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Fundamentals of Physical Geography: Movements of Ocean Water Video Lecture | NCERT Video Summary: Class 6 to Class 12 (English) - UPSC

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FAQs on Fundamentals of Physical Geography: Movements of Ocean Water Video Lecture - NCERT Video Summary: Class 6 to Class 12 (English) - UPSC

1. What are the major movements of ocean water?
Ans. The major movements of ocean water include surface currents, upwelling, deep ocean currents, and thermohaline circulation. Surface currents are driven by wind patterns and the Earth's rotation, while upwelling occurs when cold, nutrient-rich water rises to the surface. Deep ocean currents are driven by differences in water density, and thermohaline circulation is a global pattern of deep-ocean convection driven by variations in temperature and salinity.
2. How do surface currents affect climate?
Ans. Surface currents play a crucial role in influencing climate patterns. Warm ocean currents carry heat from the equator towards the poles, moderating the temperatures of coastal areas. Cold ocean currents, on the other hand, cool the adjacent land, leading to cooler climates. Additionally, surface currents can transport nutrients and affect the distribution of marine life, impacting local ecosystems and fisheries.
3. What causes upwelling in the ocean?
Ans. Upwelling is primarily caused by wind patterns and the Earth's rotation. Along coastlines, winds blowing parallel to the shore push surface waters away, creating a gap that is filled by cold, nutrient-rich water from deeper ocean layers that rises to the surface. This upwelling of deep water brings nutrients to the surface, supporting the growth of phytoplankton and sustaining productive fisheries.
4. How do deep ocean currents contribute to global climate systems?
Ans. Deep ocean currents, also known as thermohaline circulation, play a crucial role in global climate systems. These currents are driven by differences in water density, which are influenced by variations in temperature and salinity. They help distribute heat around the globe, with warm surface waters flowing towards the poles and cold, dense water sinking to the deep ocean. This process helps regulate global climate by transferring heat and affecting the movement of surface currents.
5. What factors influence the speed and direction of surface currents?
Ans. The speed and direction of surface currents are influenced by several factors, including wind patterns, the Earth's rotation (Coriolis effect), the shape of coastlines, and the presence of large landmasses or oceanic ridges. Wind is a major driving force, with stronger winds leading to faster currents. The Coriolis effect causes currents in the Northern Hemisphere to veer to the right, while those in the Southern Hemisphere veer to the left. The shape of coastlines and the presence of barriers can also redirect or modify the flow of surface currents.
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