Test: Class 10 Polity NCERT Based-3


30 Questions MCQ Test NCERT based Tests for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 10 Polity NCERT Based-3


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QUESTION: 1

With reference to Civil Rights Movements in the USA, consider the following statements:

1. It refers to a set of events and reform movements aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African-Americans.

2. It was led by Abraham Lincoln.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Civil Rights Movement in the USA (1954-1968) refers to a set of events and reform movements aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against AfricanAmericans. It was led by Martin Luther King Jr.

  • This movement practiced non-violent methods of civil disobedience against racially discriminatory laws and practices. African-American, Afro-American, Black American, or Black are the terms used to refer mainly to the descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between the 17th century and early 19th century.

QUESTION: 2

The Black Power Movement emerged in which of the following countries?

Solution: The Black Power movement emerged in 1966 in the United States of America. It lasted till 1975, which was a more militant anti-racist movement, advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US.

QUESTION: 3

Which of the following are the basis of social differences?

1. Birth

2. Religion

3. Occupation

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • Social differences are mostly based on accidents of birth. Normally we don’t choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we were born into it. We all experience social differences based on accidents of birth in our everyday lives.

  • But all kinds of social differences are not based on accidents of birth. Some of the differences are based on our choices.

  • For example, some people are atheists. They don’t believe in God or any religion. Most of us choose what to study, which occupation to take up and which games or cultural activities to take part in. All these lead to formation of social groups that are based on our choices.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements:

1. Every social difference leads to social division.

2. People belonging to different social groups share only differences and no similarities.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Every social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people.

  • People belonging to different social groups share differences and similarities cutting across the boundaries of their groups.

  • It is fairly common for people belonging to the same religion to feel that they do not belong to the same community, because their caste or sect is very different.

  • It is also possible for people from different religions to have the same caste and feel close to each other.

  • Rich and poor persons from the same family often do not keep close relations with each other because they feel they are very different. Thus, we all have more than one identity and can belong to more than one social group.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements:

1. Social divisions take place when social differences overlap.

2. Social divisions exist in only big countries like India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: 1. Overlapping and cross-cutting differences Social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences. The difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.

2. Situations of this kind produce social divisions, when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities. If social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against the other. It means that groups that share a common interest on one issue are likely to be on different sides on a different issue.Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.

3. Social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries. It does not matter whether the country is small or big. India is a vast country with many communities. Belgium is a small country with many communities.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements:

1. Homogeneous society is a society that has significant ethnic differences.

2. Migrant is anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Homogeneous society is a society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are no significant ethnic differences. Migrant is anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country, usually for work or other economic opportunities.

  • Nowadays , Even those countries such as Germany and Sweden, that were once highly HOMOGENEOUS, are undergoing rapid change with an influx of people from other parts of the world.MIGRANTS bring with them their own culture and tend to form a different social community. In this sense most countries of the world are multi-culture.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements:

1. If political parties start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can lead to conflict or violence in the country.

2. Social divisions affect voting patterns in most countries.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide any society. If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.

  • This has happened in many countries. For example Northern Ireland, this region of the United Kingdom has been for many years the site of a violent and bitter ethnopolitical conflict.

  • Such examples lead some people to conclude that politics and social divisions must not be allowed to mix. They think that it would be best if there are no social divisions in any country. If social divisions do exist in a country, they must never be expressed in politics. At the same time every expression of social divisions in politics does not lead to such disasters. In a democracy it is only natural that political parties would talk about social divisions.

QUESTION: 8

Which of the following factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.

1. The way people perceive their identities.

2. The way political leaders raise the demands of any community.

3. The way the government reacts to demands of different groups.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Three factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.

1. First of all the outcome depends on how people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate. It is much easier if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity.

2. Second, it depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community. For example the demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.

3. Third, it depends on how the government reacts to demands of different groups. if the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority communities, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if they try to suppress such a demand in the name of national unity, the end result is often quite the opposite. Such attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements:

1. The assertion of social diversities in a country needs to be seen as a source of danger for the country.

2. Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in weakening of democracy.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The assertion of social diversities in a country need not be seen as a source of danger. In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.

  • Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy.

QUESTION: 10

Among the following, which country suffered disintegration due to political fights on the basis of religious and ethnic identities?

Solution: In Yugoslavia, Political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements:

1. Sexual division of labour is a system in which all work inside the home is either done by the women of the family, or organised by them through the domestic helper.

2. Gender division is a form of hierarchical division based on biology.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Sexual division of labour is a system in which all work inside the home is either done by the women of the family, or organised by them through the domestic helper.

  • Gender division is a form of hierarchical social division seen everywhere, but is rarely recognised in the study of politics.

  • The gender division tends to be understood as natural and unchangeable. However, it is not based on biology but on social expectations and stereotypes.

QUESTION: 12

Consider the following statements:

1. Feminist is a woman who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men.

2. Patriarchy, is used to refer to a system that values men more and gives them power over women.

Solution: Feminist is a woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men Patriarchy, Literally, rule by father, this concept is used to refer to a system that values men more and gives them power over women.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements:

1. The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha has never reached even 10 percent of its total strength except for 16th lok sabha.

2. One-third of seats in local government bodies – in panchayats and municipalities – are reserved for women.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • In India, the proportion of women in legislature has been very low. For example, the percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha has never reached even 10 percent of its total strength till 2004.

  • In 2009 it was 10.87 percent and 12.15 percent. Their share in the state assemblies is less than 5 per cent. In this respect, India is among the bottom group of nations in the world (see the graph below).

  • India is behind the averages for several developing countries of Africa and Latin America.In the government, cabinets are largely all-male even when a woman becomes the Chief Minister or the Prime Minister.

  • One-third of seats in local government bodies – in panchayats and municipalities – are now reserved for women. Now there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies.

QUESTION: 14

With respect to communal politics, consider the following statements:

1. In communal politics religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms.

2. Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.

Which of the statements given above is/are NOT correct?

Solution: Communalism

1. The problem begins when religion is seen as the basis of the nation and it becomes more acute when religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms, when one religion and its followers are pitted against another.

2. This happens when beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions, when the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and when state power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest. This manner of using religion in politics is communal politics.

3. Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.

QUESTION: 15

Which of the following are the features of communalism:

1. Communalism follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community.

2. Extreme form of communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation.

3. If the followers of different religions have some commonalities these are superficial and immaterial.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • Communalism involves thinking along the following lines: The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community.

  • Their fundamental interests are the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life.

  • It also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community. If the followers of different religions have some commonalities these are superficial and immaterial.

  • Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict. In its extreme form communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. Either, one of them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nations.

QUESTION: 16

Which of the following forms can communalism can take in politics:

1. Belief in the equality of all religions

2. For those belonging to the minority community, it can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.

3. Stereotyping of religious communities.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Communalism can take various forms in politics:

1. The most common expression of communalism is in everyday beliefs. These routinely involve religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions.

2. A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community.

3. For those belonging to the majority community, this takes the form of majoritarian dominance. For those belonging to the minority community, it can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.

4. Political mobilisation on religious lines is another frequent for communalism. This involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. In electoral politics this often involves special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of one religion in preference to others. Sometimes communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre.

QUESTION: 17

In which of the following ways Secularism is reflected in various constitutional provisions?

1. The Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.

2. The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion.

3. The Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Communalism was and continues to be one of the major challenges to democracy in our country. The makers of our Constitution were aware of this challenge. That is why they chose the model of a secular state. This choice was reflected in several constitutional provisions which are as follows

1. There is no official religion for the Indian state. Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, our Constitution does not give a special status to any religion.

2. The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.

3. The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.

4. At the same time the Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example, it bans untouchability.

QUESTION: 18

Which of the following are the features of Caste system:

1. It is based on exclusion of and discrimination against the ‘outcaste’ groups.

2. In it hereditary occupational divisions are not sanctioned by rituals.

3. Members of the same caste group are supposed to form a social community that practiced the same or similar occupation.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • Caste inequalities Unlike gender and religion, caste division is special to India. All societies have some kind of social inequality and some form of division of labour. In most societies, occupations are passed on from one generation to another. Caste system is an extreme form of this.

  • What makes it different from other societies is that in this system, hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.

  • Members of the same caste group were supposed to form a social community that practiced the same or similar occupation, married within the caste group and did not eat with members from other caste groups. Caste system was based on exclusion of and discrimination against the ‘outcaste’ groups.

QUESTION: 19

Which of the following factors are responsible factors for the weakening of the position of caste hierarchy in India?

1. Large scale Urbanisation

2. Growth of literacy and education

3. Occupational mobility

4. Weakening of the position of landlords in the villages

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:

1. Partly due to efforts of socio religious reformers and partly due to other socio-economic changes, castes and caste system in modern India have undergone great changes. With economic development, large scale URBANISATION, growth of literacy and education, OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY and the weakening of the position of landlords in the villages, the old notions of CASTE HIERARCHY are breaking down.

2. Now, most of the time, in urban areas it does not matter much who is walking along next to us on a street or eating at the next table in a restaurant. The Constitution of India prohibited any castebased discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statements:

1. The Family laws are those laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce, adoption, inheritance, etc.

2. In our country, same family laws apply to followers of different religions.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Family laws are those laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce, adoption, inheritance, etc.

  • In our country, different family laws apply to followers of different religions. Women’s movement has argued that FAMILY LAWS of all religions discriminate against women.

  • So they have demanded that the government should change these laws to make them more equitable.

QUESTION: 21

Democracy is better than other forms of governments because it ensures which of the following?

1. Promotes equality among citizens

2. Enhances the dignity of the individual

3. Allows room to correct mistake

4. Proves the quality of decision making

5. Rule by Majority

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Democracy is a better form of government when compared with dictatorship or any other alternative, because it: Promotes equality among citizens; Enhances the dignity of the individual; Improves the quality of decision making; Provides a method to resolve conflicts; Allows room to correct mistake.

QUESTION: 22

Consider the following statements:

1. Democracy produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.

2. Democratic government is inefficient because a lot of delay takes place while taking decisions.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The most basic outcome of democracy should be that it produces a government that is accountable to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.

  • Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. So, some delay is bound to take place but that does not make democratic government inefficient. Suppose, a government that may take decisions very fast.

QUESTION: 23

Which of the following are desirable features in a democracy:

1. Irregular, Free and fair elections.

2. Open public debate on major policies and legislations.

3. Citizen's’ right to information about the government and its functioning.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • Following practices and institutions are necessary in a democracy: Regular, free and fair elections; Open public debate on major policies and legislations; Citizen's’ right to information about the government and its functioning. However, The actual performance of democracies shows a mixed record on this.

  • Democracies have had greater success in setting up regular and free elections and in setting up conditions for open public debate. But most democracies fall short of elections that provide a fair chance to everyone and in subjecting every decision to public debate.

QUESTION: 24

Consider the following statements:

1. Democracy is a guarantee of economic development.

2. If we consider all democracies and all dictatorships for the fifty years between 1950 and 2000, democracies have slightly higher rates of economic growth.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Democracies are expected to produce good governments, however evidence shows that in practice many democracies did not fulfil this expectation.

  • If you consider all democracies and all dictatorships for the fifty years between 1950 and 2000, dictatorships have slightly higher rates of economic growth.

  • The inability of democracy to achieve higher economic development worries, but this alone cannot be reason to reject democracy. Economic development depends on several factors: country’s population size, global situation, cooperation from other countries, economic priorities adopted by the country, etc. However, the difference in the rates of economic development between less developed countries with dictatorships and democracies is negligible.

QUESTION: 25

Which of the following conditions must be fulfilled in a democracy to produce a harmonious social life.

1. In a democracy Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.

2. Democracy remains democracy only as long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point of time.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • It will be a fair expectation that democracy should produce a harmonious social life. Through democracy we can certainly learn to respect these differences and we can also evolve mechanisms to negotiate the differences.

  • Democracy is best suited to produce this outcome. Non-democratic regimes often turn a blind eye to or suppress internal social differences. Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is thus a definite plus point of democratic regimes. Democracy must fulfil two conditions in order to achieve this outcome: 1. It is necessary to understand that democracy is not simply ruled by majority opinion. The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view. Majority and minority opinions are not permanent. 2. It is also necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group, etc.

QUESTION: 26

Consider the following statements:

1. Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual.

2. Democracy in India has not strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: 1. Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual. Every individual wants to receive respect from fellow beings.

2. Often conflicts arise among individuals because some feel that they are not treated with due respect. The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. Democracies throughout the world have recognised this, at least in principle.

3. This has been achieved in various degrees in various democracies. For societies which have been built for long on the basis of subordination and domination, it is not a simple matter to recognize that all individuals are equal.

4. Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity. Though, There are instances still of caste-based inequalities and atrocities, but these lack the moral and legal foundations.

QUESTION: 27

Which of the following are the ideals that we associate with democracy?

1. The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions.

2. Elections must offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers.

3. The exercise of this choice must lead to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens’ rights.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: Following are the ideals that are associated with democracy

1. The rulers elected by the people must take all the major decisions.

2. Elections must offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers; this choice and opportunity should be available to all the people on an equal basis.

3. The exercise of this choice must lead to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens’ rights.

QUESTION: 28

Which of the following challenges are faced by the democratic countries all over the world?

1. Applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions.

2. Extension of federal principle to all the units of the federation.

3. Deepening of democracy.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • At least one fourth of the globe is still not under democratic government. The challenge for democracy in these parts of the world is very stark.

  • These countries face the foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic government.

  • This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping the military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional state. Most of the established democracies face the challenge of expansion.

QUESTION: 29

Which of the following can be merits of democracy?

1. Democratic government is a more accountable form of government.

2. Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts.

3. Democracy improves the quality of decision-making.

4. Democracy allows us to correct its own mistakes

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution: 1. Democracy is better than any other form of government in responding to the needs of the people. A nondemocratic government may and can respond to the people’s needs, but in a democracy it requires that the rulers have to attend to the needs of the people. A democratic government is a better government because it is a more accountable form of government.

2. Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. A democratic decision always involves many people, discussions and meetings. When a number of people put their heads together, they are able to point out possible mistakes in any decision. This takes time, but this reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions. Thus democracy improves the quality of decision-making.

3. Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts. In any society people are bound to have differences of opinions and interests. Democracy provides the only peaceful solution to this problem. In democracy, no one is a permanent winner. No one is a permanent loser.

QUESTION: 30

With reference to democratic government, consider the following statements.

1. A popular government can be undemocratic.

2. A democratic government should rule only within limits set by constitutional law and citizens’ rights.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Popular governments can be undemocratic. Popular leaders can be autocratic. In a democracy, there should be sufficient room for normal political activity, including political opposition, in the period before elections.

  • This requires that the state should respect some basic rights of the citizen. They should be free to think, to have opinions, to express these in public, to form associations, to protest and take other political actions.

  • Everyone should be equal in the eyes of law. These rights must be protected by an independent judiciary whose orders are obeyed by everyone. Similarly, there are some conditions that apply to the way a government is run after the elections.

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