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Miscellaneous Chemical Properties

1. Periodicity of oxy acids:
(a) Acidic character of oxy acid increases from left to right in a period.
H2CO< HNO< H2SO< HClO4
(b) Acidic character of oxy acid decreases from top to bottom in a group.
HN0> H3PO3

2. Periodicity of nature of oxide:
(a) On moving from left to right in a period, acidic nature of oxide generally increases.
e.g. CO< P2O< SO< CIO2
(b) On moving from top to bottom in a group, acidic nature of oxide generally decreases.
N0> P2O3> As2O3

3. Periodicity of nature of hydroxide:
(a) On moving from left to right in a period, basic nature of hydroxide generally decreases.
e.g. KOH > Ca(OH)2  > Fe(OH)2 > Zn(OH)2
(b) On moving from top to bottom in a group, basic nature of hydroxide generally decreases.
LiOH < NaOH < KOH < RbOH

4. Solubility of salt in water:

  • The hydration energy exhibits a decreasing trend when moving along a group.
  • A decrease in lattice energy is observed along a group.

Trends In Physical Properties

  • Physical properties are generally influenced by atomic weight, but exceptions can be observed, leading to irregular trends in the graph.
  • Exceptions in the graph indicate deviations from the expected pattern.
  • Understanding the reasons behind these exceptions is crucial for a comprehensive analysis of physical properties.
  • It implies that factors beyond atomic weight play a significant role in determining certain physical properties.
  • Identifying and explaining these exceptions is essential for a more nuanced understanding of the relationships between atomic properties and physical behavior.

Some Commonly Used Terms:

Noble Gases:

  • Group 18 elements are referred to as noble gases.
  • Also known as inert gases due to the complete filling of their outermost ns and np orbitals, making them non-reactive under ordinary conditions.
  • Exceptions include Helium (He) and the first element in the 1s orbital.

Representative Elements:

  • All s and p block elements, excluding the zero group, are classified as representative elements.

Transition Elements:

  • Elements in the d-block, excluding the 11B group, are termed transition elements.
  • These elements span the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th periods, residing between s and p block elements.

Inner Transition Elements:

  • F-block elements, specifically 4f and 5f block elements, are known as inner transition elements.
  • Comprising a total of 28 elements, they are situated in the 111B group and occupy the lower portion of the periodic table.

Typical Elements:

  • Elements belonging to the second and third periods are categorized as typical elements.

Diagonal Relationship:

  • Properties of elements in the second period share similarities with those in the third period.
  • This type of relation between two periods, where properties resemble each other, is termed a diagonal relationship.

Miscellaneous Periodic Properties | Inorganic Chemistry

(i) Resemblance between Li and Mg :

  • Lithium, unlike other group members, reacts with N2 to form a nitride, mirroring the behavior of magnesium.
  • When heated, lithium hydroxide, carbonate, and nitrate undergo decomposition, yielding Li2O, similar to magnesium. However, unlike other alkali hydroxides and carbonates, lithium nitrate decomposes to form nitrite.
  • Lithium hydroxide, carbonate, and fluoride exhibit higher solubility compared to their sodium and potassium counterparts. The solubilities are akin to the corresponding magnesium compounds.

ii) Resemblance between Be and Al:

  • Ionic radius of Be2+ is comparable to that of Al3+ ions.
  • Similar to aluminum, beryllium remains resistant to acid attacks due to the presence of a protective oxide film.
  • Beryllium, like aluminum, forms a beryllate ion [Be(OH)4]2− when dissolved in alkali.
  • BeO and Al2O3 are hard, high-melting, insoluble solids. Both oxides and their hydroxides exhibit amphoteric behavior, dissolving in sodium hydroxide solution.
  • Beryllium and aluminum form stable fluoro complexes (BeF42- and AlF63-) in solution, while other Group 2 metals do not.
  • Beryllium chloride (BeCl2) and aluminum trichloride (Al2Cl6) are essentially covalent with bridged polymeric structures. Both chlorides are soluble in organic solvents and act as strong Lewis acids.

(iii) Resemblance between B and Si :

  • Boron and silicon hydrides spontaneously catch fire when exposed to air and are easily hydrolyzed.
  • Boron halides, like silicon halides, undergo hydrolysis in water, while aluminum halides are only partially hydrolyzed.
  • Boron forms binary compounds with various metals called borides, similar to silicon forming metal silicides. Some borides and silicides undergo hydrolysis, yielding boron and silicon, respectively.
  • B2O3 and SiO2 exhibit acidic properties. Borates and silicates have tetrahedral B04 and Si04 structural units. Borosilicates are known where boron can replace silicon in a three-dimensional lattice. However, boron can also form planar BO3 units.
  • Both boron (B) and aluminum (Al) are semiconductors.

SUMMARY OF PERIODICITY

Miscellaneous Periodic Properties | Inorganic Chemistry

Miscellaneous Periodic Properties | Inorganic Chemistry

  • Electron shells - Along the group, number of electrons remains the same and along the period, shells are increased by 1
  • Valence electrons- Along the group, valence electrons increases by one and along the period, remains the same
  • Electronegativity- Increases along the group and decreases along the period
  • Ionization energy- Along the group, it increases and decreases along the period
  • Electron Affinity- Along the group it increases and along the period decreases
  • Metallic characteristics- Along the group, non-metallic characteristic increases and along the period metallic characteristics increases.
  • Acidic nature of oxides increases along the group and decreases along the period
  • Reducing nature of hydride increases in a period and decreases in a group.
The document Miscellaneous Periodic Properties | Inorganic Chemistry is a part of the Chemistry Course Inorganic Chemistry.
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FAQs on Miscellaneous Periodic Properties - Inorganic Chemistry

1. What are some examples of miscellaneous periodic properties?
Ans. Some examples of miscellaneous periodic properties include atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, and metallic character. These properties help in understanding the chemical behavior and reactivity of elements.
2. How is atomic radius defined?
Ans. Atomic radius refers to the size of an atom, typically measured as the distance between the nucleus and the outermost electron shell. It determines the overall size of an atom and plays a crucial role in various chemical and physical properties of elements.
3. What is ionization energy?
Ans. Ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom or ion in the gaseous state. It is often measured in kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol) and helps determine an element's ability to form positive ions.
4. How does electron affinity affect an element's properties?
Ans. Electron affinity refers to the energy change that occurs when an atom gains an electron to form a negative ion. It influences an element's reactivity and its tendency to attract additional electrons. Elements with higher electron affinity tend to form negative ions more readily.
5. What is metallic character?
Ans. Metallic character is a periodic property that describes an element's resemblance to metals. It refers to the ability of an element to exhibit metallic properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, luster, and malleability. Elements on the left side of the periodic table have a higher metallic character compared to those on the right side.
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