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Popular Struggle and Movements Video Lecture | NCERT Video Summary: Class 6 to Class 12 (English) - UPSC

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FAQs on Popular Struggle and Movements Video Lecture - NCERT Video Summary: Class 6 to Class 12 (English) - UPSC

1. What are popular struggles and movements?
Ans. Popular struggles and movements refer to collective actions taken by a large section of society to challenge or bring about changes in existing social, economic, or political structures. These struggles and movements are often driven by the grievances and aspirations of marginalized or oppressed groups and aim to achieve justice, equality, and rights for all.
2. What factors contribute to the emergence of popular struggles and movements?
Ans. Several factors contribute to the emergence of popular struggles and movements. Some of these factors include: 1. Injustice and discrimination: When people face systematic injustice, discrimination, or oppression, they are more likely to mobilize and participate in popular struggles and movements. 2. Socioeconomic disparities: Wide gaps in wealth, income, and access to resources can create a sense of discontent and motivate people to join movements advocating for economic justice and redistribution. 3. Political repression: Repressive political regimes or lack of democratic participation often lead citizens to engage in popular struggles and movements to demand political rights, freedoms, and democratic governance. 4. Unresponsive governance: When governments fail to address the needs and aspirations of the people, popular struggles and movements become a means to hold them accountable and push for policy changes. 5. Inspiring leadership and mobilization: Charismatic leaders and effective mobilization strategies play a crucial role in rallying people behind a cause and organizing popular struggles and movements.
3. Give examples of popular struggles and movements in India.
Ans. India has witnessed several popular struggles and movements throughout its history. Some prominent examples include: 1. Indian National Movement: The struggle for independence from British colonial rule, led by Mahatma Gandhi and other freedom fighters, was a mass popular movement that united people across different socio-economic and religious backgrounds. 2. Chipko Movement: Originating in the 1970s in Uttarakhand, this movement was aimed at protecting forests from deforestation and commercial exploitation. Women played a prominent role in hugging trees to prevent their felling. 3. Narmada Bachao Andolan: This movement emerged in the 1980s to protest against the construction of large dams on the Narmada River, which would lead to displacement of thousands of villagers. It demanded proper rehabilitation and environmental protection. 4. Anti-Corruption Movement: Led by social activist Anna Hazare in the early 2010s, this movement demanded the enactment of a strong anti-corruption law and establishment of an independent anti-corruption ombudsman. 5. Dalit Assertion Movements: Various movements by Dalits (formerly known as untouchables) have aimed at challenging caste-based discrimination, demanding equal rights, and asserting their political and social identities.
4. What are the impacts of popular struggles and movements?
Ans. Popular struggles and movements can have a range of impacts, including: 1. Policy changes: Successful movements can lead to the formulation and implementation of new policies that address the grievances and demands of the people. For example, the Indian National Movement resulted in the independence of India and the establishment of democratic governance. 2. Social awareness and mobilization: Movements often raise awareness about social issues, mobilize people, and build collective consciousness. They provide a platform for marginalized groups to express their concerns and aspirations. 3. Empowerment of marginalized groups: Movements can empower marginalized groups by giving them a voice, challenging existing power structures, and advocating for their rights and dignity. 4. Transformation of public discourse: Popular struggles and movements can shift public discourse, challenge dominant narratives, and influence public opinion. They can bring marginalized issues to the forefront of public consciousness. 5. Strengthening democracy: By demanding accountability, transparency, and participation, movements contribute to the strengthening of democratic institutions and processes.
5. How do popular struggles and movements impact political and social change?
Ans. Popular struggles and movements play a crucial role in driving political and social change. They challenge existing power structures, mobilize citizens, and advocate for the rights and aspirations of marginalized groups. Some ways in which they impact political and social change include: 1. Pressure on governments: Movements exert pressure on governments to address the demands and grievances of the people. This can lead to policy changes, legislative reforms, and the implementation of welfare measures. 2. Shift in power dynamics: Movements can disrupt existing power dynamics and create space for marginalized groups to assert their rights and participate in decision-making processes. 3. Creation of new institutions: Movements often give rise to new institutions or organizations that continue to work towards the goals and aspirations of the movement even after its initial phase. These institutions can contribute to sustained social change. 4. Influence on public opinion: Movements shape public opinion by raising awareness about social issues, challenging prevailing narratives, and mobilizing public support. This can lead to a change in societal attitudes and values. 5. Inspiration for future struggles: Successful movements inspire and motivate other individuals and groups to initiate similar struggles, leading to a cumulative effect on political and social change over time.
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