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Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - UPSC MCQ


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20 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC CSE - Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1

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Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 1

Consider the following pairs:

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 1
  • Pair 1 is correctly matched. A Bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism is indeed a being who seeks enlightenment not just for themselves but for all sentient beings.
  • Pair 2 is correctly matched. Sallekhana is a Jain practice, not a Buddhist one, and it involves fasting to death as a means of purifying the soul.
  • Pair 3 is correctly matched. Dukkha is a foundational concept in Buddhism that refers to the intrinsic suffering that exists in life due to desire, attachment, and ignorance.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 2

Consider the following statements:

  1. The Buddha gave his first sermon, the Dharma-chakra-pravartana, at Deer Park in Sarnath.
  2. Buddhism recognizes the existence of the soul (atman) similar to Jainism.
  3. The Three Jewels of Buddhism include Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 2
  • Statement 1 is correct. The Buddha's first sermon after attaining enlightenment was indeed given at Deer Park in Sarnath and is known as the Dharma-chakra-pravartana or "Turning the Wheel of Law."
  • Statement 2 is incorrect. Buddhism, unlike Jainism, rejects the authenticity of the Vedas and the concept of the existence of the soul (atman).
  • Statement 3 is correct. The Three Jewels of Buddhism, also known as Triratna, include Buddha (the enlightened one), Dhamma (the teachings of Buddha), and Sangha (the monastic order).
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 3

Consider the following statements:

  1. Hinayana Buddhism does not believe in idol or image worship of Buddha.
  2. Mahayana Buddhism’s ultimate goal is spiritual upliftment for all beings.
  3. Vajrayana Buddhism incorporates Vedic rituals into its practice.

Which of the above statements are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 3
  • Statement 1 is correct. Hinayana Buddhism focuses on individual salvation through self-discipline and meditation and traditionally does not engage in idol or image worship of the Buddha.
  • Statement 2 is correct. Mahayana Buddhism is more liberal and emphasizes the bodhisattva path, aiming for the spiritual upliftment of all beings, not just individual enlightenment.
  • Statement 3 is correct. Vajrayana Buddhism, also known as Tantric Buddhism, incorporates Brahmanical (Vedic) rituals alongside Buddhist philosophies, making it distinct from other Buddhist schools.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 4

Consider the following pairs:

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 4
  • Pair 1 is correctly matched. The symbol associated with Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, is indeed the lion.
  • Pair 2 is correctly matched. Parshvanatha, the 23rd Tirthankara, is associated with the snake symbol, often depicted with a canopy of snake hoods over his head.
  • Pair 3 is correctly matched. Rishabhanatha, the first Tirthankara, is associated with the bull symbol.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 5

Consider the following statements about the Noble Eightfold Path in Buddhism:

  1. Right Livelihood involves engaging in occupations that harm other beings.
  2. Right Effort is about cultivating positive states of mind and abandoning negative ones.
  3. Right Mindfulness involves a correct understanding of the nature of reality.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 5
  • Statement 1 is incorrect. Right Livelihood actually involves choosing occupations that do not harm other beings and are ethically positive.
  • Statement 2 is correct. Right Effort in Buddhism is about making an active effort to cultivate beneficial qualities while preventing and eliminating harmful qualities.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect as described. Right Mindfulness refers to being fully present and aware of our actions, thoughts, and feelings without distraction or judgment, while Right Understanding (or Right View) involves a correct understanding of the nature of reality, including the Four Noble Truths.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 6

Assertion (A): In Jainism, the concept of Anekantavada encourages the acceptance of multiple truths and perspectives.

Reason (R): Jain philosophy teaches that reality is complex and multifaceted, and no single human perspective can fully capture it.

Is the reason for the assertion correct, and is it the correct explanation?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 6

The assertion and the reason are correctly matched. Anekantavada is a fundamental principle in Jain philosophy that acknowledges the complexity of reality and promotes tolerance towards diverse viewpoints, recognizing that multiple perspectives can offer valid insights into the nature of existence.

Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 7

Consider the following pairs:

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 7
  • Pair 1 is incorrectly matched. The First Buddhist Council focused on compiling the teachings of the Buddha into the Vinaya Pitaka and the Sutta Pitaka, not the Dhammapada.
  • Pair 2 is correctly matched. The Second Buddhist Council led to the first major split in the Sangha between the Sthaviravada and Mahasamghika schools.
  • Pair 3 is incorrectly matched. The Fourth Buddhist Council is traditionally associated with the formalization of the Theravada canon in Sri Lanka under King Vattagamani. The conceptual division into Hinayana and Mahayana schools was a gradual process and not the direct outcome of any council.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 8

Consider the following statements about the Bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism:

  1. Avalokitesvara is known for embodying the compassion of all Buddhas and is depicted as a female in some traditions.
  2. Manjusri represents the wisdom of Buddha and is always depicted with a book.
  3. Samantabhadra is primarily associated with the practice of strict asceticism.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 8
  • Statement 1 is correct. Avalokitesvara, known for embodying the compassion of all Buddhas, is depicted in various forms, including female forms in certain traditions.
  • Statement 2 is correct. Manjusri represents the wisdom of Buddha and is commonly depicted with a sword in one hand for cutting through ignorance, and a book, representing the Prajnaparamita sutra.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect. Samantabhadra is not primarily associated with strict asceticism; rather, he is known for his practice of meditation and vows, symbolizing universal benevolence and meditation.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 9

Assertion (A): In Vajrayana Buddhism, the use of mantras and mudras is believed to accelerate the path to enlightenment.

Reason (R): Vajrayana practices, including the use of mantras and mudras, focus on transforming ordinary experiences into transcendental wisdom.

Is the reason for the assertion correct, and is it the correct explanation?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 9

The assertion and the reason are correctly linked and true. Vajrayana Buddhism, sometimes known as Tantric Buddhism, employs a variety of esoteric practices, including the use of mantras (sacred sounds), mudras (symbolic hand gestures), and visualizations, to accelerate the attainment of enlightenment. These practices are designed to rapidly transform the practitioner's mind by using the energy of ordinary experiences as a pathway to achieve spiritual insight and the realization of Buddhahood. This approach is characteristic of the Vajrayana path, which seeks to use every aspect of life as an opportunity for spiritual advancement.

Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 10

Consider the following statements regarding Jainism:

  1. Jainism believes in the existence of the soul (at man) and its liberation through the practice of non-violence (ahimsa) and self-control.
  2. Digambara Jain monks wear white clothing to symbolize purity and detachment.
  3. Svetambara Jainism teaches that liberation can be achieved by following twelve vows, including non-attachment and truthfulness.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 10
  • Statement 1 is correct. Jainism emphasizes the existence of the soul (atman) and its liberation through practices such as non-violence (ahimsa) and self-control. This is a core aspect of Jain philosophy, distinguishing it from Buddhism, which does not accept the concept of an eternal soul.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect. Digambara Jain monks do not wear any clothes, as they practice complete nudity, symbolizing the rejection of all earthly possessions and attachment. The absence of clothing is seen as a sign of their renunciation and purity.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect in its specifics. Svetambara Jainism does teach about ethical practices and vows, but the concept of twelve vows specifically pertains to the lay followers (householders) in Jainism, which includes vows of non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, chastity, and non-attachment, among others. The emphasis is on living a life that minimizes harm to all living beings.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 11

Consider the following pairs:

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 11
  • Pair 1 is correctly matched. The Digambara sect of Jainism holds the belief that women cannot achieve liberation in their current birth and must be reborn as men to attain it.
  • Pair 2 is incorrectly matched. It is the Digambara sect, not the Svetambara sect, that practices nudity for male monks as a symbol of renunciation.
  • Pair 3 is incorrectly matched. Theravada Buddhism focuses on individual enlightenment leading to Nirvana, not on the liberation of the community as a whole. This contrasts with the Mahayana ideal of achieving Buddhahood for the sake of all beings.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 12

Consider the following statements about the Buddhist councils:

  1. The Fourth Buddhist Council was held under the patronage of King Kanishka, where Buddhism split into Hinayana and Mahayana sects.
  2. The First Buddhist Council compiled the Buddha's teachings into the Sutta Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka.
  3. The Third Buddhist Council was convened by Emperor Ashoka to purify the Buddhist movement from schismatic tendencies.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 12
  • Statement 1 is correct. The Fourth Buddhist Council is traditionally held under the patronage of King Kanishka, and it is associated with the formal split of Buddhism into the Hinayana and Mahayana sects.
  • Statement 2 is correct. The First Buddhist Council was convened shortly after the Buddha's death, where his teachings were compiled into the Sutta Pitaka (the basket of discourses) and the Vinaya Pitaka (the basket of monastic discipline).
  • Statement 3 is correct. The Third Buddhist Council was convened by Emperor Ashoka with the goal of purifying the sangha (monastic community) of schismatic and heretical views, reinforcing the orthodox teachings of Buddhism.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 13

Assertion (A): The Middle Path in Buddhism rejects all forms of sensual pleasure.

Reason (R): The Middle Path advocates for a balanced approach between severe asceticism and indulgence in sensual pleasures.

Is the reason for the assertion correct, and is it the correct explanation?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 13

The assertion is false because the Middle Path does not outright reject all forms of sensual pleasure. Instead, it seeks a balance, avoiding both extreme denial and excessive indulgence. The reason is true as it correctly describes the Middle Path's balanced approach to spiritual practice.

Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 14

Consider the following statements about Navayana Buddhism:

  1. Navayana Buddhism was propounded by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar as a means to address social inequalities and castism in Hindu society.
  2. Navayana rejects traditional Buddhist practices such as meditation and enlightenment.
  3. Navayana Buddhism incorporates the worship of Hindu gods and goddesses.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 14
  • Statement 1 is correct. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, a prominent Indian social reformer and leader, propounded Navayana Buddhism as a way to address and combat the social inequalities and castism prevalent in Hindu society. He aimed to reinterpret Buddhism to focus on social equality and justice.
  • Statement 2 is correct. Navayana Buddhism discards traditional Buddhist concepts such as karma, rebirth, meditation, and the Four Noble Truths, focusing instead on a radical reinterpretation of Buddha's teachings as they pertain to social equality and the struggle against caste discrimination.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect. Navayana Buddhism does not incorporate the worship of Hindu gods and goddesses. Instead, it is characterized by a rejection of Hindu social practices and deities, focusing on a rational, ethical, and egalitarian approach to social reform and spirituality.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 15

Consider the following statements regarding Mahayana Buddhism:

  1. Mahayana Buddhism introduces the concept of the Bodhisattva, beings who seek enlightenment not only for themselves but for all sentient beings.
  2. The Lotus Sutra is a key text in Theravada Buddhism that outlines the path to becoming a Bodhisattva.
  3. Mahayana Buddhism practices include the six perfections, aimed at developing qualities such as generosity, patience, and wisdom.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 15
  • Statement 1 is correct. Mahayana Buddhism introduces the concept of the Bodhisattva, enlightened beings who, out of compassion, vow to achieve Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. This is a central tenet of Mahayana philosophy and practice.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect. The Lotus Sutra is a key Mahayana Buddhist text, not a Theravada one. It significantly elaborates on the concept of the Bodhisattva path and the universal potential for Buddhahood, emphasizing the importance of compassion and the possibility of enlightenment for all.
  • Statement 3 is correct. The six perfections (paramitas) in Mahayana Buddhism are practices that Bodhisattvas are encouraged to develop to aid in their journey towards enlightenment. These include generosity (dana), morality (sila), patience (ksanti), vigor (virya), meditation (dhyana), and wisdom (prajna).
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 16

Assertion (A): The practice of Sallekhana in Jainism is viewed as a form of suicide.

Reason (R): Sallekhana involves a voluntary and gradual fast unto death, undertaken with a calm and dispassionate mindset, as a way to purify the soul.

Is the reason for the assertion correct, and is it the correct explanation?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 16

The assertion is false because, within Jainism, Sallekhana is not considered a form of suicide. It is a highly respected practice that is seen as a final act of spiritual purification and detachment. The reason is true as it accurately describes the nature and purpose of Sallekh.

Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 17

Consider the following statements regarding the teachings and practices of Jainism:

  1. Jainism teaches the concept of anekantavada, which suggests that truth and reality have multiple aspects and no single viewpoint is the complete truth.
  2. Sallekhana, the practice of fasting to death, is considered an act of suicide in Jain philosophy.
  3. The Digambara sect of Jainism believes that women cannot achieve liberation (moksha) in their current birth.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 17
  • Statement 1 is correct. The concept of anekantavada is a fundamental doctrine of Jainism, emphasizing the complexity of truth and reality, and advocating for a multifaceted approach to understanding and explaining them. It promotes tolerance and acceptance of diverse viewpoints.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect. Sallekhana, or the practice of a voluntary and gradual reduction in the intake of food and liquids, is considered in Jainism to be an ethical and spiritual act of purification, not suicide. It is viewed as a way to face the end of life with composure, detachment, and focus on the soul's liberation.
  • Statement 3 is correct. The Digambara sect of Jainism holds the belief that women cannot achieve moksha in their current female form. This view is based on their interpretation of Jain texts and the requirements for achieving liberation, which they believe can only be fully met by men in their tradition.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 18

Consider the following statements about the Buddhist concept of the Middle Path:

  1. The Middle Path refers to a way of life that avoids the extremes of asceticism and sensual indulgence.
  2. The Middle Path is only applicable to monastic members of the Buddhist Sangha.
  3. Following the Middle Path leads to the realization of Nirvana, the ultimate goal of Buddhism.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 18
  • Statement 1 is correct. The Middle Path (Madhyama-Pratipad) in Buddhism refers to the balanced approach to spiritual development that avoids the extremes of severe asceticism on one hand and indulgence in sensual pleasures on the other. It is exemplified by the Noble Eightfold Path, which outlines the ethical and mental development towards enlightenment.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect. The Middle Path is applicable to all followers of Buddhism, not just monastic members. It provides a framework for ethical living and spiritual practice that is accessible to lay followers as well as monks and nuns.
  • Statement 3 is correct. Following the Middle Path, as defined by the Noble Eightfold Path, leads to the realization of Nirvana. Nirvana is the extinguishing of the fires of desire, aversion, and delusion, and it represents the ultimate goal of Buddhist practice, signifying the end of suffering and the cycle of rebirth.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 19

Consider the following pairs:

How many of the above pairs are correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 19
  • Pair 1 is correctly matched. The Lotus Sutra is one of the most important and influential texts in Mahayana Buddhism, emphasizing the universal potential for Buddhahood.
  • Pair 2 is correctly matched. The Visuddhimagga, or "Path of Purification," is a comprehensive manual of Theravada Buddhist practice, written by Buddhaghosa in the 5th century AD.
  • Pair 3 is incorrectly matched. The Tantraloka is not a Buddhist text but a key text in Hindu Tantra, written by Abhinavagupta. It does not belong to Vajrayana Buddhism, which has its own tantric texts like the Tibetan Buddhist Tantras.
Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 20

Assertion (A): Mahayana Buddhism introduced the concept of the Bodhisattva, who seeks enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings.

Reason (R): Mahayana Buddhism emphasizes the altruistic goal of achieving Buddhahood for the benefit of others, distinguishing it from Theravada Buddhism's focus on individual enlightenment.

Is the reason for the assertion correct, and is it the correct explanation?

Detailed Solution for Nitin Singhania Test: Buddhism And Jainism - 1 - Question 20

The assertion and reason are both correct and appropriately linked. Mahayana Buddhism indeed introduced the concept of the Bodhisattva as part of its broader emphasis on universal compassion and the altruistic goal of attaining enlightenment to help all beings. This stands in contrast to the more individualistic approach to enlightenment found in Theravada Buddhism.

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