Test: Class 12 History NCERT Based- 2


30 Questions MCQ Test NCERT based Tests for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 12 History NCERT Based- 2


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements:

1. Henry Bloachman was the first scholar to translate all 3 volumes of Ain-e-Akbari into English.

2. Henry Bloachman was associated with the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Which of the following is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Ain-e-Akbari has been translated for use by several scholars. Henry Blochmann edited it and the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta (present-day Kolkata), published it in its Bibliotheca Indica series.

  • The book has also been translated into English in three volumes. The standard translation of Volume 1 is that of Henry Blochmann (Calcutta 1873). The other two volumes were translated by H.S. Jarrett (Calcutta 1891 and 1894).

QUESTION: 2

When did Nadir Shah invade India?

Solution: In 1739, Nadir Shah invaded India and sacked Delhi.

QUESTION: 3

In which year the Third Battle of Panipat was fought?

Solution: In 1761, Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas in the third battle of Panipat

QUESTION: 4

Regarding Mughal Administration, what was the role of Qanungos?

Solution: Qanungos were the local hereditary officials of land record keeping.

QUESTION: 5

In the context of the Mughal Empire, who is Mutasaddi?

Solution: The port administration was independent of the provincial authority. The governor of the port was called Mutasaddi

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements in the context of classification of land under Mughal Emperor Akbar:

1. Polaj is land which is annually cultivated for each crop in succession and is never allowed to lie fallow.

2. Chachar is land that has lain fallow for three or four years.

Which of the following is/are incorrect?

Solution:
  • Both are correct as Emperor Akbar in his profound sagacity classified the lands and fixed a different revenue to be paid by each.

  • Polaj is land which is annually cultivated for each crop in succession and is never allowed to lie fallow. Parauti is land left out of cultivation for a time that it may recover its strength.

  • Chachar is land that has lain fallow for three or four years. Banjar is land uncultivated for five years and more. Of the first two kinds of land, there are three classes, good, middling, and bad.

  • They add together the produce of each sort, and the third of this represents the medium produce, one-third part of which is exacted as the Royal dues.

QUESTION: 7

In medieval India, Mansabdari system was introduced for:

Solution: Mansabdari system was introduced in 1595–96, was a combined status showing a noble’s civil and military capacity

QUESTION: 8

The medieval Indian writer who refers to the discovery of America is:

Solution: Abu Fazl refers to the discovery of America.

QUESTION: 9

Regarding the role of Jati panchayats, consider the following statements:

(a) Jati panchayats arbitrated civil disputes between members of different castes.

(b) In most cases, except in matters of criminal justice, the state respected the decisions of jati panchayats.

Which of the following is/are correct?

Solution:
  • In addition to the village panchayat, each caste or jati in the village had its jati panchayat. These panchayats wielded considerable power in rural society. In Rajasthan jati panchayats arbitrated civil disputes between members of different castes.

  • They mediated in contested claims on land, decided whether marriages were performed according to the norms laid down by a particular caste group, and determined who had ritual precedence in village functions, and so on. In most cases, except in matters of criminal justice, the state respected the decisions of jati panchayats.

QUESTION: 10

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

Solution: The Battle of Haldighati was fought between the Mughal Empire and the forces of Mewar on June 21, 1576 at Haldighati in Rajasthan, India. It was a decisive victory for the Mughal Emperor Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar’s general Raja Man Singh against the Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar. Akbar was 14 years old when he was crowned at Kalanaur in 1556.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements:

1. According to the Sunset Law, if payment did not come in by sunset of the specified date, the zamindari was liable to be auctioned.

2. A low demand was imposed in the 1790s, a time when the prices of agricultural produce were depressed.

Which of the following is/are not correct?

Solution:
  • A high revenue demand was imposed in the 1790s, a time when the prices of agricultural produce were depressed, making it difficult for the ryots to pay their dues to the zamindar.

  • According to the Sunset Law, if payment did not come in by sunset of the specified date, the zamindari was liable to be auctioned.

QUESTION: 12

Who were Jotedars?

Solution: While many zamindars were facing a crisis at the end of the eighteenth century, a group of rich peasants were consolidating their position in the villages. In Francis Buchanan’s survey of the Dinajpur district in North Bengal we have a vivid description of this class of rich peasants known as Jotedars.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statement:

1. Collectors emerged as an alternative of Zamindars in respect to authority.

2. Zamindars collected rent with the help of an officer 'Amlah'.

Which of the following statements is correct?

Solution: Zamindars lost their power to organise local justice and the local police. Over time the collectorate emerged as an alternative centre of authority, severely restricting what the zamindar could do. At the time of rent collection, an officer of the zamindar, usually the amlah, came around to the village.

QUESTION: 14

Which of the following is correct about Aftermath of the Santhal Revolt?

Solution:
  • By the 1850s, the Santhals felt that the time had come to rebel against zamindars, moneylenders and the colonial state, in order to create an ideal world for themselves where they would rule.

  • It was after the Santhal Revolt (1855-56) that the Santhal Pargana was created, carving out 5,500 square miles from the districts of Bhagalpur and Birbhum. The colonial state hoped that by creating a new territory for the Santhals and imposing some special laws within it, the Santhals could be reconciled.

QUESTION: 15

For what purpose British East India Company hire Francis Buchanan?

Solution:
  • Francis Buchanan was a physician who came to India and served in the Bengal Medical Service (from 1794 to 1815). For a few years he was surgeon to the Governor-General of India, Lord Wellesley.

  • During his stay in Calcutta (present-day Kolkata), he organised a zoo that became the Calcutta Alipore Zoo; he was also in charge of the Botanical Gardens for a short period. On the request of the Government of Bengal, he undertook detailed surveys of the areas under the jurisdiction of the British East India Company.

  • In 1815 he fell ill and returned to England. Upon his mother’s death, he inherited her property and assumed her family name Hamilton. So he is often called Buchanan-Hamilton.

QUESTION: 16

In which year ryots of Supa rose to revolt?

Solution:
  • The movement began at Supa, a large village in Poona (present-day Pune) district. It was a market centre where many shopkeepers and moneylenders lived. On 12 May1875, ryots from surrounding rural areas gathered and attacked the shopkeepers, demanding their bahi khatas (account books) and debt bonds.

  • They burnt the khatas, looted grain shops, and in some cases set fire to the houses of sahukars.

QUESTION: 17

Why British government? did not expand Permanent Settlement beyond Bengal?

Solution:
  • As British rule expanded from Bengal to other parts of India, new systems of revenue were imposed. The Permanent Settlement was rarely extended to any region beyond Bengal. Reason was that after 1810, agricultural prices rose, increasing the value of harvest produce, and enlarging the income of the Bengal zamindars.

  • Since the revenue demand was fixed under the Permanent Settlement, the colonial state could not claim any share of this enhanced income. Keen on expanding its financial resources, the colonial government had to think of ways to maximise its land revenue. So in territories annexed in the nineteenth century, temporary revenue settlements were made.

QUESTION: 18

In which year the Deccan Riots Report was present to the British parliament?

Solution:
  • When the revolt spread in the Deccan, the Government of Bombay was initially unwilling to see it as anything serious.

  • But the Government of India, worried by the memory of 1857, pressured the Government of Bombay to set up a commission of enquiry to investigate into the causes of the riots.

  • The commission produced a report that was presented to the British Parliament in 1878. This report, referred to as the Deccan Riots Report, provides historians with a range of sources for the study of the riot.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements regarding the early years of the East India Company establishment in India:

(1). The colonial rule was first established in The Bengal.

(2). In the beginning, the earliest attempts were made to reorder rural society and establish a new regime of land rights and a new revenue system.

(3). The Permanent Settlement had come into operation in 1793. The East India Company had fixed the revenue that each zamindar had to pay.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The English East India Company (E.I.C.) established its raj in the countryside, implemented its revenue policies, these policies meant to different sections of people, and how they changed everyday lives.

  • The colonial rule was first established in The Bengal. In the beginning, the earliest attempts were made to reorder rural society and establish a new regime of land rights and a new revenue system.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statements regarding after the establishment of British East India Company in Bengal:

1. In 1797 there was an auction in Burdwan (present day Bardhaman) during which A number of mahals (estates) held by the Raja of Burdwan were being sold.

2. The Permanent Settlement had come into operation in 1793.

3. The estates of those who failed to pay were to be auctioned to recover the revenue.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution: The East India Company had fixed the revenue that each zamindar had to pay. The estates of those who failed to pay were to be auctioned to recover the revenue. Since the raja had accumulated huge arrears, his estates had been put up for auction.

QUESTION: 21

Consider the following statements:

1. According to limitation law loan bonds signed between moneylenders and ryots would have validity for only three years.

2. This law was meant to regulate the wealth of Jotedars.

Which of the following is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The ryots came to see the moneylender as devious and deceitful. They complained of moneylenders manipulating laws and forging accounts.

  • In 1859 the British passed a Limitation Law that stated that the loan bonds signed between moneylenders and ryots would have validity for only three years. This law was meant to check the accumulation of interest over time.

QUESTION: 22

Under the Permanent Settlement, 1893, the Zamindars are required to issue pattas to the farmers which were not issued by many of the Zamindars. The reason was:

Solution: John Shore planned Permanent Settlement and it was introduced in 1793 by Lord Cornwallis. Zamindars were made the owners of the land and the British got a fixed share of 10/11th of the revenue collected by the zamindars.

QUESTION: 23

After the Santhal Uprising subsided, what was/were the measure/measures taken by the colonial government?

1. The territories called 'Santhal Parganas' were created.

2. It became illegal for a Santhal to transfer land to a non-Santhal.

Choose from following options:

Solution:
  • It was after the Santhal Revolt (1855-56) that the Santhal Pargana was created, carving out 5,500 square miles from the districts of Bhagalpur and Birbhum.

  • The colonial state hoped that by creating a new territory for the Santhals and imposing some special laws within it, the Santhals could be reconciled.

  • After the revolt was suppressed, the British government passed the Santhal Parganas Tenancy Act (SPT), which prohibits the transfer of land.

  • At the time of rent collection, an officer of the zamindar, usually the amlah, came around to the village.

QUESTION: 24

Under which one of the following systems of assessment, the British Government collected revenue directly from the farmers?

Solution: The Ryotwari System was introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820. In this System, the ownership rights were handed over to the peasants. British Government collected taxes directly from the peasants.

QUESTION: 25

After Deccan Riots as a conciliatory measure, the Deccan Agriculturists Relief Act was passed in which year?

Solution:
  • The Government succeeded in repressing the Deccan movement. As a conciliatory measure, the Deccan Agriculturists Relief Act was passed in 1879, This time also, the modern nationalist intelligentsia of Maharashtra supported the peasants' cause. Changed Nature of Peasant Movements after 1857. Peasants emerged as the main force in agrarian movements, fighting directly for their own demands.

QUESTION: 26

In which year the Cotton Supply Association was founded?

Solution: In 1857 the Cotton Supply Association was founded.

QUESTION: 27

Who was the Governor General of Bengal when the Permanent Settlement was introduced in 1793?

Solution: Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805), was the commander of the British forces during the American War of Independence and the Governor General of Bengal when the Permanent Settlement was introduced there in 1793.

QUESTION: 28

Consider the following events: (Past prelims)

1. Indigo Revolt

2. Santhal Rebellion

3. Deccan Riot

4. Mutiny of the Sepoys

The correct chronological sequence of these events is:

Solution: Indigo revolt – 1860; Santhal rebellion – 1855-56; Deccan riot – 1875; Mutiny of the Sepoys - 1857

QUESTION: 29

Consider the following statements:

(1) As per customary norms the interest charged on loan should be half of the principal amount.

(2) By the 1770s, the rural economy in Bengal was in crisis, with recurrent famines and declining agricultural output.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • A variety of customary norms regulated the relationship between the moneylender and the ryot. One general norm was that the interest charged could not be more than the principal.

  • This was meant to limit the moneylender’s exactions and defined what could be counted as “fair interest”. Under colonial rule this norm broke down. In one of the many cases investigated by the Deccan Riots Commission, the moneylender had charged over Rs 2,000 as interest on a loan of Rs 100.

  • In petition after petition, ryots complained of the injustice of such exactions and the violation of custom. By the 1770s, the rural economy in Bengal was in crisis, with

QUESTION: 30

Consider the following statements:

1. As the Civil War ended in America, cotton production in America revived however Indian cotton exports to Britain increased due to its quality.

2. Ryots in Bengal always cultivated the land directly, but never leased it out to under-ryots.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are not correct?

Solution:
  • During the cotton boom, cotton merchants in India had visions of capturing the world market in raw cotton, permanently displacing America.

  • The editor of the Bombay Gazette had asked in 1861, “What can prevent India from supplanting the Slave States (of U.S.A.) as the feeder of Lancashire?” By 1865 these dreams were over.

  • As the Civil War ended, cotton production in America revived and Indian cotton exports to Britain steadily declined. Usually Ryots in Bengal leased the land to under-ryots.