Test: Class 9 Economy NCERT Based - 1


10 Questions MCQ Test NCERT based Tests for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 9 Economy NCERT Based - 1


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QUESTION: 1

Yield is measured as:

Solution:
  • To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping.

  • It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land. You have seen that one way of increasing production from the same land is by multiple cropping.

  • The other way is to use modern farming methods for higher yield. Yield is measured as crop produced on a given piece of land during a single season.

QUESTION: 2

Till the mid-1960s, the seeds used in cultivation were traditional ones with relatively low yields. In context of this, consider the following statements.

1. Traditional seeds needed more irrigation

2. HYV seeds needed less water and also chemical fertilizers than traditional seeds

3. Farmers used cow-dung and other natural manure as fertilizers for traditional seeds

4. Compared to the traditional seeds, the HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Till the mid-1960s, the seeds used in cultivation were traditional ones with relatively low yields. Traditional seeds needed less irrigation.

  • Farmers used cowdung and other natural manure as fertilizers. All these were readily available with the farmers who did not have to buy them. The Green Revolution in the late 1960s introduced the Indian farmer to cultivation of wheat and rice using high yielding varieties (HYVs) of seeds.

  • Compared to the traditional seeds, the HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant. As a result, the same piece of land would now produce far larger quantities of foodgrains than was possible earlier.

  • HYV seeds, however, needed plenty of water and also chemical fertilizers and pesticides to produce best results. Higher yields were possible only from a combination of HYV seeds, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, pesticides, etc.

QUESTION: 3

Assertion: Some time after the use of chemical fertilizers, the soil will be more fertile than ever before

Reason: Chemical fertilizers can kill the bacteria

Select the correct code:

Solution:
  • Chemical fertilisers provide minerals which dissolve in water and are immediately available to plants. But these may not be retained in the soil for long. They may escape from the soil and pollute groundwater, rivers and lakes.

  • Chemical fertilizers can also kill bacteria and other microorganisms in the soil. This means some time after their use, the soil will be less fertile than ever before. The consumption of chemical fertilizers in Punjab is highest in the country.

  • The continuous use of chemical fertilizers has led to degradation of soil health. Punjab farmers are now forced to use more and more chemical fertilizers and other inputs to achieve the same production level. This means the cost of cultivation is rising very fast.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements.

1. Market activities involve remuneration to anyone who performs for pay or profit

2. Non-market activities are the production for self-consumption.

3. Market activities include production of goods or services, including government service

4. Non market activities include consumption and processing of primary product and own account production of fixed assets

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Economic activities have two parts — market activities and non-market activities. Market activities involve remuneration to anyone who performs i.e., activity performed for pay or profit. These include production of goods or services, including government service.

  • Non-market activities are the production for self consumption. These can be consumption and processing of primary product and own account production of fixed assets.

QUESTION: 5

Which of the following sectors are categorised as the Tertiary sector?

1. Fishing,

2. Mining and quarrying

3. Tourism

4. Manufacturing

5. Transport

Choose from the following options.

Solution:
  • The various activities have been classified into three main sectors i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary sector includes agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining and quarrying.

  • Manufacturing is included in the secondary sector. Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services, insurance, etc. are included in the tertiary sector. The activities in this sector result in the production of goods and services.

  • These activities add value to the national income. These activities are called economic activities.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements regarding the concept of social exclusion.

1. Poverty must be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in a poor surrounding with other poor people

2. It is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy

3. Untouchability is the example of this concept

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • According to this concept, poverty must be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in a poor surrounding with other poor people, excluded from enjoying social equality of better-off people in better surroundings. Social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty in the usual sense.

  • Broadly, it is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others (their “betters”) enjoy. A typical example is the working of the caste system in India in which people belonging to certain castes are excluded from equal opportunities. Social exclusion thus may lead to, but can cause more damage than, having a very low income.

QUESTION: 7

Vulnerability is determined by/on the:

1. Options available to different communities for finding an alternative living

2. Basis of the greater risks these groups face at the time of natural disasters

3. The social and economic ability to handle the risks

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Vulnerability: Vulnerability to poverty is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities (say, members of a backward caste) or individuals (such as a widow or a physically handicapped person) of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years.

  • Vulnerability is determined by the options available to different communities for finding an alternative living in terms of assets, education, health and job opportunities.

  • Further, it is analysed on the basis of the greater risks these groups face at the time of natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunami), terrorism etc.

  • Additional analysis is made of their social and economic ability to handle these risks. In fact, vulnerability describes the greater probability of being more adversely affected than other people when bad time comes for everybody, whether a flood or an earthquake or simply a fall in the availability of jobs.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements.

1. Since people living in rural areas engage themselves in more physical work, calorie requirements in rural areas are considered to be higher than in urban areas

2. The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • While determining the poverty line in India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirement, etc., are determined for subsistence.

  • These physical quantities are multiplied by their prices in rupees. The present formula for food requirement while estimating the poverty line is based on the desired calorie requirement. Food items, such as cereals, pulses, vegetables, milk, oil, sugar, etc., together provide these needed calories.

  • The calorie needs vary depending on age, sex and the type of work that a person does. The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas.

  • Since people living in rural areas engage themselves in more physical work, calorie requirements in rural areas are considered to be higher than in urban areas. The monetary expenditure per capita needed for buying these calorie requirements in terms of food grains, etc., is revised periodically taking into consideration the rise in prices.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements.

1. Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences

2. Poverty declined substantially in China and Southeast Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resource development

3. The new sustainable development goals of the United Nations (UN) proposes ending poverty of all types by 2025

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The proportion of people in different countries living in extreme economic poverty- defined by the World Bank as living on less than $1.90 per day—has fallen from 36 per cent in 1990 to 10 per cent in 2015.

  • Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences. Poverty declined substantially in China and Southeast Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resource development.

  • Number of poors in China has come down from 88.3 per cent in 1981 to 14.7 per cent in 2008 to 0.7 per cent in 2015. In the countries of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan) the decline has also been rapid 34 per cent in 2005 to 16.2 per cent in 2013.

  • With decline in the percentage of the poor, the number of poor has also declined significantly from 510.4 million in 2005 to 274.5 million in 2013. Because of different poverty line definitions, poverty in India is also shown higher than the national estimates. The new sustainable development goals of the United Nations (UN) proposes ending poverty of all types by 2030.

QUESTION: 10

In context of widespread poverty in India, consider the following statements.

1. One historical reason is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration

2. The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles

3. With the spread of irrigation and the Green revolution, many job opportunities were created in the agriculture sector in the whole India

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • There were a number of causes for the widespread poverty in India. One historical reason is the low level of economic development under the British colonial administration.

  • The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles. The low rate of growth persisted until the nineteen-eighties.

  • This resulted in less job opportunities and low growth rate of incomes. This was accompanied by a high growth rate of population. The two combined to make the growth rate of per capita income very low.