Laxmikanth Test: Panchayati Raj


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QUESTION: 1

What were the recommendations of Balwant Rai Mehta committee on Panchayati Raj?

1. The Gram Panchayat should be the executive body and Zila Parishad should be the supervisory body

2. Jila Parishad should be constituted with indirectly elected members

Which of these statements is/are incorrect?

Solution:

 The specific recommendations of the committee are 

  • Establishment of a 3-tier Panchayati Raj system -Gram Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samiti at the block level, and District Parishad at the district level. These tiers should be organically linked through a device of indirect elections.

  • The village Panchayat should be constituted with directly elected representatives, whereas the Panchayat Samiti and Zilla Parishad should be constituted with indirectly elected members. 

  • The Panchayat Samiti should be the executive body while the Zilla Parishad should be the advisory, coordinating and supervisory body.

  • The District Collector should be the Chairman of the Zilla Parishad. There should be a genuine transfer of power and responsibility to these democratic bodies. Sufficient resources should be transferred to these bodies to enable them to discharge their functions and fulfil their responsibilities. A system should be evolved to effect further devolution of authority in future.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements.

1. Rajasthan was the first state to establish Panchayati Raj

2. Rajasthan was followed by the Madhya Pradesh in establishing Panchayati Raj

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: Rajasthan was the first state to establish Panchayati Raj. The scheme was inaugurated by the prime minister on October 2, 1959, in Nagaur district. Rajasthan was followed by Andhra Pradesh, which also adopted the system in 1959. Thereafter, most of the states adopted the system.

QUESTION: 3

What were the recommendations of the Ashok Mehta committee?

1. A district should be the first point for decentralisation under popular supervision below the state level

2. Zila Parishad should be the supervisory body and made responsible for planning at the district level

3. There should be an official participation of political parties at all levels of Panchayat elections

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Answer: c

Solution:

The main recommendations of the committee were: 

  • The 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj should be replaced by the 2-tier system: Zilla Parishad at the district level, and below it, the Mandal Panchayat Consisting of a group of villages covering a population of 15000 to 20000. 

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    A district should be the first point for decentralisation under popular supervision below the state level. 

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    Zila Parishad should be the executive body and made responsible for planning at the district level. 

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    There should be an official participation of political parties at all levels of Panchayat elections. The Panchayat Raj institutions should have compulsory powers of taxation to mobilise their own financial resources. 

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    There should be a regular social audit by a district level agency and by a committee of legislators to check whether the funds allotted for the vulnerable social and economic groups are actually spent on them. 

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    The state government should not supersede the Panchayat Raj institutions. In case of an imperative supersession, the election should be held within 6 months from the date of supersession. 

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    The Nyaya Panchayats should be kept as separate bodies from that of development Panchayats. They should be presided over by a qualified judge etc.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 4

Which of the following states took steps to revitalise Panchayati Raj, keeping in view some of the recommendations of Ashok Mehta committee?

1. Karnataka

2. West Bengal

3. Andhra Pradesh

Choose from the following options

Solution:  
  • In December 1977, the Janata Government appointed a committee on Panchayati Raj institutions under the chairmanship of Ashoka Mehta. The committee submitted its report in August 1978 and made 132 recommendations to revive and strengthen the declining Panchayati Raj system in the country. As a result of this report, the Indian states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal passed new legislation.

  • However, the flow of politics at the state level did not allow the institutions to develop their own political dynamics.

QUESTION: 5

Which of the following are correct regarding G. V. K. Rao Committee?

1. G. V. K. Rao Committee was appointed by the Planning Commission in 1985

2. Zila Parishad should be of prime importance in the plan of democratic decentralization

3. A post of District Development Commissioner must be created 

Choose from the following options

Solution: Recommendations of the G. V. K. Rao Committee - Planning commission in 1985 appointed The Committee on Administrative Arrangement for Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation Programmes under the chairmanship of G. V. K. Rao. The Committee came to the conclusion that bureaucratization of development administration opposed to the democratization has weakened the Panchayati Raj institutions. This has resulted in what is aptly called ‘grass without roots’. The recommendations to strengthen and revitalize the Panchayati Raj system made were -

1. The district-level body, Zila Parishad, should be primary in the plan of democratic decentralization.

2. It stated that “the district is the proper unit for planning and development and the Zila Parishad should become the principal body for the management of all development programs which can be handled at that level.”

3. The Panchayati Raj institutions at the district and lower levels must be assigned an important role with respect to planning, implementation and monitoring of rural development programs.

4. For effective decentralized district planning, some of the planning functions at the state level should be transferred to the district level planning units.

5. District Development Commissioner post must be created.

6. He would be the chief executive officer of the Zila Parishad.

7. He should be in charge of all development departments at the district level.

8. Regular elections to the Panchayati Raj institutions.

Thus, the committee assigned a primary role to the Panchayati Raj in local planning and development. It is in this respect that the recommendations of the G. V. K. Rao Committee Report (1986) were different from those of the Dantwala Committee Report on Block-Level Planning (1978) and the Hanumantha Rao Committee Report on District Planning (1984). Both the committees suggested that the basic decentralised planning function should be done at the district level.

QUESTION: 6

Which among the following were the recommendations of the Gadgil committee?

1. Zila Parishad should be constituted with indirectly elected members

2. Reservation for only SCs and STs

Choose from the following options.

Solution:  
  • A constitutional status should be bestowed on the Panchayati Raj institutions. A three-tier system of Panchayati Raj with panchayats at the village, block and district levels. 

  • The term of Panchayati Raj institutions should be fixed at five years. The members of the Panchayats at all three levels should be directly elected. Reservation for SCs, STs and women. 

  • The Panchayati Raj bodies should have the responsibility of preparation and implementation of plans for socio-economic development. For this purpose, a list of subjects should be specified in the constitution. 

  • The Panchayat Raj bodies should be empowered to levy, collect and appropriate taxes and duties. Establishment of a State Finance Commission for the allocation of finances to the Panchayats. Establishment of a State Election Commission for the conduction of elections to the panchayats.

QUESTION: 7

Which among the following were the recommendations of the LM Singhvi committee?

1. The judicial Tribunals should be established in each district to adjudicate controversies About election to the Panchayati Raj institutions

2. Nyaay Panchayats should be established for a cluster of villages

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:

In 1986, Rajiv Gandhi government appointed a committee to prepare a concept paper on ‘Revitalization of Panchayati Raj Institutions for Democracy and Development’ under the chairmanship of L M Singhvi. It made the following recommendations.

The Panchayati Raj institutions should be constitutionally recognized, protected and preserved. For this purpose, a new chapter should be added in the Constitution of India. This will make their identity and integrity reasonably and substantially inviolate. It also suggested constitutional provisions to ensure regular, free and fair elections to the Panchayati Raj bodies.

 Nyaya Panchayats should be established for a cluster of villages.

The villages should be reorganized to make Gram Panchayats more viable. It also emphasised the importance of the Gram Sabha and called it as the embodiment of direct democracy.

The Village Panchayats should have more financial resources.

The judicial tribunals should be established in each state to adjudicate controversies about election to the Panchayati Raj institutions, their dissolution and other matters related to their functioning

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements about Gram Sabha

1. It is a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls of a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level

2. It is a village assembly consisting of all the registered voters in the area of a panchayat

3. It may exercise such powers and perform such functions at the village level as the Gram Panchayat of the village determines

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: Gram Sabha: The act provides for a Gram Sabha as the foundation of the Panchayati raj system. It is a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls of a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level. Thus, it is a village assembly consisting of all the registered voters in the area of a panchayat. It may exercise such powers and perform such functions at the village level as the legislature of a state determines.

QUESTION: 9

Which among the following statements are correct about the 73rd Amendment Act of 1992?

1. The act provides for a three-tier system of Panchayati raj in every state, that is, panchayats at the village, intermediate, and district levels

2. A state having a population not exceeding 20 lakh may not constitute panchayats at the intermediate level

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

The act provides for a three-tier system of Panchayati raj in every state, that is, panchayats at the village, intermediate, and district levels. Thus, the act brings about uniformity in the structure of Panchayati raj throughout the country. However, a state having a population not exceeding 20 lakh may not constitute panchayats at the intermediate level.

 

QUESTION: 10

The state legislature may:

1. Authorise a panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees

2. Assign to a panchayat taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by the state government

3. Provide for making grants-in-aid to the panchayats from the consolidated fund of the state

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: The state legislature may 

(a) authorize a panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees; 

(b) assign to a panchayat taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by the state government; 

(c) provide for making grants-in-aid to the panchayats from the consolidated fund of the state; and 

(d) provide for the constitution of funds for crediting all money of the panchayats.

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