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Priming measures how people:
Priming describes the (often unconscious) effects of a past event. It is measured by comparing behaviour with and without the preceding event. For example, belief in previously encountered assertions may be primed by the preceding encounter. In this example, the degree to which belief is greater among people who have previously studied the assertions than among people who haven’t is a measure of the amount of priming.
Suppose that two groups of people are asked to learn 20 words in a list and then are tested after a 30-minute delay. The words and procedure for the two groups are identical except for the following difference. One group listens to the words being read aloud slowly; they recall 10 words when tested. The other group listens to the same words being read aloud at the same rate, but they also write down each word as it is read aloud. This group recalls 15 words when tested. What does this experiment tell us about memory?
Memory is often studied by comparing two groups of participants or information, organized such that the ‘past event’ occurs for one group but not for the other. Because the only known difference between the groups is the presence or absence of the event, differences observed at the later time are assumed to reflect memory for that event. It is therefore essential to determine that there are no other differences between the groups.
Which behaviours provide evidence for memory in humans?
All of the behaviours indicated above can be observed in some form and indicate that human beings have memory for past events. People can recall information using specific and non-specific cues, identify past information when it is presented at a later time, experience feelings of familiarity and show priming effects of a previous encounter with some stimuli.
We know that a common distinction is made between explicit and implicit memory. But which one of the following does NOT accurately reflect one of these terms?
Another common distinction is between explicit and implicit memory. Explicit memory involves conscious awareness of the original information or the situation in which the learning occurred, and recollection of the original information or experience that is subsequently recalled. As these experiences involve a recollective experience, Baddeley (1997), among others, prefers to refer to ‘recollective’, rather than explicit, memory. Implicit memory refers to an influence on behaviour, feelings or thoughts as a result of prior experience, but without conscious recollection of the original events.
Why is it so difficult to make generalizations about memory and the brain? Select the answer that is NOT correct.
Making generalizations about memory and the brain is difficult because remembering is a complex process, involving most other cognitive and emotional aspects of a person. So many parts of the brain will be active when someone is remembering. We cannot just remember something without also feeling and thinking, so it is very hard to isolate any neural activity that might be unique to remembering.
Information about how to approach familiar situations such as a day at school, washing clothes or ordering in a restaurant is organized into knowledge structures referred to as __________.
Schemas refer to the knowledge structures that help us make sense of familiar situations and guide our experiences within these situations. Sketches, schemes, episodes, and loops do not refer to these knowledge structures.
Which of the following was NOT the case in Bower et al.’s (1969) research into the role of organized hierarchical information in memory?
Bower and his colleagues (1969) found that presenting the words in meaningful hierarchies reduced the learning time to a quarter of that required for the same words when they were randomly positioned in the hierarchy. The organization of the hierarchy apparently emphasized aspects of the words’ meanings, which appeared not only to simplify the learning of the lists but also to provide a framework within which the participants could structure their recall.
When some participants read an ambiguous passage about a woman, Nancy, in a doctor’s office, which psychological factor reduced the accuracy of their recall of the information from the passage?
Half of the participants were told that Nancy was pregnant, which lead to increased errors in recall and recognition of information from the passage. As expectations were the primary variable manipulated, this was identified as the cause of the errors in memory. The other answers given above were not associated with the memory errors.
Retrieval-induced forgetting refers to which memory-based phenomenon?
Retrieval-induced forgetting refers to the improved memory for repeatedly tested or rehearsed information and the failure to remember less practiced or rehearsed information.
The improved recall of items presented at the end of a list compared to the middle of a list is referred to as the ____________.
The better recall of items presented toward the end of a list is referred to as the recency effect. The other terms provided are not used to describe these observed differences in the recall of items based on their serial position.