Internet Architecture | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE) PDF Download

Internet Architecture

The internet architecturee evolved out of experiences with an earlier packet switched network called the ARPANET. Both the Internet and the ARPANET wer e funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).

The Internet and ARPANET were around before the OSI architecture, and the experience gained from building them was a major influence on the OSI reference model. Instead of having seven layers, a four layer model is often used in Internet.

At the lowest level are a wide variety of network protocols, denoted NET1, NET2 and so on. The second layer consists of a single protocol the Internet Protocol IP. It supports the interconnection of multiple networking technologies into a single, logical internetwork.

The third layer contains two main protocols the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). TCP provides a reliable byte stream channel, and UDP provides unreliable datagram delivery channel. They are called as end to end protocol they can also be referred as transport protocols.

Running above the transport layer, a range of application protocols such as FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and SMTP that enable the interoperation of popular applications.

ERROR
Networks must be able to transfer data from one device to another with complete accuracy. Some part of a message will be altered in transit than that the entire content will arrive intact. Many factors like line noise can alter or wipe out one or more bits of a given data unit. This is known as errors.

TYPES OF ERRORS
There are two types. They are,
1. Single Bit Error It means that only one bit of a given data unit is changed from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1.
2.  Burst Bit Error It means that two or more bits in the data unit have changed.

Internet Architecture | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

  •  A burst bit does not necessarily means that the errors occur in consecutive bits
  •  The length of the bust error is measured from the first corrupted bit to the last corrupted bit. Some bits in between may not be corrupted
The document Internet Architecture | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE) is a part of the Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Course Computer Networks.
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FAQs on Internet Architecture - Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

1. What is internet architecture?
Ans. Internet architecture refers to the design and structure of the global network of interconnected computer networks, which allows communication and data transfer between devices worldwide. It encompasses the protocols, hardware, and software that make up the internet infrastructure.
2. How is the internet architecture organized?
Ans. The internet architecture is organized in a hierarchical manner. At the top level, there are internet service providers (ISPs) that provide connectivity to users and connect to each other through network access points. These ISPs are interconnected through routers and switches, forming the backbone of the internet. At the lower level, individual devices such as computers, smartphones, and servers are connected to the ISPs and communicate with each other through various internet protocols.
3. What are the key components of internet architecture?
Ans. The key components of internet architecture include routers, switches, protocols, domain name system (DNS), and internet protocols such as TCP/IP. Routers and switches are responsible for directing data packets between networks. Protocols define the rules and standards for data transmission and communication. DNS translates domain names into IP addresses, enabling users to access websites using easy-to-remember names. TCP/IP is the foundational protocol suite that enables end-to-end communication over the internet.
4. How does internet architecture ensure reliability and scalability?
Ans. Internet architecture ensures reliability and scalability through its decentralized and distributed nature. The network is designed to route data packets along the most efficient and available paths, allowing for redundancy and fault tolerance. Additionally, the use of protocols like TCP/IP enables reliable transmission and error detection. The hierarchical organization of ISPs also facilitates scalability, as new networks can be interconnected and integrated into the existing infrastructure.
5. What are the challenges in internet architecture?
Ans. The challenges in internet architecture include security threats, congestion, and the need for constant evolution. As the internet has become critical for various activities, cyberattacks and data breaches have become major concerns. Congestion can occur when network resources are overwhelmed by high traffic volumes, affecting performance. Additionally, as technology and user demands evolve, internet architecture needs to adapt to support new applications, devices, and protocols while maintaining compatibility with existing systems.
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