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Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1


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Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 1

The Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress (1929) is very important in history, because:

1. Congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence.

2. The rift between the extremists and moderates was resolved in that Session.

3. A resolution was passed rejecting the Two- nation theory in that Session.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 1

The following major decisions were taken at the Lahore session:

  • The Round Table Conference was to be boycotted.

  • Complete independence was declared as the aim of Congress.

  • Congress Working Committee was authorised to launch a civil disobedience programme, including non-payment of taxes and all members of legislatures were asked to resign their seats.

  • January 26, 1930, was fixed as the first Independence (Swarajya) Day, to be celebrated everywhere.

  • The Indian National Congress's Lucknow session presided over by a Moderate, Ambika Charan Majumdar, readmitted the Extremists led by Tilak to the Congress fold.

  • Jinnah’s Two Nations Theory came up in March 1940, whereas the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress was held in 1929.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 2

The Red Shirts movement was launched by

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 2 In 1929, the Khudai Khidmatgars or the Red Shirts movement (‘Servants of God’) movement, led by Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, nonviolently mobilized to oppose the British in India’s Northwest Frontier Province.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 3

The Dandi March was launched against

1. State monopoly on manufacture and sale of salt.

2. Exorbitantly high salt tax.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 3
  • Gandhi wrote, ‘The salt monopoly is thus a fourfold curse. It deprives the people of a valuable easy village industry, involves wanton destruction of property that nature produces in abundance, the destruction itself means more national expenditure, and fourthly, to crown this folly, an unheard-of tax more than 1,000% cent is exacted from a starving people’.

  • He further explained, ‘To prevent the use of salt that has not paid the tax which is at times even fourteen times its value, the Government destroys the salt it cannot sell profitably. Thus it taxes the nation’s vital necessity; it prevents the public from manufacturing it and destroys what nature manufactures without effort’.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 4

Introduction of uniform salt tax throughout British India that later inspired movements like Civil Disobedience was associated with

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 4 Lord Lytton to strengthen the financial power took many steps like
  • encourage the provinces in collecting the revenue.

  • Abolished many import duty and supported free trade policy for the British.

  • He also introduced the Statutory Civil Service exclusively for Indians, which was later abolished.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 5

Consider the following statements about the Civil Disobedience Movement:

1. The movement officially was not approved by Congress before its launch.

2. 26th January as Independence Day all over the country was decided during the Civil Disobedience Movement.

3. All the Round Table Conferences between the British government and Indian leaders followed only after this movement.

4. The movement was withdrawn because of violence.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 5
  • Mahatma Gandhi led the Civil Disobedience Movement that was launched in the Congress Session of December 1929. The aim of this movement was a complete disobedience of the orders of the British Government.

  •  

    During this movement, it was decided that India would celebrate 26th January as Independence Day all over the country. On 26th January 1930, meetings were held worldwide, and the Congress tricolour was hoisted.

  •  

    The British Government tried to repress the movement and resorted to brutal firing, killing hundreds of people. Thousands were arrested along with Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, but the movement spread to all the country's four comers.

  •  

    Following this, Round Table Conferences were arranged by the British and Mahatma Gandhi attended the second Round Table Conference at London. But nothing came out of the conference, and the Civil Disobedience Movement was revived.

  •  

    During this time, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were arrested on the charges of throwing a bomb in the Central Assembly Hall (which is now Lok Sabha) in Delhi, to demonstrate against the autocratic alien rule. They were hanged to death on March 23, 1931.

 

 

 

On April 7, 1934, the civil disobedience movement came to a stop. The Simon Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament of the United Kingdom, under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon. The Commission arrived in British-occupied India in 1928 to study constitutional reform.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 6

During Salt Disobedience, after Gandhi’s arrest, the CWC sanctioned:

1. non-payment of revenue in ryotwari areas.

2. no-chowkidar-tax campaign in zamindari areas.

3. violation of forest laws in the Central Provinces.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 6 Gandhi’s arrest came on May 4, 1930, when he had announced that he would lead a raid on Dharasana Salt Works on the west coast. Massive protests followed Gandhi’s arrest in Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, and Sholapur, where the response was the most fierce. After Gandhi’s arrest, the CWC sanctioned:
  • non-payment of revenue in ryotwari areas;

  • a no-chowkidari-tax campaign in zamindari areas; and

  • violation of forest laws in the Central Provinces.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 7

Consider the following statements.

1. C. Rajagopalachari led a salt march from Trichinopoly to Vedaranniyam on the Tanjore coast in Tamil Nadu, supporting the Civil Disobedience Movement.

2. K. Kelappan, a Nair Congress leader, launched the Vaikom Satyagraha and marched from Calicut to Payyannur in defiance of salt laws.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 7

Answer c

  •  

    C. Rajagopalachari was arrested on April 30, 1930. Jawaharlal Nehru was also actively involved in the movement and was arrested on April 17, 1930, to defy the salt law. He formulated a radical agrarian programme and suggested forming the Constituent Assembly as the prime political slogan.

  •  

    Mannathu Padmanabhan

    The Savarna procession of about 500 men set out from Vaikom on 1 November 1924 under the leadership of Mannathu Padmanabhan, the unquestioned leader of the Nair Service Society.

 

 

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 8

The Round Table Conference was organized to

1. Discuss a future constitution for India.

2. Discuss the implementation of dominion status for India.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 8
  • The British Government organized the three Round Table Conferences of 1930— 1932 to discuss India's constitutional reforms. ‘

  •  

    Dominion status was officially promised as a Right only by the Cripps Mission, much after the Round Table Conference.

 

 

 

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 9

The Indian National Congress adopted the Karachi Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy. Which of the following were its constituents?

1. Elections based on Universal Adult Franchise.

2. No interference by the government in economic activities.

3. Free and compulsory primary education.

Select the correct answer using the codes.

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 9

Some important aspects of these resolutions were:

  • Basic civil rights of freedom of speech, Freedom of Press, Freedom of Assembly, Freedom of Association, Equality before Law.

  • Elections based on Universal Adult Franchise.

  • Free and compulsory primary education.

  • Substantial reduction in rent and taxes.

  • Better conditions for workers, including a living wage, limited hours of work.

  • Protection of women and peasants Government ownership or control of key industries, mines, and transport, Protection of Minorities.

 

 

 

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 10

The Karachi session, 1931, of the Congress was important because

1. The Delhi Pact was endorsed.

2. The goal of purna swaraj was reiterated.

3. The resolutions on Fundamental Rights and National Economic Programme were adopted.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 10

Congress Resolutions at Karachi

  • The Delhi Pact or Gandhi-Irwin Pact was endorsed.

  • The goal of purna swaraj was reiterated.

  • Two resolutions were adopted-one on Fundamental Rights and the other on the National Economic Programme.

Karachi resolution is noteworthy for the following reasons:
a) reiterated the goal of "poorna swaraj": Thus, the goal of complete independence was made a definite goal. Until then, swaraj was not defined and was of abstract nature.
b) "poorna swaraj" did not mean only political independence: The concept included both political and economic freedom.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 11

Indian National Congress leaders did not attend the first Round Table Conference because

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 11
  • When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back, Simon’. All parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.

  • To win them over, the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of dominion status for India in an unspecified future, and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution. This did not satisfy the Congress leaders.

  • The radicals within the Congress, led by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose, became more assertive. The liberals and moderates, who were proposing a constitutional system within British dominion, gradually lost their influence.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 12

Consider the following about the Third Round Table Conference:

1. Indian National Congress (INC) did not attend it.

2. White paper published as a result of the conference became the basis of the Government of India Act 1935.

3. British proposed the idea of a ‘commonwealth’ of colonial nations in this conference.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 12
  • The Labour Party from Britain and the Indian National Congress refused to attend.

  • The conference's recommendations were published in a White Paper in March 1933 and debated in Parliament afterwards. A Joint Select Committee was formed to analyse the recommendations and formulate a new Gol Act 1935 for India.

  • The Commonwealth dates back to the middle 20th century with the British Empire's decolonisation through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 13

Under the Gandhi-Irwin Pact 1931, what was agreed upon?

1. Setting up a responsible government for an independent dominion of India.

2. Discontinuation of the Civil Disobedience Movement by the Indian National Congress.

3. Removal of the tax on salt.

4. Participation by the Indian National Congress in the Second Round Table Conference.

Select the correct answer using the codes.

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 13 Salient features of this act were as follows:
  • Congress would participate in the Round Table Conference.

  • Congress would discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement.

  • The Government would withdraw all ordinances issued to curb the Congress.

  • The Government would withdraw all prosecutions relating to offences other than a violent one.

  • The Government would release all persons undergoing sentences of imprisonment for their activities in the civil disobedience movement.

  • Manufacture of salt by Indians will be allowed.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 14

Consider the following statements. Poona Pact led to

1. Mahatma Gandhi ended his fast in the jail as a protest against separate electorates for the depressed classes.

2. Reservation of seats for the depressed classes out of the general electorate in the provincial Legislatures.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 14
  • The Poona Pact refers to an agreement between Ambedkar and Gandhi on the reservation of electoral seats for the depressed classes in British India legislature.

  • It was made in 1932 at Yerwada Central Jail in Poona and was signed by Madan Mohan Malviya, Ambedkar and some other leaders to end the fast that Gandhi was undertaking in jail.

  • As per the pact: Seat reservation for the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) in the provincial legislature. The STs and SCs would form an electoral college which would elect four candidates for the general electorate.

  • The representation of these classes was based on the standards of joint electorates and reserved seats. About 19% of seats were to be reserved for these classes in the legislature. The election system to the panel of candidates in both, Central and Provincial Legislatures should come to an end in 10 years unless it ends on mutual terms.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 15

Gandhi opposed separate electorates because he believed

1. It would mean perpetual bondage of the Harijans.

2. It would lead to social disharmony and lack of unity.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 15
  • Separate Electorates mean the community to which the electorate belongs would choose their own leaders via an election. Only their community candidates would be allowed to contest, and only their community members would vote.

  • This would mean that the elections for choosing that particular community's leaders would be held separately and would not come under general elections.

  • He believed this system would institutionally cement the untouchable status of Harijans forever.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 16

The belief of Dalit leaders during the Freedom movement that ‘Political empowerment would resolve the problems of their social disabilities’ resulted in the following demands?

1. Separate electorates.

2. Reserved seats in education institutions.

3. Organizing Dalits in major national associations by Dalit leaders.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below.

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 16 All the statements are correct.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 17

Consider the following statements

1. Jinnah and Ambedkar attended all the three Round table conferences.

2. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first satyagrahi identified by Gandhi for the individual satyagraha.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 17 Only Ambedkar attended all three Round table conferences. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi chosen by Gandhi as part of the individual Satyagraha.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 18

At the Second Round Tabic Conference, the claim of the Indian National Congress representing all of India was challenged by

1. The Muslim League saying that Congress does not represent Muslims.

2. Dr Ambedkar citing that Congress is not a representative of lower castes.

3. Motilal Nehru quoting that Congress is the opposite of Socialism.

4. The Princes saying that Congress had no stake in the territories of the princely states.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 18
  • Motilal Nehru was an important leader of the Indian National Congress, who also served as the Congress President twice, 1919-1920 and 1928-1929.

  • So, statement 3 is naturally incorrect. Due to the opposition faced by Mahatma Gandhi, representing the Congress, by these leaders and the reluctance of the British ceded to Congress’s demands, the Conference in London was inconclusive.

  • In 1935, however, a new Government of India Act promised some form of representative government. Two years later, in an election held based on a restricted franchise, the Congress won a comprehensive victory. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India and resumed Civil Disobedience.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 19

The Civil Disobedience Movement was withdrawn

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 19

By 1934, the Civil Disobedience Movement lost momentum, and Mahatma Gandhi withdrew the movement but said the struggle was continuing and will not end till the Swaraj is achieved.

Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 20

Which of the following is not correct regarding the Civil Disobedience Movement?

 

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalist Movement Phase 2 (1919-1939) - 1 - Question 20
  • In fact, civil disobedience marked a major step forward in the emancipation of Indian women due to their large scale participation. Muslim participation remained low throughout the Civil Disobedience years.

  •  

    In UP, for instance, where the Congress- Khilafat alliance had been so formidable in 1921-22, very few Civil Disobedience prisoners in Allahabad between 1930 and 1933 were Muslims.

  •  

    Apart from option (c), yet another contrast lay in the evident decline in the older, more purely intelligentsia forms of protest like lawyers giving up their practice and students leaving official institutions to start national schools and colleges.

  •  

    At the Lahore Congress, Gandhi rejected a call for a boycott of schools and courts as impractical— ‘I do not see today the atmosphere about us necessary for such a boycott’.

  •  

    A Bihar Congress report of July 1930 admitted that there had been ‘practically no response from lawyers and students. So, clearly option (d) is wrong.

  •  

    The lag in respect of labour and the urban intelligentsia was counterbalanced by the massive response obtained from business groups and large peasantry sections.

 

 

 

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