Test: Reform Movements


30 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC CSE | Test: Reform Movements


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QUESTION: 1

Sayyid Ahmad Khan had a notable contribution in spreading education among Muslims in India. He would disagree with which of the following in the initiative towards social reforms?

Solution:
  • He was a reformer of the 19th century. He led liberal, social and cultural movements within the Muslim society.

  • Option A: While pursuing studies of different subjects, including European jurisprudence

  • Option B: Syed began to realise the advantages of Western-style education, which was being offered at newly established colleges across India.

  • Despite being a devout Muslim, Syed criticised the influence of traditional dogma and religious orthodoxy, which had made most Indian Muslims suspicious of British influences.

  • Option (c): Syed studied the Quran and sciences within the court later studied law from the University of Edinburgh. Being a modernist, he supported the rational studies of religious scriptures.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 2

The objective(s) of the Deoband movement was/were to

1. Propagate, among the Muslims, Western and rational thought.

2. Promote women-centred social reforms.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The orthodox section among the Muslim ulema organised the Deoband Movement. It was a revivalist movement whose twin objectives were to: (i) propagate among the Muslims the pure teachings of the Koran, and the Hadis and (ii) keep alive the spirit of jihad against the foreign rulers. The new Deoband leader Mahmud-ul-Hasan (1851-1920) sought to impart a political and intellectual content to the religious ideas of the school. The liberal interpretation of Islam created political awakening among its followers.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 3

Who is called the “Lokhitwadi”?

Solution:

Ans: b

Explanation: Gopal Hari Deshmukh (18 February 1823 – 9 October 1892) was an Indian activist, thinker, social reformer and writer from Maharashtra.

QUESTION: 4

The Faraizi movement was founded in 1818 to

1. Observe all cultural rites and ceremonies religiously as divine symbols.

2. Protect the right of tenants.

3. Adopt rational and modern western practices to improve living standards.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution: It was launched by Haji Shariatullah to give up un-Islamic practices and act upon their duties as Muslims. The movement protected the rights of tenants to a great extent. The Faraizis adhered to the Hanafi school with certain differences in practices.
  • To be penitent for past sins as a measure for the purification of the soul.

  • To observe the obligatory duties of Faraizi strictly.

  • Strict adherence to Tawhid.

  • India being Dar al-Harb, Friday and Eid's prayers were not obligatory.

  • Denouncing all cultural rites and ceremonies which had no reference to the Quran and Sunnah as sinful innovations.

QUESTION: 5

Concerning the Akali movement, consider the following statements:

1. The movement's main objective was to reform the Sikh religion and clean it from the influence of Hinduism.

2. The Shiromani Akali Dal was the central body that organised the movement and accepted non-violence as the movement's soul.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Akali movement developed on a purely religious issue but ended up as a powerful episode of India’s freedom struggle. From 1920-1925, more than 30,000 men and women underwent imprisonment, nearly 400 died, and over 2,000 were wounded.

  •  

    The movement arose intending to free the Gurdwaras (Sikh temples) from the control of ignorant and corrupt mahants (priests).

  •  

    To control and manage the Golden Temple, the Akal Takht and other Gurdwaras, a representative assembly of nearly 10,000 reformers met in November 1920 and elected a committee of 175 to be known as the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC).

QUESTION: 6

Which of these personalities were associated with Brahmo Samaj?

1. Debendranath Tagore

2. Keshub Chandra Sen

3. Pronob Bhattacharjee

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • As per some commentators, ‘Their view, at least in the early years, was that God creates the world, and all things within it are pathways to the knowledge of Brahman, the Ultimate Self, and the ultimate goal.

  • Similarly, they saw that material wealth, if made and possessed with the correct intention-that of helping society and others- was in fact not only ethically sound but an utter necessity for harmonious society’.

In 1859, the Sabha was dissolved back into the Brahmo Samaj by Debendranath Tagore.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following about Tattwabodhini Sabha:

1. It was a splinter group of the Brahmo Samaj.

2. Debendranath Tagore founded it.

3. Its main objective was to promote a rational and humanist form of Hinduism based on the Vedanta.

Select the correct answer using the given codes.

Solution:
  • Sister Nivedita met Swami Vivekananda in 1895 in London and travelled to Calcutta in 1898. Her 150th birth anniversary was celebrated recently.

  • Swami Vivekananda gave her the name Nivedita (meaning ‘Dedicated to God’) when he initiated her into the vow of Brahmacharya in 1898.

  • Nivedita had close associations with the newly established Ramakrishna Mission. However, because of her active contribution in Indian Nationalism, she had to publicly dissociate herself from the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission under the then president Swami Brahmananda.

  • She started taking an interest in Gautama Buddha's teachings, Swami Vivekananda as an alternate source of peace and benediction.

QUESTION: 8

Regarding Sister Nivedita, consider the following statements:

1. She became the first Western woman to be received into an Indian monastic order.

2. She served as the president of the Ramakrishna Mission.

3. She termed the teachings of Buddhists as anti-Vedic and regressive.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • He was a key figure in introducing the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century.

  • A disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, he championed the supremacy of Vedantic philosophy. His talk at the Chicago (USA) Conference of World Religions in 1893 made the westerners realise the importance of Hinduism.

  • He was a major force in the revival of Hinduism in India and contributed to the concept of nationalism in colonial India.

  • He was a devotee of Hindu Gods and Goddesses and used to meditate in the presence of idols.

QUESTION: 9

Which of the following is/are correct concerning the views of Swami Vivekananda?

1. He championed the supremacy of Vedantic philosophy.

2. He was against the idea and concept of Indian nationalism.

3. He resisted the idea of idol worship and identifying religious figures.

Select the correct answer using the codes below,

Solution:
  • The Young Bengal movement was a group of radical Bengali free thinkers emerging from the Hindu College, Calcutta.

  •  

    The Young Bengals were inspired and excited by the spirit of free thought and revolt against Hindu society's existing social and religious structure.

  •  

    Derozio joined Hindu College in 1828 and within a short period attracted students. The Academic Association, established in 1828 under the guidance of Derozio, arranged discussions on subjects such as free will, free ordination, fate, faith and the sacredness of truth.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 10

The Young Bengal Movement by Louis Vivian Derozio

1. Worked towards the religious and spiritual liberation of the youth.

2. Pushed its followers to question all authority.

3. Demanded education for women.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • Henry Vivian Derozio was the founder of the Young Bengal Movement. He taught in the Hindu College, Calcutta. His followers were known as the Derozians and their movement the Young Bengal Movement.

  • They attacked old traditions and decadent customs. They also advocated women’s rights and education. They founded associations and organised debates against idol worship, casteism and superstitions.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following about the Satnami movement:

1. The Satnami community was established first in East Bengal.

2. Their principles treated all people as equal.

3. They believed in the polytheism and multiplicity of Gods.

4. Satnamis often organised mass rebellions against the British, citing them as ‘Dikus’ or outsiders.

Select the correct answer using the codes below,

Solution:
  • He established the Atmiya Sabha in 1815. The work of the Atmiya Sabha was carried on by Maharishi Debendranath Tagore (father of Rabindranath Tagore), who renamed it as Brahmo Samaj.

  • Through this organisation, he preached that there is only one God. He combined the teachings of the Upanishads, the Bible and the Koran in developing unity among the people of different religions. Raj Ram Mohan Roy is remembered for helping Lord William Bentinck declare the practice of sati a punishable offence in 1829. He also protested against child marriage and female infanticide. He favoured the remarriage of widows, female education and women’s right to property.

  • He believed in the equality of humankind. He did not believe in the supremacy of the Brahmin priests. He favoured inter-caste marriages.

QUESTION: 12

Regarding Raja Ram Mohan Roy, consider the following statements:

1. Atmiya Sabha was founded by Debendranath Tagore which was later re-established and renamed as Brahmo Samaj by Rammohan Roy.

2. Brahmo Samaj preached polytheism.

3. He helped William Bentinck to declare the practice of sati a punishable offence.

4. He did not favour inter-caste marriages.

Select the correct answer using the codes below,

Solution:
  • The Servants of India Society was formed in Pune, Maharashtra, in 1905 by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.

  • The Society organised many campaigns to promote education, sanitation, health care and fight the social evils of untouchability and discrimination, alcoholism, poverty, oppression of women and domestic abuse.

  • The publication of The Hitavada, the organ of the Society in English from Nagpur, commenced in 1911.

QUESTION: 13

Regarding the Servants of India Society, consider the following statements:

1. It was the first nationalist organisation to be established and operated from outside India.

2. The society was only concerned with the promotion of Swadeshi and achievement of political Swaraj.

3. It published Hitavada in all the major regional languages of India.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • The Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha was formed in 1906 much after the formation of the Pune Mahasabha. M.G. Ranade established Poona Sarvajanik Sabha in 1870 along with Ganesh Vasudeo and others.

  • The Hindu Mahasabha was formed to protect the Hindu community's rights in British India, after the formation of the All India Muslim League in 1906 and the British India government’s creation of separate Muslim electorate under the Morley-Minto reforms of 1909.

  • It did not advocate radical reforms as Swadeshi or Swaraj. It was a socio-political organisation in British India that started to work as a mediating body between the government and people of India.

  • The organisation was a precursor to the Indian National Congress, which started with Maharashtra's first session. The Pune Sarvajanik Sabha provided many of the prominent national stature leaders to the Indian freedom struggle, including Bal Gangadhar Tilak. It was formed in 1870 by S. H. Chiplunkar, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi and Mahadev Govind Ranade.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following about Prarthana Samaj:

1. It was established in 1867 in Bombay.

2. Its primary objective was to promote Indian spirituality to the West.

3. Its leaders condemned rituals and superstitions of orthodox Hinduism.

Select the correct answer using the codes below,

Solution:
  • Statement 3 is incorrect as the religious meetings of the Samaj drew upon Hindu, Buddhist and Christian texts. Statement 2 is also incorrect, as securing social justice was the primary aim of the Samaj, not the promotion of spirituality to the West.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following about the Shuddhi movement in British India:

1. It was a socio-political movement aimed at reducing the conversions of Hindus to Islam and Christianity.

2. It aimed at abolishing the practice of untouchability by converting outcasts from other religions to Hinduism.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • Derived from the ancient rite of shuddhikaran or purification, it was started by the Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati and his followers like Swami Shraddhanand, who also worked on the Sangathan consolidation aspect of Hinduism in North India, especially Punjab in early the 1900s, though it gradually spread across India.

  • Shuddhi had a social reform agenda behind its belligerent rationale and aimed to abolish the practice of untouchability by converting outcasts from other religions to Hinduism and integrating them into the mainstream community by elevating their position instilling self-confidence and self-determination in them. The movement strove to reduce the conversions of Hindus to Islam and Christianity, which were underway at the time.

QUESTION: 16

Consider the following statements.

1. The Swadhyay Parivar is a devotional movement started by Pandurang Shastri Athavale to promote the study of the ‘self’.

2. The Swadhyay Parivar movement lays exclusive emphasis on one’s own faculty for understanding the true nature of things and does not promote scriptural knowledge or studies.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Swadhyay Parivar is a devotional movement based in Maharashtra, India. It claims to have over 50,000 Kendra locations and 60,00,000 followers in India, Portugal, USA, UK, Canada, and the Middle East who carry out various self-development activities, self-learning, devotional activities and social awareness activities around the world.

  • Swadhyaya means the study of self for a spiritual quest.

  • Pandurang Shastri Athavale (1920-2003) was the originator of this movement that promotes a particular interpretation and reading of the Vedic scriptures like Bhagavad Gita, Vedas and the Upanishads.

QUESTION: 17

Satya Shodhak Samaj organised

Solution: It is an anti-caste movement led by Jyothiba Phule in Maharashtra. Socio-religious modern Indian history movements always appear in preliminary exams, and this time, UPSC moved out of Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj. Check our Infographics section for all important movements relevant to the exam.

QUESTION: 18

The Veda Samaj worked to

1. Promote the belief of one God.

2. Rationalise superstitious Hindu practices based on the Vedas.

3. Open educational institutions to promote the study of Eastern mysticism.

Select the correct answer using the codes below,

Solution: It was established in Madras (Chennai) in 1864. It was inspired by the Brahmo Samaj and worked to abolish caste distinctions and promote widow remarriage and women’s education. Its members believed in one God. They condemned the superstitions and rituals of orthodoxy.

QUESTION: 19

Concerning the Theosophical Society, consider the following statements:

1. It was founded in Calcutta by Bhikaji Cama.

2. Its main aim was to promote the study of ancient religions and philosophies.

3. The Central Hindu School was chosen as the parent organisation that acted as a catalyst for this society's growth.

Select the correct answer using the codes below,

Solution:
  • The Theosophical Society was founded in New York (USA) in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky, a Russian lady, and Henry Steel Olcott, an American colonel.

  • Their main objectives were to form a universal brotherhood of man without any distinction of race, colour or creed and promote the study of ancient religions and philosophies. They arrived in India and established their headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1882.

  • Later, in 1893, Mrs Annie Besant arrived in India and took over the Society's leadership after Olcott's death. Mrs Annie Besant founded the Central Hindu School and Madan Mohan Malaviya at Benaras, which later developed into the Banaras Hindu University.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statement.

1. E.V. Ramasami Naicker was a worker of the Congress party, started the self-respect movement and led the anti-Brahmin movement.

2. Madurai Pillai, affectionately called Thatha, accompanied Dr. Ambedkar to the Round Table Conference for his untiring efforts towards scheduled castes.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • He was Rettaimalai Srinivasan. Affectionately called Thatha (Grandfather) for his untiring efforts to re-establish the scheduled communities' cultural ownership and legacy, he accompanied Dr Ambedkar to the Round Table Conference.

  • He rejected demeaning terms like ‘Depressed classes’, which was perhaps the precursor to today’s label ‘Dalit’. He wanted Scheduled Communities to be named ‘reformist Hindus’ because they rejected the disease of untouchability plaguing the so-called caste Hindus.

  • Known as Periyar (the respected); a strong supporter of atheism; famous for his anti-caste struggle and rediscovery of Dravid identity; initially a worker of the Congress party; started the self-respect movement (1925); led the anti- Brahmin movement; worked for the Justice party and later founded Dravid Kazhagam; opposed to Hindi and domination of north India; propounded the thesis that north Indians and Brahmins are Aryans.

  • The Dravidian movement led to Dravida Kazhagam [DK] under the leadership of E.V. Ramasamy ‘Periyar’.

QUESTION: 21

Consider the following about the history of the Justice party- Dravidian Movement-and its ideology.

1. Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy transformed the Justice Party into the social organisation Dravidar Kazhagam.

2. The party helped establish the noncooperation movement in South India with the support of C. Rajagopalachari.

3. The organization opposed Annie Besant and her Home rule movement.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:
  • The communal division between Brahmins and non-Brahmins began in the presidency during the late-19th and early-2011 century, mainly due to caste prejudices and disproportionate Brahminical representation in government jobs.

  • The Justice Party's foundation marked the culmination of several efforts to establish an organisation representing the non-Brahmins in the Madras Presidency and is seen as the start of the Dravidian Movement. In 1920, it won the first direct elections in the presidency and formed the government.

  • It came under the leadership of Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy and his Self-Respect Movement. In 1944, Periyar transformed the Justice Party into the social organisation Dravidar Kazhagam and withdrew it from electoral politics.

  • It opposed Annie Besant and her Home rule movement because it believed home rule would benefit the Brahmins. The party also campaigned against the non-cooperation movement in the presidency. It was at odds with M. K. Gandhi, primarily due to his praise for Brahminism.

QUESTION: 22

People in the Ezhava community in Kerala, at the start of the 20th CE, were led by which amongst the below to change their social practices:

Solution:
  • In 1903, a small group of Ezhavas, led by Palpu, established Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam (SNDP), the region's first caste association.

  • This was named after Narayana Guru, who had established an ashram from where he preached his message of ‘one caste, one religion, one god’ and a Sanskritised version of the Victorian concept of self-help. His influence locally has been compared to that of Swami Vivekananda.

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION: 23

With reference to the Vaikom Satyagraha, consider the following statements:

1. E.V. Ramaswami Naicker was its prominent leader.

2. The movement's demand to seek entry to the temple for avarnas (depressed classes).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Kerala Provincial Congress Committee (KPCC) took up the eradication of untouchability as an urgent issue.

  • While carrying on a massive propaganda campaign against untouchability and for the Harijans' educational and social upliftment, it was decided to launch an immediate movement to open Hindu temples and all public roads to the avarnas or Harijans.

  • This, it was felt, would give a decisive blow to the notion of untouchability, since it was basically religious in character and the avarnas’ exclusion from the temples was symbolic of their degradation and oppression.

  • A beginning was made in Vaikom, a village in Travancore. There was a major temple whose four walls were surrounded by roads that could not be used by avarnas like Ezhavas and Pulayas.

QUESTION: 24

Sayyid Ahmad Khan had a notable contribution in spreading education among Muslims in India. He would disagree with which of the following in the initiative towards social reforms?

Solution:
  • He was a reformer of the 19th century. He led liberal, social and cultural movements within the Muslim society.
  • While pursuing studies of different subjects, including European jurisprudence, Syed began to realise the advantages of Western-style education, which was being offered at newly established colleges across India.
  • Despite being a devout Muslim, Syed criticised the influence of traditional dogma and religious orthodoxy, which had made most Indian Muslims suspicious of British influences. Option (c): Syed studied the Quran and sciences within the court later studied law from the University of Edinburgh. Being a modernist, he supported the rational studies of religious scriptures.
QUESTION: 25

The objective(s) of the Deoband movement was/were to 
1. Propagate, among the Muslims, Western and rational thought. 
2. Promote women-centred social reforms. 
Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:

The orthodox section among the Muslim ulema organised the Deoband Movement. It was a revivalist movement whose twin objectives were to: (i) propagate among the Muslims the pure teachings of the Koran, and the Hadis and (ii) keep alive the spirit of jihad against the foreign rulers. The new Deoband leader Mahmud-ul-Hasan (1851-1920) sought to impart a political and intellectual content to the religious ideas of the school. The liberal interpretation of Islam created political awakening among its followers.

QUESTION: 26

The Aligarh Movement was started 

Solution:
  • It was started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-1898) for the Muslims' social and educational advancement in India.
  • He fought against the medieval backwardness and advocated a rational approach towards religion. In 1866, he started the Muhammadan Educational Conference as a general forum for spreading liberal ideas among the Muslims.
  • In 1875, he founded a modem school at Aligarh to promote English education among the Muslims. This had later grown into the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College and then into the Aligarh Muslim University.
QUESTION: 27

The Faraizi movement was founded in 1818 to
1. Observe all cultural rites and ceremonies religiously as divine symbols. 
2. Protect the right of tenants. 
3. Adopt rational and modern western practices to improve living standards.

Select the correct answer using the codes below.

Solution:

It was launched by Haji Shariatullah to give up un-Islamic practices and act upon their duties as Muslims. The movement protected the rights of tenants to a great extent. The Faraizis adhered to the Hanafi school with certain differences in practices. 

  • To be penitent for past sins as a measure for the purification of the soul.
  • To observe the obligatory duties of Faraizi strictly.
  • Strict adherence to Tawhid.
  • India being Dar al-Harb, Friday and Eid's prayers were not obligatory. 
  • Denouncing all cultural rites and ceremonies which had no reference to the Quran and Sunnah as sinful innovations.
QUESTION: 28

Concerning the Akali movement, consider the following statements:

1. The movement's main objective was to reform the Sikh religion and clean it from the influence of Hinduism.

2. The Shiromani Akali Dal was the central body that organised the movement and accepted non-violence as the movement's soul.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Akali movement developed on a purely religious issue but ended up as a powerful episode of India’s freedom struggle. From 1920-1925, more than 30,000 men and women underwent imprisonment, nearly 400 died, and over 2,000 were wounded.
  • The movement arose intending to free the Gurdwaras (Sikh temples) from the control of ignorant and corrupt mahants (priests).
  • To control and manage the Golden Temple, the Akal Takht and other Gurdwaras, a representative assembly of nearly 10,000 reformers met in November 1920 and elected a committee of 175 to be known as the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC). 
QUESTION: 29

The government had released commemorative postal stamps to highlight the heroic deeds of those engaged in the 1857 Kuka movement. Consider the following statements about it:

1. It was initiated in Punjab.

2. This movement actively propagated the principles of boycott and non-cooperation.

3. It became a part of the overall freedom struggle.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below

Solution:
  • This movement marked the first major anti-British reaction and its new political order initiated in 1849 among the Punjab people in 1857.
  • The Namdhari movement, the aftermath of the Kuka movement, was the most important phase to overthrow the British rule and played an important role in the freedom struggle.

It had evoked strong feelings of self-respect and sacrifice for the country’s freedom struggle. This movement actively propagated boycott and non-cooperation given by Guru Ram Singh (founder of the Namdhari sect) for the Namdharis.

QUESTION: 30

Who among the following established the Tattvabodhini Sabha in 1839 at Calcutta (Now Kolkata)?

Solution:

Debendranath Tagore established the Tattvabodhini Sabha (1839) at Calcutta to propagate Rammohan Roy’s ideas. Hence, B is the correct option.