Nitin Singhania Test: Indian Dance Form - 2


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QUESTION: 1

References Indian dance forms are found in

Explanations:

  • The Natya Shastra is a Sanskrit text on the performing arts. The text is attributed to sage Bharata Muni.

  • The Natya Shastra is notable as an ancient encyclopaedic treatise on the arts, which has influenced dance, music and literary traditions in India. The Natya Shastra is the oldest surviving ancient Indian work on performing arts.

Solution:
QUESTION: 2

Abhinay a Daipana, a famous treatise on dance is written by

Explanations: Nandikeshvara (5th to 4th century BCE) was the great theorist on stage-craft of ancient India. He was the Abhinaya Darpana ('The Mirror of Gesture'), a famous treatise on dance.

Solution:
QUESTION: 3

Which of the following is/are recognized as classical dance forms in India?

1. Odissi

2. Manipuri

3. Sattriya

4. Mohiniyattam

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Explanations: Dance in India has an unbroken tradition of over 2000 years. Its themes are derived from mythology, legends and classical literature, and its two main divisions are classical and folk.

  • Classical dance forms are based on ancient dance discipline and have rigid rules of presentation.

  • Important among them are Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kathak, Manipuri, Kuchipudi and Odissi.

  • Both classical and folk dances owe their present popularity to institutions like Sangeet Natak Akademi and other training institutes and cultural organizations.

  • The Akademi gives financial assistance to cultural institutions and awards fellowships to scholars, performers, and teachers to promote advanced study and training in rare dance and music forms.

Solution:
QUESTION: 4

Which of the following are India's classical dance forms as recognized by Sangeet Natak Akademi?

1. Kuchipudi

2. Kathak

3. Sattriya

4. Chhau

5. Odissi

6. Yakshagana

Solution:

Explanations:

  •  

    The Sangeet Natak Akademi recognizes eight dance forms as classical: Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali, Sattriya, Manipuri, Mohiniyattam.

  •  

    The Ministry of Culture has recognized nine classical dance forms, including Chhau.

QUESTION: 5

The Natya Shastra is a notable ancient treatise influencing dance, music, and literary traditions in India. It is notable for its aesthetic 'Rasa theory'. What does the theory assert?​

Solution:

Explanations:

  •  

    It asserts that entertainment is the desired effect of performance arts but not the primary goal. The primary goal is to transport the individual in the audience into another parallel reality, full of wonder. He experiences the essence of his own consciousness and reflects on spiritual and moral questions.

  •  

    This is similar to the Sufi's views on music, chanting, and its spiritual potential to connect with the divine.

QUESTION: 6

The origins of this dance form can be traced back to temple dancers or devadasis.

Explanations:

  • The origins of Bharatanatyam can be traced back to 'Sadir' - the solo dance performance of the temple dancers or 'devadasis' in Tamil Nadu. It was also referred to as 'Dashiattam'.

  • With the decline of the Devadasi system, the art too became nearly extinct. However, the efforts of E. Krishna Iyer, a prominent freedom fighter, revived this dance form.

Solution:
QUESTION: 7

Which dance is often referred to as 'Fire Dance'?

Explanations: Bharatanatyam is often referred to as the 'fire dance', as it manifests fire in the human body. Most of the movements in Bharatanatyam resemble that of a dancing flame.

Solution:
QUESTION: 8

Consider the following about Kathakali:

1. It is the oldest dance form that is recognized as a classical dance in India.

2. The characters in a Kathakali performance are broadly divided into Satvika, Rajasika and Tamasika types.

3. The body movement styles in Kathakali are borrowed from early martial arts of Kerala.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Explanations:

  • Kathakali is considered to be of comparatively recent origin.

  • However, the art has evolved from many social and religious theatrical forms which existed in the southern region in ancient times.

  • These are the gunas or the flavours of dance that help present different faces and emotions.

  • Kathakali is indebted to Kerala's early martial arts for body movements and choreographic patterns.

  • Koodiyattam, Chakiarkoothu, Krishnattam and Ramanattam are few ritual performing arts of Kerala, directly influencing Kathakali in its form and technique.

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

Identified as a classical dance today in India, and earlier known as Odhra Magadha; it was a temple dance performed by the Devadasis. It is

Explanations:

  • The Natya Shastra mentions many regional varieties, such as the south-eastern style known as the Odhra Magadha. This can be identified as the earliest precursor of present-day Odissi.

  • Odissi is a highly stylized dance. To some extent, Odissi is based on the classical Natya Shastra and the Abhinaya Darpana.

  • The movements are built around the two basic postures of the Tribhanga and the Chowk.

  • Odissi dance also depicts Lord Krishna's childhood and his love for Radha.

Solution:
QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements.

1. Silpasastra literature describes the group of the 'Three Bhangas' - Abhang, Samabhanga, and Atibhanga.

2. The Indian classical dance of Odissi is characterized by various Bhangas.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Explanations:

  • According to K. M. Varma, the Sanskrit term Tribhanga means three bhanga, and according to K. M. Varma, the term Tribhanga is not the name of a particular standing position but is used in the Silpasastra literature to describe the group of the "Three Bhangas", namely Abhang, Samabhanga, and Atibhanga.

  • The Indian classical dance of Odissi is characterized by various Bhangas or stance, which involves stamping of the foot and striking various postures as seen in Indian sculptures. There are four in number, namely Bhanga, Abanga, Atibhanga and Tribhanga being the most common of all. Like many other poses used in traditional Indian dance, including Odissi, Bharata Natyam and Kathak, Tribhangi or Tribhanga can be found in Indian sculpture.

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

This is the earliest form of dance in Manipur, which forms all stylized dances there.

Explanations:

  • The origin of Manipuri dance is traced back to ancient times which go beyond recorded history.

  • The dance in Manipur is associated with traditional festivals and rituals. There are references to Shiva and Parvati's dances and other gods and goddesses who created the universe.

  • Lai Haraoba is one of the main festivals in Manipur, which has its roots in the pre-Vaishnavite period.

  • The earliest form of dance that forms all stylized dances in Manipur is the Lai Haraoba.

  • The literal meaning of Lai Haraoba is the merrymaking of the gods; it is performed as a ceremonial offering of song and dance.

  • The maibas and maibis (priests and priestesses) are the dance principal performers, who re-enact the theme of creating the world.

Solution:
QUESTION: 12

It is the earliest form of dance that forms all stylized dances in Manipur with its roots in the pre-Vaishnavite period. Priests and priestesses re-enact the theme of the creation of the world in this dance which is?

Explanations:

  • Lai Haraoba is one of the main festivals in Manipur, which has its roots in the pre-Vaishnavite period. The literal meaning of Lai Haraoba is the merrymaking of the gods; it is performed as a ceremonial offering of song and dance.

  • The maibas and maibis (priests and priestesses) are the dance principal performers, who re-enact the theme of creating the world.

Solution:
QUESTION: 13

Jugalbandi is one of the main attractions in

Explanations: Jugalbandi is the main attraction of kathak recital, which shows a competitive play between the dancer and the table player.

Solution:
QUESTION: 14

Sattriya is a classical dance form of India. What does the 'Sattras' mean in its context?

Explanations:

  • Mahapurusha Sankaradeva, a great Vaishnava saint and reformer of Assam, introduced the Sattriya dance form in the 15lh century AD as a powerful medium for the propagation of the Vaishnava faith.

  • Later on, the dance form evolved and expanded as a distinctive style of dance. For centuries, the Sattras, i.e. Vaishnava maths or monasteries nurtured and preserved with this neo-Vaishnava treasure of Assamese dance and drama. This dance style has been aptly named Sattriya because of its religious character and association with the Sattras.

Solution:
QUESTION: 15

Consider the following about Sattriya dance form:

1. It is associated with the propagation of the Vaishnava faith.

2. It has been recognized by the Sangeet Natak Akademi as an official classical dance of India.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Explanations:

  • The Sangeet Natak Akademi has recognized it as an official classical dance of India.

  • This dance style has been aptly named Sattriya because of its religious character and association with the Sattras.

  • Strictly laid down principles govern Sattriya dance in respect of footwork, hasta mudras, music, acharyas, etc.

Solution:
QUESTION: 16

Which among the following is a folk dance of India?

Explanations:

  • It is a folk dance of Rajasthan. Pots topped with lighted lamps are balanced on the head, and graceful hand movements come together in the Chari dance of the Kishangarh area.

  • These performers move effortlessly on the floor and do not seem at all conscious of a potential danger of being burnt at all.

Solution:
QUESTION: 17

Which among the following are folk dances of India?

1. Chari

2. Mohiniyattam

3. Rouff

4. RautNacha

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Explanations:

  • It is a folk dance of Rajasthan.

  • Pots topped with lighted lamps are balanced on the head, and graceful hand movements come together in the Chari dance of the Kishangarh area.

  • It is a classical dance form.

  • It is the traditional folk dance of Kashmir, performed solely by the women on festive occasions.

  • The dancers split themselves into two rows and put their arms around the shoulders of the ones standing next to them.

  • It is performed by the Yadava/Yaduvanshi tribe of Chhattisgarh. The Yadavas are considered to be direct descendants of Lord Krishna.

  • The dance is performed during the 'Dev Udhni Ekadashi' - considered a time when the Gods awake from their brief rest.

Solution:
QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements regarding Folk Dances of India:

1. Tarangamel is a folk dance of Goa which is generally performed during Dussehra and Holi.

2. Ghoomar is a traditional folk dance performed by the women of the Bhil tribe in Rajasthan

3. Giddha is a folk dance of Punjab performed by men.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Explanations:

  • Tarangamel is a folk dance of Goa which is generally performed during Dussehra and Holi. Tarangamel derives its name from the streamers also known as "Tarang" involved in the dance. The dance performers wave multi-coloured flags and streamers and make noises to the beat of the instruments such as "Dhol" and "Romut".

  • Ghoomar is a traditional folk dance of Rajasthan. The Bhil tribe performed this dance form to worship Goddess Sarasvati, which was later embraced by other Rajasthani communities. The dance is chiefly performed by veiled women who wear flowing dresses called ghagra.

  • Giddha is a popular folk dance of women in Punjab region of India and Pakistan. The dance is often considered derived from the ancient dance known as the ring dance and is just as energetic as bhangra; simultaneously, it displays feminine grace, elegance and flexibility creatively.

Solution:
QUESTION: 19

Which of the following folk dances belong to eastern India?

1. Lavani

2. Bhavai

3.. Kalaripayattu

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Explanations:

  • Lavani is a combination of traditional songs and dance, which is particularly performed to the beats of Dholki in Maharashtra.

  • Bhavai is a popular folk theatre form of western India, especially in Gujarat. The dance form consists of veiled women dancers balancing up to seven or nine brass pitchers as they dance nimbly.

  • Kalaripayattu is a form of martial arts that belongs to Kerala.

Solution:
QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statements:

1. Chhau is a category of Indian tribal martial dance, which is popular in the Indian states of Odisha and Madhya Pradesh.

2. The Chhau dance is mainly performed during regional festivals, especially the spring festival of Chaitra Parva, which lasts for 13 days and in which the whole community participates.

3. The Chhau dance is mainly performed by the Munda, Mahato, Kalindi, Pattnaik, Samal, Daroga, Mohanty, Acharya, Bhol, Kar, Dubey and Sahoo communities.

4. There are three subgenres of the dance, based on its origins and development, Seraikella Chhau, Mayurbhanj Chhau and Purulia Chhau.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Explanations:

  • The Chhau blends within its forms of both dance and martial practices with mock combat techniques (called Khel), stylized walk of birds and animals (called chalis and topkas) and movements based on the chores of village housewives (called uflis).

  • Male dancers dance with families of traditional artists or local communities. It is performed at night in an open space, called akhada or asar, to traditional and folk music, played on the reed pipes more and shehnai.

  • Many drums accompany the music ensemble including the dhol (a cylindrical drum), dhumsa (a large kettle drum) and kharka or chad-chadi.

  • These dances' themes include local legends, folklore and episodes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata, and other abstract themes.

  • The musical accompaniment for the dance is provided by the people of communities known as Mukhis, Kalindi's, Ghadheis and Dhadas who are also involved in making the instruments.

  • Masks form an integral part of Chhau dance in Purulia and Seraikella. The craft of mask-making is undertaken by communities of traditional painters known as Maharanas, Mohapatra's and Sutradhara.

  • The knowledge of dance, music and mask making is transmitted orally.

Solution:
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