Test: Reading Comprehension - 2


15 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2022 | Test: Reading Comprehension - 2


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QUESTION: 1

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

The first time I saw The Wizard of Oz, the story bewitched me. The second time I saw The Wizard of Oz, the special effects amazed me. The third time I saw The Wizard of Oz, the photography dazzled me. Have you ever seen a movie twice, three times? You notice subtleties and hear sounds you completely missed the first time around.

It’s the same on the phone. Because your business conversations are more consequential than movies, you should listen to them two, maybe three times, Often, we have no clear idea of what really happened in our phone conversation until we hear it again. You’ll find shadings more significant than the colour of Toto’s collar- and more scarecrows than you imagined who ‘haven’t got a brain!’ How do you listen to your important business conversa- tions again?

Simply legally and ethically tape-record them. I call the technique of recording and analysing your business conversations for subtleties Instant Replay.

The advice is being given to the sales team.

Solution: It could be given to any individual or any business team.

QUESTION: 2

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

Asia has become the growth centre of the world economy in recent years.

Within the region, India and South Korea are the third and fourth largest economies after China and Japan. Though the Asian growth stories mainly revolve around India and China, South Korea has remained a key player for these countries as one of their major trading and investment partners. South Korea adopted outward-oriented economic policies with the beginning of its first five-year economic development plan in 1962, which resulted in high growth and the integration of the Korean economy with the rest of the world. Subsequently, high and consistent economic growth made South Korea one of the high-income economies in Asia. Korea is still growing at a faster rate compared to other developed economies. India on the other hand adopted an import substitution policy since its Independence until the early 1990s. Since then India has introduced wide-ranging economic policy reforms and is moving towards a market-driven economy. This has resulted in consistent high economic growth over the last one-and-a-half decades.

India and China together are considered to be the driving force of the Asian economy.

Solution: The Asian growth stories mainly revolve around India and China.

QUESTION: 3

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

There has been considerable debate in India regarding the privatisation of higher education. In this debate, there is generally an implicit assumption that privatisation is essentially the same as corporatisation, ie private investment comes due to the potential of returns. In the higher education field, privatisation and corporatisation are actually quite different. Privatisation is regarding who controls the educational institute and the role of government in the management and funding of the institute, while corporatisation is about making profits. In India, there is no doubt that private not-for-profit universities need to be encouraged to increase education opportunities, and for the fact that there is no other alternative as the government simply cannot create enough public universities to satisfy the demand. However, guidelines for private not-for profit universities should be made clear, simple and transparent to ensure that they are truly not for profit and offer a level playing field to all those who might want to set up a private university.

India does not have any extant guidelines for setting up higher educational institutions by private entities.

Solution: The passage says that “guidelines ... should be made clear, ....” Which means the guidelines are there.
QUESTION: 4

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

Then come the Tehri Dam evacuees. The Forest Department recently decided to acquire about 46 hectares of land in the Patri division of Haridwar district and rehabilitate these 33 families there. Besides, as compensation for uprooting them once more, the department is willing to distribute Rs 26 lakh among them. In addition, the department also plans to acquire 63 hectares from the Raiwallah cantonment, including the army ammunition dump. The lure of the army to move is the 220 hectares of land and the fact that the tab of building a new ammunition dump will be picked up. “These proposals are being pursued by us,” says M. Ahsan, chief conservator of Rajaji National Park.

Mr M Ahsan has introduced a set of forestry reforms in India.

Solution: The choices ‘data inadequate’ is applicable to all the questions except Q. 109 where probably false should be chosen. The reason is that neither supporting nor contradicting data is present in the case of these inferences [except Q. 109]. No hint is given in the passage, for example, whether Tehri Dam evacuees were compensated or not. How do we know whether the 33 families of Patri will shift easily or offer resistance? How do we know if Rs 26 lakh is adequate? How can we check if Mr Ahsan indeed introduced some forestry reforms? But we can say that the army is less likely to decline the proposal to shift its Raiwallah cantonment. It is because they are being offered 220 hectares of land (in place of existing 63) and they will not have to spend any amount on building a new ammunition dump. We cannot really assert whether the army will accept or reject this proposal. But, according to the given passage, it is a tempting offer because the author uses the word lure for it. This means that, in the eyes of the author, the offer is unlikely to be declined by the army. Hence, it is probably false that the army will not agree to shift Raiwallah cantonment.

QUESTION: 5

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

Even after allowing for the inclusion of the unavoidable chillies, on the whole the Indian diet seems to be more protective than carcinogenic. The per capita fat intake is only 14-20 g daily, far below even the per capita consumption of 35 g daily recommended by the Indian Council of Medical Research. In practice, most of the population is essentially vegetarian, as even the so-called non-vegetarians eat meat only once or twice a week, meat being expensive.

The incidence of cancer in India, with the age standardised rate of 115 per 100,000, is one of the lowest in Asia; and is only about one-third the incidence in the West. The Indian diet may be one of the factors responsible.

Indian diet is the main reason behind the low incidence of cancer.

Solution: The last sentence of the passage says the same thing. But that sentence itself is not sure: it uses the phrase ‘may be’. Hence, the given inference is ‘probably true’ but not ‘definitely true’.

QUESTION: 6

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

The complexion of the world economy has changed beyond recognition.

A few years ago, the Soviet Union and its friends used to accuse the World Bank, IMF and other international institutions as the promoters of economic imperialism of USA and its allies and in the same breath as the bloodsuckers of the poorer member-countries. GATT, for them, was a rich man’s club. In their views, transnational corporations were worse than the dreaded buccaneers.

These corporations worked exclusively for the benefit of parent countries and exploited the host countries thoroughly. Economic relations of communist countries remained chiefly confined within the four walls of communism. However, it crossed over to some third world countries as well.

GATT has stopped exploiting its host countries.

Solution: It is not mentioned clearly in the passage whether GATT indeed exploited its host countries, let alone stopping this exploitation.

QUESTION: 7

The finance minister’s promise of a structural adjustment programme with a human face remains a pipedream. When the reforms started, he had assured that priorities of public spending would focus more sharply on welfare programmes, once the fiscal imbalances were controlled. This assurance is yet to be materialised. Recently, he said that “only when the growth momentum picks up, the resources needed for these programmes can be mobilised.” Such excessive emphasis on economic growth will hamper social welfare and indefinitely postpone the promise of a reform with a human face thus leaving out in the cold a substantial section of the society.

Economic growth will pick up momentum quickly.

Solution: The author says that the FM promises to start welfare programmes once growth gathers momentum. This, he says, may ‘postpone indefinitely’ the promise of a reform with a human face. The use of the word ‘indefinitely’ here indicates that the process of growth gaining momentum may not be quick. However, it is not explicitly stated that this process is time-taking.

Hence, the inference is probably false but not definitely false.

QUESTION: 8

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

Although studies have shown that India’s performance in health (level as well as speed) is poor (UNDP, 1992), the health status, in general, has improved.

Life expectancy and infant survival conditions are better than what is predicted for a country with India’s level of income. Between 1951 and 1992, life expectancy at birth (LEB) increased from 32.1 years to 60.3 years, the death rate fell from 27.4 to 10 per thousand and IMR fell from 139 per thousand live births in 1972 to 79 in 1992. But, the improvement has not been even across regions and between genders. An attempt is made here to look at the inter-regional disparities in health development.

India has surpassed many countries in forms of health improvement from 1951 to 1992.

Solution: Data inadequate. No doubt India has improved vastly from 1951 to 1992. Yet we must also know the performance of other countries to reach any definite conclusion.

QUESTION: 9

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

Independent testing of certified products is an essential feature of the BIS Certification Marks Scheme. For this purpose, BIS has a network of eight laboratories in the country, which are in a position to issue around 42000 test reports in a year. These laboratories are being constantly expanded and their testing facilities augmented and modernised. BIS has also recognised around 280 laboratories belonging to public and private sectors for testing products under its certification scheme.

Certification is a process that needs to be constantly modernised.

Solution: Definitely true. Had it not been so, why would BIS “constantly” expand and modernise its laboratories?

QUESTION: 10

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

In a fast-moving world, the attitude towards children has undergone a seachange from the draconian “spare the rod and spoil the child” to a growing awareness of the rights of the child. In our society, even fifty years back, the elders would have frowned at any mention of the rights of the child and would have dismissed it as an absurd proposition and a futile intellectual aberration. But times have changed and people have come to realise that if due attention and proper thought are not given to the children of today to ensure their healthy growth, we are bound to invite doom for our citizens of tomorrow. And who can deny that improvement in the condition of children is the primary concern of a nation?

The world has shown very little change in attitude in areas other than that of children’s rights.

Solution: Probably false. The first line says that today we have a “fast-changing world”. The inference looks likely to be false in the context of a fast changing world. But there is no definite information in the passage about whether there is any change in attitude in any other area as well. Hence, we can’t say that it is definitely false.

QUESTION: 11

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

The Product Certification Marks Scheme (PCMS) was introduced in 1956. It provides the consumer an assurance of quality conforming to national standards.

It is a voluntary scheme in general wherein producers claiming conformity to standards apply for licence. The scheme is, however, compulsory for items of mass consumption which affect the safety and health of consumers. To date, over 11,750 licences are in operation covering 1438 products, out of which about 129 are under compulsory certification.

The PCMS also tries to give assurance of international standards on selected items.

Solution: Data inadequate. There is no mention of international standards.

QUESTION: 12

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

The rights of the child in broad parameters is not a new concept in the country as it was enshrined in our Constitution in its directive principles. But a chasm lies agape between practice and precept. The government adopted a National Policy For Children in 1974 and started the ambitious Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme the next year but the progress was slow. However, the situation is now poised for a big take-off with the political will backing it up with enhanced funds.

The political will to realise the children’s rights was lacking initially.

Solution: Probably true. The last sentence says that the situation is likely to improve now because now there is a backup of “political will” with enhanced funds. If the presence of political will arouses hopes of improvement, it is very likely that, earlier, lack of political will was the reason for lack of improvement.

QUESTION: 13

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

The country has taken a major initiative by introducing convertibility of the Rupee on the current account. It has also been declared that the ultimate goal is to make the Rupee fully convertible. These are signs of the country’s achieving economic maturity. India is now ready to welcome foreign capital. It is preparing to reduce import tariffs to levels which are currently the norm in other developing countries. All these measures show that India is today mature and strong enough to face international competition and to integrate itself successfully with the global economy. The country is ready to shed its ideological inhibitions and ready to evaluate the international economic environment in a pragmatic spirit.

Socialistic ideals prevented India from evaluating the international economic environment in a pragmatic spirit.

Solution: Probably true. The last sentence says: India is ready to shed its ideological inhibitions and evaluate the international economic environment in a pragmatic spirit. We know that before the age of convertibility India was governed by socialistic ideals. So, it is likely that the ideological inhibitions referred to in the passage mean the socialistic ideals. Hence, the given inference appears likely to be true.

QUESTION: 14

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

India has signed two separate agreements with the USA and the EC.

This brings to a satisfactory conclusion the Market Access Conciliations in textiles which had been in progress for some time. These discussions were held with a view to facilitating trade in textile products between India and the USA and EU countries. At present, more than two-thirds of India’s total textile exports go to these countries. These agreements which came into force from Dec. 31, 1994, prior to the establishment of the WTO, provide very significant additional market access in these two major markets (USA and EU) for Indian textile products. In particular, the agreements are expected to provide a fillip to handloom and powerloom production and exports which are of high priority because of their direct linkage with employment generation.

India will have to abide by certain quality standards to continue getting export orders from these countries.

Solution: Probably true. There has been no mention of any such conditions. But common sense tells us that this must be true.

QUESTION: 15

Directions: In this question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.

Passage

India and other developing countries, while expressing their commitment to the upgradation of labour standards, have been resisting the move to link international trade, not only with labour standards, but also with environmental concerns and human rights. The move was set afoot on the successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations with a proposal for the inclusion of a social clause in the World Trade Organisation (WTO), which succeeds GATT. Later, on stiff opposition to the move on the ground that the matter did not fall in the area of trade, a proposal was mooted for the inclusion of a social clause in ILO.

India claims that environmental issue and trade are uncorrelated.

Solution: Probably true. The last sentence says that there was stiff opposition to the efforts on the ground that the matter did not fall in the area of trade.

The first sentence says that India is opposing the efforts. So, it is likely that Indian ground of resistance is also the same (i.e., the issues such as labour standards, environmental concerns, human rights etc. are not related with trade).

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