The land granted by the lord to the knights was called:
The fief was inherited land, which extended to between 1,000-2,000 acres, including a house for the knight and his family, a church and other establishments to house his dependants, besides a watermill and a wine-press. The land of the fief was cultivated by peasants.
Europe witnessed change in land use “switch from a two-field to a three-field system” during the
The change in the land use, during the 11th century, brought many benefits and more yields. It enabled peasants to use a field two years out of three if they planted one crop in autumn, and a different crop in spring a year and a half later, which meant that farmers could break their holdings into three fields. They could plant one with wheat or rye in autumn for human consumption. The second one could be used in spring to raise peas, beans and lentils, for human use, and oats and barley for the horses. The third field lay fallow. Each year they rotated the use among the three fields.
The famous book Feudal Society, which dealt with the French society, was written by:
Marc Bloch’s 'Feudal Society' is about European, particularly French, society between 900 CE and 1300 CE, describing in remarkable detail, the social relations and hierarchies, land management and popular culture of the period.
According to French priests the basis of classification among the three orders was
The three orders of society were the clergy, the nobility and the peasantry. The clergy or the religious people were at the top of the hierarchy, followed by the nobility, which constituted king and his courtiers, and lastly were the peasants and other masses.
The first king who was declared the 'Holy Roman Emperor' was
The French had strong links and mutual understandings with the Church. This relationship was further strengthened when, in 800 AD, the Pope gave King Charlemagne the title of ‘Holy Roman Emperor’ to ensure his support.
One of the gradual changes that affected the social and economic ties between the lords and the vassals was
Around 11th century, several processes were transforming the social system. Changes in the environment were gradual and almost barely visible.
Other changes were more dramatic.
There was a growing uncertainty about the value and purpose of monasticism by the
The diminishing popularity of the monotheism could be seen in many of the writings. For example in England, Langland’s poem, 'Piers Plowman' contrasted the ease and luxury of the lives of some monks with the ‘pure faith’ of ‘simple ploughmen and shepherds and poor common labourers.’ Chaucer wrote the 'Canterbury Tales', which had comic portraits of a nun, a monk and a friar.
The king who was declared the ‘Holy Roman Emperor’ was
Charlemagne was the Frankish emperor from 768 - 814 AD. In 800 AD, the Pope gave King Charlemagne the title of ‘Holy Roman Emperor’ to ensure his support to the Church.
We see the rise of absolute monarchy in Europe in the
The 15th and 16th centuries saw the European kings strengthening their military and financial powers.
A guild was an association of
Guild was a professional association that maintained formal guidelines for each craft. Guild was responsible to control the quality of the product, its price and its sale. Heads of all the guilds met formally at ‘guild-hall’. It was a building for ceremonial functions.