In computing, a physical address (also real address, or binary address), is a memory address that is represented in the form of a binary number on the address bus circuitry in order to enable the data bus to access a particular storage cell of main memory, or a register of memory mapped I/O device.hence,option (A) is correct.
Explanation: DRAM is said to be more volatile because it has a capacitor as its storage element in which the data disappears when the capacitor loses its charge so even when the device is powered the data can be lost.
Explanation: SRAM have more speed than DRAM because it has 4 to 6 transistors arranged as flip-flop logic gates, that is it can be flipped from one binary state to another but DRAM has a small capacitor as its storage element.
Explanation: The memory arrays are basically divided into three which are random access memory, serial access memory, and content address memory. Serial access memory is divided into two, theses are shifters and queues.
Explanation: The MESI protocol supports a shared state which is a formal mechanism for controlling the cache coherency by using the bus snooping techniques. MESI refers to the states that cached data can access. In MESI protocol, multiple processors can cache shared data.
Explanation: SRAM will retain data as long it is powered up and it does not need to be refreshed as DRAM. It is designed for low power consumption and used in preference .DRAM is cheaper than SRAM but it is based on refresh circuitry as it loses charge since the capacitor is the storage element.
Explanation: Intel 80286 possess 4 general purpose registers and these are 16-bit in size. In addition to the general purpose register, there are four segmented registers, two index registers and a base pointer register.
Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a type of programmable hardware that allows designers to program the hardware using a hardware description language (HDL). It is a chip that can be programmed and reprogrammed to perform any digital function.
FPGA vs Microcontroller/Microprocessor/Coprocessor
Microcontroller, microprocessor, and coprocessor are all types of processors that execute instructions in a sequential manner. They are designed to perform specific functions and cannot be reprogrammed to perform different functions without changing the hardware.
On the other hand, an FPGA can be reprogrammed to perform a different function without changing the hardware. This makes it a more flexible and versatile solution than microcontrollers, microprocessors or coprocessors.
Advantages of FPGA
FPGA has several advantages over traditional processors, including:
1. Flexibility: FPGAs can be reprogrammed to perform different functions, making them more flexible than traditional processors.
2. High Performance: FPGAs can be optimized for specific tasks, making them faster and more efficient than traditional processors.
3. Low Power Consumption: FPGAs can be programmed to perform only the required tasks, resulting in lower power consumption.
4. Parallel Processing: FPGAs can perform multiple tasks in parallel, making them ideal for high-performance computing applications.
In conclusion, FPGAs are a type of programmable hardware that offers flexibility, high performance, low power consumption, and parallel processing capabilities. They are a versatile solution that can be used in a wide range of applications, including aerospace, defense, automotive, and consumer electronics.
Explanation: The RAM is the primary storage which directly communicates with the CPU. ROM is the secondary storage. Disk drives are capable of providing backup storage and the cache memory is a small high-speed memory which increases the speed of the processor.
Explanation: SRAM access data in approximately 4ns because of its flip-flop arrangement of transistors whereas the data access time in DRAM is approximately 60ns since it has a single capacitor for one-bit storage.
The biggest challenge in cache memory design is coherency.
Coherency refers to the consistency of data stored in different levels of cache memory and main memory. In a multi-level cache hierarchy system, different levels of cache store copies of the same data. When one level of cache modifies a data item, it needs to ensure that all other levels of cache and the main memory are updated with the latest value of the data.
Coherency is critical because if different levels of cache have inconsistent copies of the same data, it can lead to incorrect program execution and produce incorrect results. Maintaining coherency in a cache hierarchy is a challenging task due to various factors, such as:
1. Cache Snooping: Cache snooping is a technique used to detect changes made to data in one level of cache by monitoring the bus transactions. When a cache line is modified in one cache, the snooping mechanism notifies all other caches to invalidate or update their copies of the same data. Implementing efficient cache snooping mechanisms to maintain coherency requires careful design considerations.
2. Cache Invalidation and Update: When a cache line is modified in one cache, it needs to be invalidated or updated in all other caches and the main memory. This requires efficient protocols for invalidating and updating cache lines across multiple levels of cache. The design of these protocols must ensure minimal overhead in terms of latency and bandwidth.
3. Cache Coherency Protocols: Cache coherency protocols define the rules and mechanisms for maintaining coherency in a cache hierarchy. There are various protocols such as MESI (Modified, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid), MOESI (Modified, Owned, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid), and MOESIF (Modified, Owned, Exclusive, Shared, Invalid, Forward) that define the behavior of caches in terms of invalidating, updating, and sharing data. Choosing and implementing the appropriate protocol for a particular cache hierarchy is a complex task.
4. Performance Impact: Maintaining coherency introduces additional overhead in terms of cache invalidations, updates, and bus transactions. This can impact the overall performance of the system. Designing cache coherence mechanisms that minimize this overhead and optimize performance is a major challenge in cache memory design.
In conclusion, coherency is the biggest challenge in cache memory design as it requires careful consideration of cache snooping, cache invalidation and update, cache coherency protocols, and performance impact. Ensuring coherency across multiple levels of cache and main memory is crucial for the correct and efficient operation of a cache hierarchy system.
Explanation: Motorola DSP56000 is a powerful digital signal processor which is used in digital audio applications which have the capability of noise reduction and multi-band graphics whereas 8087 is a coprocessor and 80486 and 8086 are microprocessors.
The main factor that determines the memory capacity is the number of transistors.
Explanation: - Memory capacity refers to the amount of data that can be stored in a memory device, such as a computer's RAM or a solid-state drive. - Transistors are the fundamental building blocks of electronic devices, including memory chips. They are responsible for storing and manipulating data in a digital format. - The number of transistors in a memory chip directly affects its capacity to store data. Each transistor represents a binary digit, or a bit, which can be either a 0 or a 1. - A memory chip with more transistors can represent a larger number of bits, allowing for greater storage capacity. This is because each additional transistor adds an additional bit of storage. - For example, a memory chip with 1 million transistors can store 1 million bits or approximately 125 kilobytes of data. - Similarly, a memory chip with 1 billion transistors can store 1 billion bits or approximately 125 megabytes of data. - As technology advances, the number of transistors that can be packed onto a single memory chip increases, leading to larger memory capacities. - This trend is commonly referred to as Moore's Law, which states that the number of transistors on a chip doubles approximately every two years. - Hence, the number of transistors is the main factor that determines the memory capacity of a memory chip, as it directly influences the amount of data that can be stored.
Memory partitioning provides stability to the multitasking system.
Introduction In a multitasking system, multiple tasks or processes run concurrently, sharing the system resources such as CPU, memory, and I/O devices. To ensure stability and efficient execution, the system needs to allocate and manage these resources effectively. One important aspect of resource management is memory partitioning.
Memory Partitioning Memory partitioning is a technique used in operating systems to divide the available physical memory into multiple partitions or segments. Each partition is allocated to a specific task or process, providing a dedicated memory space for its execution. The primary goal of memory partitioning is to prevent processes from interfering with each other's memory space, ensuring stability and protection.
Stability in Multitasking When multiple tasks are running simultaneously in a multitasking system, there is a risk of one task accessing or modifying the memory space of another task. This can lead to data corruption, crashes, or other undesirable consequences. Memory partitioning helps maintain stability by providing isolated memory spaces for each task. This isolation ensures that a task can only access its allocated memory partition, preventing interference with other tasks.
Advantages of Memory Partitioning 1. Memory Protection: Memory partitioning enables the operating system to enforce strict memory protection mechanisms. Each task can only access its own memory partition, preventing unauthorized access or modifications to other tasks' memory. 2. Resource Allocation: By dividing the available memory into partitions, the system can allocate memory resources more efficiently. Each task is assigned a specific amount of memory based on its requirements, optimizing resource utilization. 3. Isolation: Memory partitioning provides isolation between tasks, ensuring that a failure or crash in one task does not affect the stability or execution of other tasks. This enhances system reliability. 4. Efficient Context Switching: Context switching, the process of switching between different tasks, becomes more efficient with memory partitioning. Since each task has its own dedicated memory space, the system can quickly save and restore the state of a task without affecting other tasks.
Conclusion Memory partitioning plays a crucial role in providing stability to multitasking systems. It ensures that each task has its own isolated memory space, preventing interference and maintaining system stability. Memory partitioning also offers advantages such as memory protection, efficient resource allocation, isolation, and efficient context switching.
Basic DRAM Interface The basic DRAM interface is an older method of interfacing with dynamic random access memory (DRAM) chips. It is characterized by its simplicity and low cost, but it also has limitations that can impact the speed of the processor.
Page Mode Interface The page mode interface is a more advanced method of interfacing with DRAM chips. It allows for faster access to data by allowing multiple accesses to the same row of memory without having to specify the row address each time. This reduces the overhead and improves the overall speed of the processor.
Page Interleaving Page interleaving is a technique used to improve memory access performance by interleaving the pages of memory across multiple memory modules. It allows for parallel access to memory, which can increase the overall bandwidth and speed of the system.
Burst Mode Interface The burst mode interface is another advanced method of interfacing with DRAM chips. It allows for consecutive memory accesses to be performed without having to specify the address for each access. This reduces the overhead and improves the overall speed of the processor.
Explanation The basic DRAM interface is the only option among the given choices that can lower the speed of the processor. This is because it lacks the advanced features and optimizations present in the other options.
The basic DRAM interface requires the processor to specify the row and column addresses for each memory access, which can introduce additional latency and overhead. This can result in slower overall performance compared to the more advanced methods.
The other options, such as page mode interface, page interleaving, and burst mode interface, are designed to improve the speed and efficiency of memory access. They reduce the number of address specifications required and allow for faster consecutive accesses or parallel access to memory.
In conclusion, the basic DRAM interface is the least efficient method among the given options and can potentially lower the speed of the processor due to its higher latency and overhead.
Explanation: In a coprocessor, negative numbers are stored in 2’s complement with its leftmost sign bit of 1 whereas positive numbers are stored in the form of true value with its leftmost sign bit of 0.
Explanation: The type of processor which connects to a socket on the bottom surface of the chip that connects to the motherboard by Zero Insertion Force Socket. Intel 486 is an example of this type of connection. The processor slot is one which is soldered into a card, which connects to a motherboard by a slot. Example for slot connection is Pentium 3.
Explanation: 8087 is an external IC designed to operate with the 8088/8086 processor but 80486DX is an on-chip coprocessor that is, it does not require an extra integrated chip for floating point arithmetics.
Parallel execution refers to the ability of a computer system to perform multiple tasks or instructions simultaneously. This can significantly improve the performance and efficiency of the system by utilizing the available resources effectively.
VLIW (Very Long Instruction Word) - VLIW is an instruction set architecture that supports parallel execution. - It allows multiple instructions to be executed simultaneously by packing them into a single long instruction word. - The instructions in the long word are independent and can be executed in parallel by different functional units of the processor. - VLIW processors typically have multiple functional units (ALUs, FPUs, etc.) that can execute instructions in parallel. - This parallelism is achieved by statically scheduling the instructions at compile time, rather than dynamically at runtime.
TTA (Transport Triggered Architecture) - TTA is a type of microprocessor architecture that aims to exploit instruction-level parallelism. - It uses a transport-triggered approach, where instructions are transported to functional units based on their data dependencies. - While TTA can exploit parallelism within individual instructions, it does not inherently support parallel execution of multiple instructions.
ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) Operation - ALU operations refer to arithmetic and logical operations performed by the ALU. - While these operations can be executed in parallel within a single instruction, they do not inherently support parallel execution of multiple instructions.
Test-and-Set Instructions - Test-and-set instructions are used for synchronization and mutual exclusion in concurrent programming. - They are typically used to implement locks and ensure that only one thread or process can access a shared resource at a time. - While these instructions are important for concurrency control, they do not inherently support parallel execution of multiple instructions.
Conclusion Among the given options, only VLIW instructions support parallel execution. VLIW allows multiple instructions to be packed into a single long instruction word and executed simultaneously by different functional units of the processor. This parallelism is achieved by statically scheduling the instructions at compile time. The other options, such as TTA, ALU operations, and test-and-set instructions, do not inherently support parallel execution of multiple instructions.
Explanation: The burst fill mode of cache mapping have a sequential nature of executing instructions and data access. The instruction fetches and execution accesses to sequential memory locations until it has a jump instruction or a branch instruction. This kind of cache mapping is seen in MC68030 processor.
Explanation: The cache memory operation is based on the address tag, that is, the processor generates the address which is provided to the cache and this cache stores its data with an address tag. The tag is compared with the address, if they did not match, the next tag is checked. If they match, a cache hit occurs, the data is passed to the processor. So the basic elements required is a memory array, comparator, and a counter.
Explanation: The index mechanism splits the external memory storage into a series of memory pages in which each page is the same size of the cache. Each page is mapped to the cache so that each page can have its own location in the cache.
Explanation: The cache memory is a small random access memory which is faster than a normal RAM. It has a direct connection with the CPU otherwise, there will be a separate bus for accessing data. The processor will check whether the copy of the required data is present in the cache memory if so it will access the data from the cache memory.
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