic lines be influenced by external factors?
Ans. Yes, magnetic lines can be influenced by external factors such as the presence of other magnets or magnetic materials. When two magnets are brought close to each other, the magnetic lines can change their shape and orientation. Similarly, certain materials can attract or repel magnetic lines, altering their path.
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