FAQs on Short Tricks: Principle of Inheritance & Variation Video Lecture - Biology Class 12 - NEET
|1. What is the principle of inheritance?
Ans. The principle of inheritance, also known as Mendelian inheritance, states that traits are passed on from parents to offspring through genes. These genes are located on chromosomes and are inherited in specific patterns, such as dominant or recessive. This principle explains how traits are inherited and how variations occur in a population.
|2. How does variation occur in inheritance?
Ans. Variation occurs in inheritance through the process of genetic recombination and mutation. During genetic recombination, the genetic material from both parents is mixed, creating new combinations of genes in the offspring. Mutation, on the other hand, refers to changes in the DNA sequence, which can lead to the formation of new alleles and variations in traits. These variations contribute to the diversity and adaptation of species.
|3. What are the factors that contribute to variations in inheritance?
Ans. Several factors contribute to variations in inheritance. These include genetic recombination, mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection. Genetic recombination and mutation create new combinations of genes and alleles, while gene flow introduces new genetic material into a population. Genetic drift, the random change in gene frequencies, can also lead to variations. Lastly, natural selection acts on these variations, favoring traits that enhance an organism's survival and reproduction.
|4. How are traits inherited in humans?
Ans. In humans, traits are inherited through the same principles of inheritance as other organisms. Each trait is determined by genes, which are located on chromosomes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with one pair determining the sex of an individual (XX for females and XY for males). Traits can be inherited in dominant or recessive patterns, depending on the combination of alleles present. For example, if a child inherits two dominant alleles for a trait, they will exhibit that trait.
|5. What is the role of genetics in understanding diseases?
Ans. Genetics plays a crucial role in understanding diseases. Many diseases have a genetic component, meaning that they are influenced by an individual's genes. By studying the inheritance patterns of these diseases, scientists can identify specific genes or mutations that contribute to their development. This knowledge helps in diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases. Additionally, genetic research provides insights into the underlying mechanisms of diseases and opens up possibilities for targeted therapies and personalized medicine.