Physical Geography - Practice Test (1)

25 Questions MCQ Test Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy | Physical Geography - Practice Test (1)

Attempt Physical Geography - Practice Test (1) | 25 questions in 30 minutes | Mock test for UPSC preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy for UPSC Exam | Download free PDF with solutions

Which of the following is NOT a Direct source for obtaining information about the interior of earth?


Meteorites are INDIRECT source of information about the Earth’s Interior.

  • Meteorites and Earth are born from the same nebular cloud. Thus, they are likely to have a similar internal structure.
  • When meteoroids fall to the earth, their outer layer is burnt during their fall due to extreme friction and the inner core is exposed.
  • The heavy material composition of their cores confirms the similar composition of the inner core of the earth. 

But because they are not from inside the earth, they act as an INDIRECT source of information due to similar composition.


Consider the following statements: 

1. All natural earthquakes take place in the lithosphere.

2. Earthquake waves are basically of three types — body waves, core waves and surface waves. 

Which of the above statement(s) is/ are correct?


All natural earthquakes take place in the lithosphere. 

Earthquakes produce three types of seismic waves:
1. Primary waves
2. Secondary waves, and
3. Surface waves.
Each type moves through materials differently. In addition, the waves can reflect, or bounce, off boundaries between different layers.

The waves can also bend as they pass from one layer into another.


Which of the following statements is correct?


The Mercalli Scale is based on observable earthquake damage. From a scientific standpoint, the magnitude scale is based on seismic records while the Mercalli is based on observable data which can be subjective.

The Mercalli intensity scale (or more precisely the Modified Mercalli intensity scale) is a scale to measure the intensity of earthquakes. Unlike the Richter scale, the Mercalli scale does not take into account energy of an earthquake directly.


Which types of volcanic eruptions have caused Deccan Trap formations?


Flood Basalt volcanoes contains highly fluid lava that flows for long distances.. There can be a series of flows with some flows attaining thickness of more than 50 m. Some parts of the world are covered by thousands of sq. km of thick basalt lava flows. Individual flows may extend for hundreds of km.

The Deccan Traps from India, presently covering most of the Maharashtra plateau, are a much larger flood basalt province. It is believed that initially the trap formations covered a much larger area than the present.


Which of the following statements about ‘Tillite’ is correct?

  • Tillite, sedimentary rock that consists of consolidated masses of unweathered blocks (large, angular, detached rock bodies) and glacial till (unsorted and unstratified rock material deposited by glacial ice) in a rock flour (matrix or paste of unweathered rock).
  • The matrix, which comprises a large percentage of the rock, usually is dark gray to greenish black in colour and consists of angular quartz and feldspar grains and rock fragments in a very fine-grained paste. The widespread tillites in the geologic record provide evidence of former intense and widespread glaciation.
  • Recent tillites (less than 11,700 years old) can be directly connected with glaciation, and Pleistocene tillites (11,700 to 2,600,000 years old) can be convincingly related to glaciation, but many earlier till-like bodies cannot. Only tillites formed from the till deposited by continental ice sheets have a good chance of being preserved in the geologic record.

Which of the following statements is/are correct?


The second statement is wrong because the intensity of Sun rays falling on the ocean near equator is more than that of the pole. Thereby, the temperature, as we move up from the equator to the poles, decreases.


The height of a wave is determined by its ____


A wave’s size and shape reveal its origin. Steep waves are fairly young ones and are probably formed by local wind. Slow and steady waves originate from faraway places, possibly from another hemisphere. The maximum wave height is determined by the strength of the wind, i.e. how long it blows and the area over which it blows in a single direction.


According to Wegner which of the following forces were responsible for the drifting of the continents?


Wegener suggested that the movement responsible for the drifting of the continents was caused by pole-fleeing force and tidal force. The polar-fleeing force relates to the rotation of the earth. We are aware of the fact that the earth is not a perfect sphere; it has a bulge at the equator. This bulge is due to the rotation of the earth.

The second force that was suggested by Wegener—the tidal force—is due to the attraction of the moon and the sun that develops tides in oceanic waters.


Which one of the following is the type of plate boundary of the Indian plate along the Himalayan mountains?


The Indian plate includes Peninsular India and the Australian continental portions. The subduction zone along the Himalayas forms the northern plate boundary in the form of continent— continent convergence.


Which of the following statements is correct?


Point bars are also known as meander bars. They are found on the convex  side of meanders of large rivers and are sediments deposited in a linear fashion by flowing waters along the bank Meander is not a landform but is only a type of channel pattern. This is because of:
(i) Propensity of water flowing over very gentle gradients to work laterally on the banks 
(ii) Unconsolidated nature of alluvial deposits making up the banks with many irregularities which can be used by water exerting pressure laterally 
(iii) Coriolis force acting on the fluid water deflecting it like it deflects the wind.

Meanders develop over flood and delta plains.


Which of the following is NOT a permanent gas of the atmosphere?


Ozone is NOT a permanent gas of the atmosphere.


Which of the following statements is NOT correct?


As the geopotential height increases, the water vapor content in the atmospheric column will reduce, so the integrated water vapor content is low in the areas with high elevation.

Water vapour is also a variable gas in the atmosphere, which decreases with altitude. Water vapour also decreases from the equator towards the poles. It also absorbs parts of the insolation from the sun and preserves the earth’s radiated heat. It thus, acts like a blanket allowing the earth neither to become too cold nor too hot. Water vapour also contributes to the stability and instability in the air.


Choose the correct option:
Assertion (A): The gravitation force (g) is greater near the poles and less at the equator.
Reason(R): This is because of the distance from the centre at the equator being greater than that at the poles.


Gravitational force near the poles is greater because poles are nearer to the center of earth than the equator and gravitational force is inversely proportional to the square of distance.

So the gravitation force (g) is not the same at different latitudes on the surface. It is greater near the poles and less at the equator. This is because of the distance from the centre at the equator being greater than that at the poles.


Mark the INCORRECT among the following:

  • The release of energy occurs along a fault.
  • A fault is a sharp break in the crustal rocks.
  • Rocks along a fault tend to move in opposite directions. As the overlying rock strata press them, the friction locks  them together. However, their tendency to move apart at some point of time overcomes the friction. As a result, the blocks get deformed and eventually, they slide past one another abruptly. This causes a release of energy, and the energy waves travel in all directions.

The Mohorovicic discontinuity refers to


The Mohorovičić discontinuity ,usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle.The Moho lies almost entirely within the lithosphere.


Arrange the following in chronological order


The Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary; and seven epochs: the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene.

The Quaternary Period was officially recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in June 2009, and the former term, Tertiary Period, became officially disused in 2004 due to the need to divide the Cenozoic into periods more like those of the earlier Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

The common use of epochs during the Cenozoic helps paleontologists better organize and group the many significant events that occurred during this comparatively short interval of time. Knowledge of this era is more detailed than any other era because of the relatively young, well-preserved rocks associated with it.


Which of the followings is/are NOT the components of a map?


Maps contain lots of information. Most maps will have the five following things: a Title, a Legend, a Grid, a Compass Rose to indicate direction, and a Scale. The Title tells you what is being represented on the map (i.e. Austin, Tx). The legend (also known as the key) explains the symbols used on the map for various features like mountains or rivers and other major landmarks. Next, there is usually a grid made up of longitude and latitude lines to precisely locate specific locations. Then, there is the compass rose indicating the cardinal directions of North, South, East, and West as it relates to the map. Finally, the scale compares the distances on the map to actual distances (i.e. 1 inch = 10 miles). 


What is NOT true about Feldspar?


Feldspar: Silicon and oxygen are common elements in all types of feldspar and sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminium etc. are found in specific feldspar variety.

Half of the earth’s crust is composed of feldspar.

It has light cream to salmon pink colour.

It is used in ceramics and glass making.


The direction of wind around a low pressure in northern hemisphere is:


The direction of the wind around a low-pressure system in the northern hemisphere rotates counterclockwise while the high-pressure system rotates clockwise. For low pressure, the wind moves right to left direction towards the centre of the system.


Consider the following statements about jet Stream circulations choose the correct ones:

1. Jet stream is a current of fast moving air found in the upper levels of the atmosphere somewhere between 10-15 km above the earth’s surface

2. The position of jet stream denotes the location of the strongest surface temperature contrast.

3. Winds of jet stream are stronger in summer than winter.

4. Jet streams generally blow from west to east.

Choose the correct answer—


Jet streams are some of the strongest winds in the atmosphere. Their speeds usually range from 129 to 225 kilometers per hour (80 to 140 miles per hour), but they can reach more than 443 kilometers per hour (275 miles per hour). They are faster in winter when the temperature differences between tropical, temperate, and polar air currents are greater.

Jet streams are stronger in winter than in summer because arctic and tropical air masses create a stronger surface temperature contrast in winter causing a stronger jet stream but in summer surface temperature variation is less dramatic.


A meridian is


A meridian circle is any circle on the surface of the earth passing through both the north and south poles. The longitude of a station is defined as the angular distance measured along the arc of the equator between a primary meridian, which is a reference meridian, and the meridian circle passing through the station.


Excluding the moon, the celestial object that generally appears bright in the sky is


Venus is the third-brightest object in the sky, after the sun and moon. That's partly because sunlight is easily reflected by acidic clouds in the atmosphere of Venus.


Lines joining places of equal rainfall are known as


An isohyet is also known as isohyetal line, and it is a line on a map which connects points that have the same amounts of precipitation in a given period or for a particular storm. The method used in estimating average rainfall across a particular area is known as an isohyetal method.


Atoll refers to

  • An atoll sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely.There may be coral islands or cays on the rim.
  • The coral of the atoll often sits atop the rim of an extinct seamount or volcano which has eroded or subsided partially beneath the water.
  • The lagoon forms over the volcanic crater or caldera while the higher rim remains above water or at shallow depths that permit the coral to grow and form the reefs.
  • For the atoll to persist, continued erosion or subsidence must be at a rate slow enough to permit reef growth upward and outward to replace the lost height.

What does 'Roaring forties' refer to?


The Roaring Forties are strong westerly winds found in the Southern Hemisphere, generally between the latitudes of 40 and 50 degrees. The strong west-to-east air currents are caused by the combination of air being displaced from the Equator towards the South Pole, the Earth's rotation, and the scarcity of landmasses to serve as windbreaks.

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