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Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Commerce MCQ


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30 Questions MCQ Test - Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1

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Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 1

 Interpreting Financial Statements means:

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 1

Interpreting is the final function of accounting it is concerned with explaining the meaning and significance of the relationship as established by the analysis of accounting data. the recoded financial data is analyzed and interpreted in a manner that will enable the end users to make a meaningful judgement about the financial condition and Thus, option (d) is correct.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 2

Net Profit or Loss will be derived at ________ stage of accounting.

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 2

Summarising stage is concerned with the preparation and presentation of the classified data in a manner useful to the internal as well as external users of financial statements. This process leads to the preparation of the following financial statements. Therefore, Net Profit or Loss is derived at the summarising stage.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 3

On January 1, Sohan paid rent Rs. 5,000. This can be classified as 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 3

The correct answer is (b) A transaction.

A transaction is an economic event that involves the transfer of money or goods between two parties. In this case, Sohan paid rent of Rs. 5,000. This can be classified as a transaction because:
 

1. Two parties are involved: Sohan (the payer) and the landlord (the receiver).
2. Transfer of value: Sohan is transferring Rs. 5,000 to the landlord in exchange for the use of the rented property.
3. Recordable: This transaction can be recorded in the financial books (e.g., rent expense account for Sohan and rent income account for the landlord).
An event, on the other hand, is a happening or occurrence that may or may not have financial consequences. In this case, the payment of rent is a transaction and not just an event because it involves a transfer of value between parties and can be recorded in financial books.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 4

Accounting has universal application for recording _______ and events and presenting suitable information for decision making

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 4

Accounting has universal application for recording transactions and events and presenting suitable information for decision making. The correct answer is b. Let me provide more details about the importance and uses of accounting in recording transactions.

Transaction Recording

  • A transaction is any economic activity or event that impacts the financial position of a business.
  • Accounting allows businesses to record and classify transactions in a systematic and organized manner.
  • By recording transactions, businesses can keep track of their financial activities, which helps in managing and controlling their financial resources.

Importance of Accounting in Recording Transactions

  • Accurate financial records: Accounting helps maintain accurate financial records of a business, which is crucial for decision-making and compliance with tax and regulatory requirements.
  • Performance evaluation: Recording transactions allows businesses to track their financial performance, compare it with previous periods, and make informed decisions to improve their financial position.
  • Budgeting and forecasting: Accurate transaction recording aids in creating budgets and forecasts, which are essential for planning and achieving growth.
  • Cash flow management: Accounting helps businesses monitor their cash inflows and outflows, allowing them to maintain sufficient liquidity and ensure smooth operations.
  • Stakeholder communication: Recording transactions and preparing financial statements provides useful information to various stakeholders, such as investors, creditors, and employees, to assess the financial health of a business.

In conclusion, accounting plays a vital role in recording transactions to provide accurate and relevant financial information for decision-making. By maintaining proper records, businesses can effectively manage their financial resources and achieve growth.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 5

 Double Accounting System owes its origin to : 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 5

Luca Pacioli, in venice (1494) is considered as the first book on double entry book-keeping. A portion of this book contains knowledge of business and book-keeping.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 6

 Financial statements users include: 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 6

The correct answer is (d) All of the above. Financial statements are essential tools that provide valuable information to various users. These users can be classified into internal and external users. Here, let's explain each of them in detail:

Shareholders
- Shareholders are the owners of a company and have a direct interest in its financial performance.
- Financial statements provide information about a company's profitability, financial stability, and potential for growth, which are crucial factors for shareholders when making investment decisions.
- Shareholders use financial statements to assess the company's management effectiveness and the return on their investment.

Government
- Governments use financial statements to ensure companies comply with tax laws and regulations.
- Financial statements provide the necessary information for tax authorities to determine the amount of taxes owed by a company.
- Governments also use financial statements to assess the economic health of a country, as they provide insights into various industries and sectors.

Vendors
- Vendors, or suppliers, provide goods and services to a company, and they need to ensure that the company can pay for these goods and services.
- Financial statements help vendors assess a company's creditworthiness and financial stability.
- By analyzing financial statements, vendors can determine whether to extend credit to a company, negotiate payment terms, or require upfront payment for goods and services.

In conclusion, financial statements are essential tools for various users, including shareholders, government, and vendors. These users rely on financial statements to make informed decisions and ensure the financial stability and growth of companies, industries, and the overall economy.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 7

 Management Accounting: 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 7

Management accounting, also known as managerial accounting, is an essential aspect of an organization's financial management process. It entails the identification, measurement, analysis, and interpretation of accounting information that assists managers in making informed decisions to achieve their organizational goals.
The correct option is (c) "Is a recording technique of the management related transactions."

Let's break down this concept in detail:
Recording Technique of Management Related Transactions

  • Management accounting involves the systematic recording of financial transactions related to an organization's management activities.
  • This includes collecting and organizing data from various sources, such as financial statements, budgets, cost reports, and performance evaluations.
  • The purpose of this recording technique is to provide managers with the necessary information to make informed decisions about the company's operations, as well as to assess the effectiveness of their management strategies.

Key Features of Management Accounting

  • Future-oriented: Unlike financial accounting, which focuses on historical data, management accounting is forward-looking. It helps managers analyze trends, forecasts, and projections to make strategic decisions that will shape the company's future.
  • Decision-making support: Management accounting provides valuable information that aids managers in making informed decisions about resource allocation, cost control, pricing, and other essential aspects of the business.
  • Performance evaluation: By analyzing the financial impact of management decisions, management accounting allows managers to assess the effectiveness of their strategies, identify areas for improvement, and make necessary adjustments.
  • Internal reporting: Management accounting reports are designed for internal use and are not subject to the same regulations as financial accounting reports. This allows for greater flexibility in the presentation of data and a focus on the specific needs of the organization's management.

In conclusion, management accounting plays a pivotal role in providing managers with the necessary information to make informed decisions, evaluate performance, and plan for the future. It is a recording technique of management-related transactions that helps organizations achieve their goals and maintain financial stability.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 8

Purposes of an accounting system include all the following except

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 8

The correct answer is (d) Dictate the specific types of business enterprise transactions that the enterprises may engage in.
Here's an explanation of the purposes of an accounting system:
1. Interpret and record the effects of business transactions: An accounting system is designed to identify, analyze, and record financial transactions that occur within a business. This process ensures that all transactions are accurately represented in the company's financial records.

2. Classify the effects of transactions to facilitate the preparation of reports: An accounting system also helps in organizing financial data into different categories, such as assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses. This classification is essential for the preparation of financial reports, such as income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements, which provide important information about a company's financial performance and position.

3. Summarize and communicate information to decision-makers: One of the primary purposes of an accounting system is to provide useful information to management, investors, and other stakeholders. By summarizing and communicating financial data, an accounting system allows decision-makers to make informed decisions based on accurate, up-to-date information about the company's financial health.

However, an accounting system does not serve the purpose of dictating the specific types of business enterprise transactions that the enterprises may engage in. Instead, an accounting system is a tool for recording, classifying, and summarizing financial transactions that have already occurred. The decision to engage in specific types of transactions is up to the management of the company, not the accounting system.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 9

 If owner’s capital is Rs. 50,000 liability is Rs. 30,000 and fixed assets is Rs. 70,000, then what is the value of current assets?

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 9

According to the accounting equation:
Owner's capital= Assets- Liabilities
50,000= (70,000+ current assets)- 30,000
Current Assets= Rs. 10,000

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 10

Users of accounting information include

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 10

The correct answer is 4 - all of the above.

Users of accounting information include various stakeholders who have an interest in a company's financial performance and position. These stakeholders can use accounting information to make decisions regarding their engagement with the company. The users of accounting information can include trade payables/suppliers, lenders, customers, investors, regulatory authorities, employees, management, and others. All of the options given in the question - trade payables/suppliers, lenders, and customers - are users of accounting information, but there are also many others.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 11

Rs. 5,000 paid as rent of office premises in an/a _________

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 11

The correct answer is: Transaction

A transaction is an event or an action that involves the exchange of goods, services, or money between two parties. In this case, the payment of Rs. 5,000 as rent for office premises is a financial transaction.

  • A transaction typically involves a buyer and a seller.
  • The exchange can be of goods, services, or money.
  • Transactions are recorded in the financial books of a business for accounting and taxation purposes.

In contrast, an event is a broader term that can refer to any occurrence or happening, which may or may not involve financial transactions. An event can be a conference, a party, a seminar, or any other gathering that brings people together for a specific purpose.
To conclude, the payment of Rs. 5,000 as rent for office premises is a transaction, as it involves the exchange of money between two parties.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 12

Match the following items from column A with column B.

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 12

 

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 13

Financial statements are part of 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 13

Financial statement is a formal record of the financial activities and position of a business, person or other entity. Financial statement are major part of accounting as accounting is incomplete without financial statements.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 14

 Book-keeping is mainly concerned with 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 14

Bookkeeping refers mainly to the record-keeping aspects of financial accounting, and involves preparing source documents for all transactions, operations, and other events of a business.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 15

 Which of the following is an event? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 15

The correct option is B.

In accounting terms, an event is simply an economic activity which can be cash or noncash which happens in day to day operation of a business which does not involves changes in account balances.

Difference between transaction and event is when an event brings change to account balances, it is classified as a transaction.

Therefore since in case of closing stock accounting, we are only presenting it in the books of final accounts, it is an event and not a transaction.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 16

Which of the following is correct? Owner’s Equity is : 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 16

The correct answer is: (Current Asset + Fixed Asset) – (Current Liabilities + Long term Liabilities)

Here's a detailed explanation:
Owner's Equity, also known as shareholder's equity or net worth, represents the residual interest in the assets of an entity after deducting its liabilities. In other words, it shows the amount that belongs to the owners of the company after all the obligations have been settled.

The formula for Owner's Equity can be derived from the basic accounting equation:
Assets = Liabilities + Owner's Equity

To find Owner's Equity, we need to rearrange the equation:
Owner's Equity = Assets - Liabilities

Now, let's break down the components of the equation:
1. Assets: Assets are the resources owned by a company that have future economic value. There are two types of assets:

  • Current Assets: These are short-term assets that can be converted into cash or used up within one year or operating cycle, whichever is longer. Examples include cash, accounts receivable, inventory, and prepaid expenses.
  • Fixed Assets: These are long-term assets that are used in the production of goods and services and have a useful life of more than one year. Examples include property, plant, equipment, and intangible assets like patents and trademarks.

2. Liabilities: Liabilities are the financial obligations a company owes to external parties. There are two types of liabilities:

  • Current Liabilities: These are short-term obligations that need to be settled within one year or operating cycle, whichever is longer. Examples include accounts payable, short-term debt, and accrued expenses.
  • Long-term Liabilities: These are long-term obligations that are due after one year or operating cycle, whichever is longer. Examples include long-term debt, bonds payable, and deferred tax liabilities.

To calculate Owner's Equity, we can now use the expanded formula:
Owner's Equity = (Current Asset + Fixed Asset) – (Current Liabilities + Long term Liabilities)

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 17

The direct advantage of accounting do not include: 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 17

The direct advantages of accounting include the preparation of financial statements, ascertainment of profit or loss, and providing information to interested groups. However, a competitive advantage is not a direct advantage of accounting. Let's discuss this in detail:

Competitive advantage:
- Competitive advantage refers to an edge or superiority that a company has over its rivals, allowing it to generate greater sales, profits, or customer loyalty. This edge can be in the form of cost leadership, differentiation, or focus.
- While accounting provides valuable information to a business, it does not inherently give a company a competitive advantage over its competitors. All companies follow accounting principles and practices to prepare financial statements and manage their financial affairs, so there's no direct advantage that one company can gain over another simply by doing accounting.

On the other hand, the direct advantages of accounting are:
Preparation of financial statements:
- Accounting helps in the preparation of financial statements, which include the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement. These statements provide a snapshot of the company's financial position and performance, which is essential for making informed business decisions.

Ascertainment of profit or loss:
- Accounting records financial transactions and calculates the company's profit or loss for a specific period. This information is crucial for evaluating the performance of the business, setting benchmarks, and planning future growth strategies.

Information to interested groups:
- Accounting provides information about the financial health and performance of a company to various stakeholders, such as investors, creditors, employees, and regulators. This information helps them make informed decisions related to their interests in the company.

In summary, while accounting plays a crucial role in managing a company's financial affairs and providing valuable information to stakeholders, it does not directly contribute to creating a competitive advantage. Instead, competitive advantage comes from a company's unique capabilities, resources, and strategies that differentiate it from its competitors.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 18

 On March 31, 2011 after sale of goods worth Rs. 2,000, he is left with the closing inventory of  Rs. 10,000. This is

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 18

To understand why the correct answer is option 'A' (an event), we need to first define what a transaction and an event are in accounting.

Transaction: In accounting, a transaction refers to a business activity that involves the exchange of goods, services, or money between two or more parties. For example, buying inventory on credit, selling goods for cash, or paying rent.

Event: An event, on the other hand, is a happening that affects a company's financial position but does not involve an exchange transaction. For example, a fire that destroys inventory, a change in government regulations, or a natural disaster.

In the given scenario, the sale of goods worth Rs. 2,000 is a transaction because it involves the exchange of goods for money. However, the closing inventory of Rs. 10,000 is an event because it is a change in the company's financial position, but it does not involve any exchange transaction.

Therefore, the correct answer is option 'A' (an event).

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 19

Which of the following is not a subfield of accounting?

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 19

The Main Branches or Types or Sub-fields of Accounting include inflation accounting, financial accounting, Human resource accounting, managerial accounting, Social Responsibility Accounting, cost accounting, Tax or value-added accounting. 
Book-keeping is the recording of financial transactions and is part of process of accounting, not a sub field of accounting.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 20

The main objectives of Book- Keeping are :

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 20

The main objective of book-keeping is to keep a complete and accurate record of all the financial transactions in a systematic orderly, logical manner. This ensures that the financial effects of these transactions are reflected in the books of accounts.

Then the second main objective is to ascertain the overall effect of all recorded transactions on the final statement of the company. Book-keeping will eventually ascertain the final accounts of the company, namely the Profit and Loss Account and the Balance Sheet.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 21

________ of American Institute of Certified Public Accountants enumerated the functions of Accounting:

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 21

 

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 22

 Match the following items from column A with column B.

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 22

The correct answer is Option (D). 
1. Events - (b). Are the end result of the transaction.
Events refer to the outcomes or end results that occur as a result of a business's transactions. For example, when a business purchases inventory, the event is the acquisition of goods that will be used in the business's operations. The end result of this transaction is the increase in the inventory account.

2. Government and their agencies - (d). Are one of the external users of the financial statements.
Governments and their agencies, such as tax authorities and regulatory bodies, are external users of financial statements because they need to assess the financial health and compliance of a business. They rely on financial statements to ensure that the business is following laws and regulations, paying taxes correctly, and operating in a transparent manner.

3. Management of the business enterprise - (a). Are the Internal users of financial statements.
Management of a business enterprise is considered an internal user of financial statements because they use the information to make decisions about the business's operations, strategy, and performance. They need to analyze financial data to assess the company's financial health, allocate resources efficiently, and evaluate the effectiveness of their strategies and decisions.

4. Purchase of goods worth Rs. 1,000 - (c). Is a transaction.
A transaction refers to an economic event that involves the exchange of goods or services between two parties. In this case, the purchase of goods worth Rs. 1,000 is a transaction because it involves the exchange of goods (inventory) for money (payment). This transaction will be recorded in the company's financial records, affecting its assets and liabilities.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 23

Financial Statements are a part of : 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 23

Financial statement is a formal record of the financial activities and position of a business, person or other entity. Financial statement are major part of accounting as accounting is incomplete without financial statements. 

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 24

 Financial position of the business is ascertained on the basis of 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 24

The correct answer is c: Accounting reports. 

Financial Position of a Business
The financial position of a business refers to its current financial health, stability, and overall performance. This is typically assessed by evaluating various financial statements and reports, such as the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement.

Accounting Reports
Accounting reports are formal records of a company's financial transactions and activities, and they provide relevant information to stakeholders, such as investors, creditors, and management. Some of the key accounting reports that help determine a business's financial position include:

1. Balance Sheet: This report provides a snapshot of a company's assets, liabilities, and equity at a specific point in time, showcasing its overall financial health.
- Assets: Resources owned by the company (e.g., cash, inventory, property)
- Liabilities: Obligations owed to external parties (e.g., loans, accounts payable)
- Equity: Ownership interest in the company (e.g., share capital, retained earnings)

2. Income Statement: This report shows a company's revenues, expenses, and net income over a specified period, reflecting its profitability and operational performance.
- Revenues: Funds earned from selling goods or services
- Expenses: Costs incurred during business operations (e.g., salaries, rent, utilities)
- Net income: The difference between revenues and expenses, indicating profit or loss

3. Cash Flow Statement: This report summarizes a company's cash inflows and outflows over a specified period, highlighting its liquidity and ability to generate cash.
- Operating activities: Cash flows from daily business operations (e.g., sales, purchases)
- Investing activities: Cash flows from investments in assets or other businesses
- Financing activities: Cash flows from borrowing, repaying debts, or issuing equity

These accounting reports collectively provide a comprehensive view of a company's financial position, allowing stakeholders to assess its performance, stability, and potential for growth.

While records prepared under book-keeping processes and trial balances are essential components in the accounting process, they do not provide a complete assessment of a business's financial position. Instead, they serve as building blocks for creating the accounting reports that effectively reflect the company's financial health.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 25

 Financial accounting information is characterized by all of the following except

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 25

The correct answer is B.

Judgement is required to prepare accounting information since it is based on various accounting assumptions, policies, principles and standards. Therefore, financial accounting information involves professional judgement which cannot be ignored .

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 26

The objective of wealth maximization takes into account 

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 26

Wealth maximization is a modern approach to financial management. Maximization of profit used to be the main aim of a business and financial management till the concept of wealth maximization came into being. It is a superior goal compared to profit maximization as it takes broader arena into consideration.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 27

All of the following are functions of Accounting except

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 27

Ledger posting is a 'book-keeping' exercise whereas the others are purely accounting in nature, which are done in accordance with various accounting standards, policies, etc

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 28

Which of these is not available in the Financial Statements of Company?

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 28

The correct answer is d: Cost of Production.

Financial statements of a company typically include the following:

1. Balance Sheet: This statement provides a snapshot of a company's financial position at a specific point in time, showing its assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity. Key elements include:

- Assets: What the company owns
- Liabilities: What the company owes
- Shareholders' Equity: The owners' claim on the company's assets

2. Income Statement: This statement shows a company's performance over a specific period, usually a year or a quarter. It lists the company's revenues and expenses, resulting in net income or loss. Key elements include:

- Total Sales: The total revenue generated by the company during the period
- Total Profit & Loss: The net income or loss resulting from the company's operations
- Expenses: The costs incurred by the company in generating its revenues

3. Statement of Cash Flows: This statement provides information about a company's cash inflows and outflows during a specific period. It helps investors understand how a company generates and uses its cash. Key elements include:

- Operating Activities: Cash generated from the company's core operations
- Investing Activities: Cash used for investing in long-term assets or other companies
- Financing Activities: Cash generated from or used for financing activities, such as issuing stocks or paying dividends

4. Statement of Changes in Equity: This statement shows the changes in the company's equity during a specific period. It includes changes resulting from issuing new shares, paying dividends, and changes in retained earnings due to net income or loss.

Cost of Production is not directly available in the financial statements of a company. It is an internal metric used by management to assess the efficiency and profitability of the company's operations. However, you can calculate the cost of goods sold (COGS) using the income statement, which represents the direct costs associated with producing the goods or services sold by the company. This includes costs related to materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead. The cost of production is a broader term and may include additional costs beyond the COGS.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 29

 Financial statements do not consider

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 29

Financial statements are written records of a business's financial situation. They include standard reports like the balance sheet, income or profit and loss statements, and cash flow statement. They stand as one of the more essential components of business information, and as the principal method of communicating financial information about an entity to outside parties. In a technical sense, financial statements are a summation of the financial position of an entity at a given point in time. 

The primary focus of financial reporting is information about earnings and its components. Hence financial statement do not consider assets and liabilities expressed in non-monetary terms.

Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 30

 On 31st December, 2005, Ashok Ltd. purchased a machine from Mohan Ltd. for Rs. 1,75,000. This is : (year end : 31st December)

Detailed Solution for Test: Meaning And Scope Of Accounting - 1 - Question 30

The transaction is simply a economic activity which can be cash or non cash which happens in day to day operation of a business. e.g Sale purchase of goods, Sale purchase of assets etc.

Therefore "​Ashok Ltd. purchased a machine from Mohan Ltd. for Rs.1,75,000" is a transaction.

It is an transaction as we purchased machinery but also an event becz it is purchased on closing date

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