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In Sanskrit dramas, written during the Gupta period, women and Sudras spoke
A Prakrit is any of several MiddleIndo-Aryan language and was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism. The earliest extant usage of Prakrit is the corpus of inscriptions of Emperor Aśoka.Besides this, Prakrit appears in literature inthe form of Pāli Canon of Theravada Buddhists, Prakrit canon of the Jains, Prakrit grammars and in lyrics, plays and epics of the times.Extant literature of Buddhism as collected in the Pāli such as Canon or Tipiṭaka and Pali is the sacred language of Buddhism.
The Great Hindu law giver was
Manu wrotemanusmriti,which is the most controversial and most studied ancient legal text among the many Dharmasastras of Hinduism. According to the Hindu tradition, Manusmriti is a text which includes Lord Brahma’s wisdom.
After attaining the enlightenment Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon in which language?
After his enlightenment in Bodhgaya, the Buddha went to Sarnath seeking his five former companions. He found them, taught them what he had learned, and they also became enlightened. This event is referred to as "the turning of the wheel of the Dharma" and also marks the founding of the Sangha, or the community of monks.
Buddha's first ever discourse, delivered here at Sarnath, is known in Pali as the Dhammacakkhapavathana Sutta. Other Suttas include the Anattalakhana Sutta and the Saccavibhanga Sutta. The Buddha's central teaching after his enlightenment centered around the Four Noble Truths (concerning the meaning of life) and the Noble Eightfold Path (concerning the right way to live).
Which of the following works of Kalidasa gives information about the Andhras ?
The Malavikagnimitra is aSanskrit play by Kālidāsa. It is his first play. The play tells the story of the love of Agnimitra, the Shunga Emperor at Vidisha.
Rig Veda is
The Rigveda is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.its a collection of 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses
Mahajanpad situated on bank of river godawari was:
The capital of the Assakas wasPotana or Potali, which corresponds to Paudanya of Mahabharata. The Ashmakas are also mentioned by Pāṇini. They are placed in the north-west in the Markendeya Purana and the Brhat Samhita.
The main source of Knowledge about the in habitants of indus Valley Civilization is the discovery there of:
Seals of Indus valley civilizationthrough a light on the socio-cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization. Script of Harrapan people has not been yet deciphered and is written from write to left.
Mahoday is an old name of which city?
Kanauj was also known as Mahodaya during the time of Mihira Bhoja I. Kannauj is an ancient city, in earlier times the capital of the Empire of Harsha .
The art style which combines indian and greek feature is called:
Indo-Greek showed aremarkable skill in making the portraits of rulers. Also the Greek kings adopt some of the indigenous methods of minting the coins. Although Indians did not fully learn the fine art of die-cutting, the coins of Indian rulers were influenced by the Greeks. Indian adopted the art of striking coins with two dies, the obverse and the reverse. Secondly, the curious open air theatre that came into being in this period was directly a Greek legacy. The term Yavanika for curtain shows that Indian drama, at least on one point, was influenced by the Greek model, Thridly, the Greek form of sculpture influenced the Gandhara art of the Kushan period. The school began in the Kabul valley where the Greek influence was the maximum. Accordingly tone author, the terracottas of toys and plaques were all influenced by the Greeks.
Buddhist Literature is written in which of the following language?
Pali literature, body of Buddhist texts in the Pali language.
The word pali (literally, a “line”) came to be used in the sense of “text”—in contrast to atthakatha (“saying what it means”), or “commentary”—at some time during the early part of the 1st millennium CE. Modern scholarship usually follows the Pali tradition itself in describing it in terms of texts and exegeses of the Tipitaka (“Three Baskets”): the Vinaya Pitaka (“Basket of Discipline”), Sutta Pitaka (“Basket of Discourse”), and Abhidhamma Pitaka (“Basket of Special [or Further] Doctrine”).
Kanishka is associated with an era which is known as
Shaka era corresponds to theascension of Kanishka I in 78 CE, The Vikram Samvat calendar is 56.7 years ahead of the solar Gregorian calendar(Normal calander) and begins in 57 BCE, Gupta era begins in 240 CE
Which of the following inscriptions mentioned the Sati practice for the first time
These are inscription ofBudhagupta inscription of Saka ruler Sridhar Verma, inscription of Huna ruler Tormanh5, inscription of Samudragupta and Gopraj Sati Pillar inscriptions. The several Sati Pillars have found from Eran. One of the Earliest Sati Pillars of India has been found from Eran.
Fourth buddhist council held in Kashmir under emperor:
Fourth buddhist council have been convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka , perhaps in 78 CE. 1st council by Ajatshatru outside Saptaparni Cave in Rajgir, The Second Council resulted in the first schism in the Sangha and was held at Vaishali by Kal Ashoka, 3rd was held at Patliputra by Ashoka.
Bull-Seal of Indus valley civilization was found at:
The majestic zebu bull, with its heavy dewlap and wide curving horns is perhaps the most impressive motif found on the Indus seals. Generally carved on large seals with relatively short inscriptions, the zebu motif is found almost exclusively at the largest cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.The rarity of zebu seals is curious because the humped bull is a recurring theme in many of the ritual and decorative arts of the Indus region, appearing on painted pottery and as figurines long before the rise of cities and continuing on into later historical times. The zebu bull may symbolize the leader of the herd, whose strength and virility protects the herd and ensures the procreation of the species or it stands for a sacrificial animal. When carved in stone, the zebu bull probably represents the most powerful clan or top officials of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
Weapon never used by the Indus people
Weapons: The Indus Valley people used copper and bronze weapons. Battle axe, dagger, spear, bow and arrow were their main weapons. It is not yet clear if theyused swords and shields.
The famous frog hymn in Rig Veda throws light to –
Frog hymn as was composed byRishi Vasistha and related to vedic education
Which one of the following travelers visited India during the Gupta period?
Fa-Hien (also Faxian, Fa-hsien) isthe famous Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the rule of Chandra Gupta II. Fa-Hien was a pilgrim and was a devout Buddhist.
Consider the following statements-
• The Ikshvaku rulers of southern India were antagonistic toward Buddhism.
• The Pala rulers of eastern India were patrons of Budhismwhich of the following is/are correct
Statement 1 is incorrect as most of the inscriptions of the Andhra lkshvaku period record either the construction of the Buddhist viharas or the gifts made to them which shows that the lkshvaku rulers of Southern India were supporters of Buddhism.
The concept of Anuvrata was advocated by
Anuvrat is the philosophy ofchange. Its sole purpose is to enable man to introspect, understand his own nature and to make efforts to transform it.
Which one of the following was initially the most powerful city state of India in the 6th century B.C?
Of the 16 Mahajanapadas, Magadha, Kosala, Vatsa and Avanti were more powerful. They fought amongst themselves for years and ultimately Magadha emerged victorious under Bimbisara (Haranyak dynasty) in 6th C BC.
Kalsi rock inscriptions are related to
Kalsi is the only place in northIndia where the great Mauryan emperor has inscribed the set of the fourteen rock edicts . The language of these edicts is Pali and the script Brahmi
The craft of the famous blue pottery in rajasthan originated from:
The Persian Art of blue potterycame to Jaipur from Persia and Afghanistan via Mughal Courts.Blue Pottery is made from quartz and not clay. Materials that are used include quartz, raw glaze, sodium sulphate, and multani mitti (fuller's earth)Like pottery it is fired only once. The biggest advantage is that blue pottery does not develop any cracks, and blue pottery is also impervious, hygienic, and suitable for daily use.
Pre-Historic Paintings are present at-
The rock paintings havenumerous layers belonging to various epochs of time, ranging from the Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic Age to the protohistoric, early historic and medieval periods. The most ancient scenes here believed to be commonly belonging to the Mesolithic Age. Animals such as bison, tiger, rhinoceros, wild boar, elephants, monkeys, antelopes, lizards, peacocks etc. have been abundantly depicted in the rock shelters. Popular religious and ritual symbols also occur frequently. The colours used by the cave dwellers were prepared by combining manganese, hematite, soft red stone and wooden charcoal. Perhaps, animal fat and extracts of leaves were also used in the mixture.
The vedas contain all the truth was interpreted by ?
Swami Dayananda apart form the propagation of the Vedas needed to disapprove the claims of any foreign religion along with the different sects and subsets flourishing in the country.
Swami Dayananda did all efforts to revive it. He even involved the King of Kashi in his debate with the learned Pundits of Benaras. But the Kashi King was different from the King of Ujjain. Instead of supporting the truth,the King of Kashi sided with the Benaras Pundits to dampen the voice of Dayananda. But the God believer Dayananda crossed all obstruction and defended one and only one the Truth.
Arthasastra was written by
The Arthashastra explains howthe state is to be ruled and offers a list with the seven components of the state: The king, the ministers, the country (population, geography and natural resources), fortification, treasury, army, and allies.
Which one of the following usages was a post-Vedic development ?
The Hindu system divides human life into four stages, called various Ashrams. A normal person was supposed to pass through all four of them at the appropriate time. These are:
This stage lasts upto 16th or even the 24th year of a person. This stage of life is supposed to be a period of celibacy and learning. During the period a student must treat his Guru as his own father and as (visible) god and give him high respect. Absolute and willing obedience to the Guru is a must during this stage.
At the end of the Brahmacharya state the young man may return to his father’s house, get married, and begin a family by raising up children (especially sons) so that his line may continue and there will be someone to perform his funeral rites when he passes away.
Men enter into the stage when about half their expected earthly life is over. After a man is able to see his grand-son/sons it is expected that he would enter this stage. Contrary to what the name implies, he need not necessary go to the forest and spend his remaining time there but he should devote most of his time now in worship, charitable activities, and in extending help to others.
Though this is expected to the last stage of life, anybody can actually enter the life of sanyasa directly. Either from Brahmacharya or Grihasthashrama or from Vanaprastha, he can enter this stage. The meaning of the name Sanyasa is to renounce. Renunciation of the world and then entering a life of meditation and spending time with the Ultimate Reality is the ultimate aim of the stage of life.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattvas were
Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit termfor anyone who, motivated by great compassion, has generated bodhicitta, which is a spontaneous wish to attain buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.
Who among the following presided over the Buddhist council held during the region of kanishka at Kashmir
Vasumitra and Ashavaghosh together presided over the fourth council. In this council Buddhists were divided into Mahayanists and Hinayanists.
The words Satyameva Jayata have beentaken from the
"Satyameva Jayate" is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad. Following the independence of India, it was adopted as the national motto of India in 26 January 1950. It is inscribed in script at the base of the national emblem. The emblem and the words "Satyameva Jayate" are inscribed on one side of all Indian currency. The emblem is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka which was erected around 250 BCE at Sarnath, near Varanasi in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is inscribed on all currency notes and national documents.
Famous greek ambassador magasthenes visited court of:
Megasthenes was a Greekhistorian who came to India in the fourth century B.C. as a representative or ambassador of Seleucus Nicator. He lived in the court of Chandragupta Maurya for about five years (302-298 B.C.). Magasthenes in his book Indica has given details about Mauryan kings,civil administration and Indian society.
First Murti-Pooja(idol worship) in India was done for:
Idol worship (murthi puja) or image worship in Hinduism refers to the worship of the names and forms (murti) of God, any divinity or reverential person such as a guru or a saint. The practice is unique to Hinduism. Image worship is also practiced in Buddhism and Jainism. Buddhists worship Buddha, Bodhisattvas and several deities. Jains worship the Thirthankaras and other Jinas. However, both religions do not believe in creator God. Hence, image worship of God is found only in Hinduism.
Which of the following is called as the Bible of Tamil Land
The Tirukkural or Thirukkural , or shortly the Kural, is a classic Tamil text consisting of 1,330 couplets or Kurals, dealing with the everyday virtues of an individual. Considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality, chiefly secular ethics, it is known for its universality and non-denominational nature. It was authored by Valluvar, also known in full as Thiruvalluvar. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 7th century CE. The traditional accounts describe it as the last work of the third Sangam, but linguistic analysis suggests a later date of 450 to 500 CE.
The Kural has influenced several scholars across the ethical, social, political, economic, religious, philosophical, and spiritual spheres. Authors influenced by the Kural include Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Schweitzer, Ramalinga Swamigal, Monsieur Ariel, Constantius Joseph Beschi, Karl Graul, August Friedrich Caemmerer, Nathaniel Edward Kindersley, Francis Whyte Ellis, Charles E. Gover, George Uglow Pope, Alexander Piatigorsky, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, and Yu Hsi, many of whom have translated the work into their languages. Translated into at least 40 languages as of 2014, the Kural is one of the most widely translated works in the world. Because the life, culture and ethics of the Tamils are considered to be solely defined in terms of the values set by the Kural, the government and the people of Tamil Nadu alike uphold the text with utmost reverence. Along with the Gita, the Kural is a prime candidate nominated to be the national book of India, for which a declaration was passed at the Tamil Nadu Assembly in 2006.
Which of the following historic places arenot related to the life of Gautam Budha-
Sarnath-First sermon, Kushinagar-Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana after his death, Bodhgaya- Gautama Buddha is said to have obtained Enlightenment
The word Hindu as reference to the people of Hind (India) was first used by:
The word Hindu or Indu was used by Greeks to denote the country and peopleliving beyond the Indus river. Megasthenes' 'Indica' epitomizes the name for Indiaand Indians around the 5th Century B.C.E. This word was misunderstood to be coined by Arabs, by medieval and some modern Indian Historians.
Which of the Vedas is the oldest?
The oldest and most important of the four Vedas. The Vedas are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.
Regarding the Indus Valley Civilization, consider the following statements:
1. It was predominantly a secular civilization and the religious element, though present, did not dominate the scene,
2. During this period, cotton was used for manufacturing textiles in India.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
The Indus Valley civilization, as we find it, was highly developed and must have taken thousands of years to reach that stage. It was, surprisingly enough, a predominantly secular civilization, and the religious element, though present, did not dominate the scene. It was clearly also the precursor of later cultural periods in India.
During the early 16th century to the early 18th century, Indian cotton production increased, in terms of both raw cotton and cotton textiles. The Mughals introduced agrarian reforms such as a new revenue system that was biased in favour of higher value cash cropssuch as cotton and indigo, providing state incentives to grow cash crops, in addition to rising market demand.
Consider the following statements:-
• The chinese pligrim Fa-Hien attended the fourth Great Buddhist Council Held by Kanishka.
•The Chinese pligrim Hiuen-Tsang met Harsha and found him to be antagonistic to Buddhism.
Which of the following given statements is/are correct:-
Statement 1 is incorrect as fourth Buddhist Council was held in Kashmir during the reign of Kanishka under the presidentship of Vasumitra and Ashvaghosh. Fa-Hien visited India during the reign of Chandra Gupta-II and not during Kanishka's reign. Statement 2 is incorrect as Harsha was not antagonistic to Buddhism when Hiuen -Tsang met him.
Maximum number of verses in Rig Veda are devoted to-
Indra was the most important divinity and was lord of war. 250 hymns have been devoted to only Indra in Rig Veda, which is highest for any of the Gods. His other names are:
Indra is mentioned as son of Dyaus. He killed a demon Vritra, so he is known as Vritrahan. He destroyed the forts of Dasyus, so also known as Purandhar. He held the thunderbolt (Vajra) with which he destroyed the enemies. His wife is Indrani or Sachi (energy).
Which Inscription has “ASHOK” name:
Ashoka refers to himself as"Beloved of the Gods" (Devanampiyadasi) The identification of Devanampiyadasi with Ashoka was confirmed by an inscription discovered at Maski, a village in Raichur district of Karnataka.
At which among the following sites the where first evidence of cultivation of cotton has been found?
First evidence of cotton growing has been found at Mehrgarh (now in Pakistan).
Consider the following
Which of the above was not accepted by Buddhist religion choose answer from the given code
Which one of the following sites excavated recently shows all the three stages of harappan occupation (pre-harappan, harappan, post-harappan).
It is situated near Rajkot in Gujarat and lies along the river Sukh Bhadar. There are three occupation phases described. The oldest deposit is designated to the post urban phase of Harappan culture. This period I is subdivided into IA, IB and IC. These phases show mud walls, mud bricks and other structural remains of poor quality. Yet the antiquities found from this period are typically Harappan. Red and Buff ware, chert blades, cubical weight of chert and agate, beads of carnelian and terra cotta, copper objects and inscribed pot-sherds are the Harappan material found.
It is another important Harappan site lying in the district Kutch of Gujarat and is about 160 km. northeast of Bhuj. Three distinct phases are identified in the excavation. The earliest phase or IA is established on virgin soil. The citadel area is 60 120 m and is prepared with rubbles and mud bricks. The ceramics includes typical Harappan wares in addition to black-and-red ware and unpainted red ware.
The site is located on the bank of the river Marai in district Kutch of Gujarat. Period IA is characterised by evidences of Mature Harappan phase. Fortification built with stones is recorded. The ceramics comprises of cream- slipped bichrome ware, white painted black-and-red ware and some other red ware varieties. The ruins of a lower town also seem indicated.
“_____" is believed to mark themain site of Hastinapur, which was capital of Kauravas and Pandava The imperial gazetteer of India quotes about which of the following places?
Meerut is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an ancient city, with settlements dating back to the Indus Valley civilisation having been found in and around the area.
Jain temples, Hastinapur – Located on the banks of old ravine of Ganges, Hastinapur is considered one of the holiest places on earth by Jains. It is believed to be the birthplace of three Jain Tirthankaras. There are many ancient Jain temples in Hastinapur. Shri Digamber Jain Mandir, Jambudweep, Kailash Parvat rachna, Shwetambar Jain Temple are the main and famous temples in Hastinapur. Apart from Jain temples, Pandeshwar temple, Historical Gurdwara and Hastinapur Sanctuary are worth being seen.
The term ‘yavanapriya’ mentioned in ancient sanskrit texts denoted?
In ancient times the people in Central Asia are called as Yavanas in India. They liked the pepper and imports large amount of pepper from India that's why the pepper is named as Yavana-the people of foreign countries. Priya-the like pepper so it was called as Yavanapriya.
Zero was invented by—
The concept of zero as a number and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India, where, by the 9th century AD, practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number, even in the case of division. The credit for inventing ‘zero (0)’ goes to Indian mathematicians, and the number zero first appears in a book about ‘arithmetic’ written by an Indian mathematician ‘Brahamagupta’. Zero signifies ‘nothing’ and the current definition calls it an ‘additive identity’. The Indian mathematicians Bhaskara, Mahavira and Brahamagupta worked on this new number and they tried to explain its properties. It wasn’t that somebody suddenly came up with the idea of the zero and the mathematicians throughout the world accepted it. Around 500 AD, Aryabhatta, an Indian mathematician, devised a numbers system and the symbol he used for the number zero was also the number used to represent an unknown element (x).
Ashtapradhan was a council of ministers –
Ashta Pradhan was a council of eight ministers that administered the Maratha empire. The council was formed in 1674 by founding Emperor Chhatrapati Shivaji.The term Ashta Pradhan literally translates to “the Prime Eight”, from the Sanskrit ashta (“eight”) and pradhan (“prime”). The body discharged the functions of a modern council of ministers; this is regarded as one of the first successful instances of ministerial delegation in India. The council is credited with having implemented good governance practices in the Maratha heartland, as well as for the success of the military campaigns against the Mughal Empire.
Which among the following is the correct set of the plays written by Harshavardhan in Sanskrit?
Nagananda, Priyadarshika and Ratnavali.
Emperor Harshvardhana wrote three plays in the Sanskrit Language namely Nagananda, Priyadarshika and Ratnavali.
Which of the followings were discussed in”Kitab Ul Hind” by Alberuni?
He makes observation that science of astronomy is thr most popular wih the Indians because in various ways it is connected with their religion and that is why Indian astronomer should also be a good astrologer.He mentions the planets and their motions, the 12 signs of the Zodiac, the motion and different stages of the moon. He also describes the composition of the Earth and the Heavens as given in the Hindu sculptures. He discusses various astronomical terms such as kalpa, adhimasa etc and analyzes them. He makes comparison between Geek science of astronomy and the Indian.
Over time, Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars. Al-Biruni collected books and studied with these Hindu scholars to become fluent in Sanskrit, discover and translate into Arabic the mathematics, science, medicine, astronomy and other fields of arts as practiced in 11th century India. He was inspired by the arguments offered by Indian scholars who believed earth must be ellipsoid shape, with yet to be discovered continent at earth’s south pole, and earth’s rotation around the sun is the only way to fully explain the difference in daylight hours by latitude, seasons and earth’s relative positions with moon and stars.
After Hazarat Mohammad Saheb, the religious teacher was called—
After Hazarat Mohammad Saheb, the religious teacher was called Khalifa.
The famous dialogue between Nachiketa And Yama is mentioned in the