UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2012: Paper 2 (CSAT)


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QUESTION: 1

Directions for the following 6 (six) items:

Read the following two passages and Solution: the items that follow each passage. Your Solutions to these items should be based on the passages only.

Passage I


The poor especially in market economics need the strength that collectivities offer for creating more economic, social and political space for themselves, for enhancing their socio-economic well-being and voice, and as a protection against free market individualism. It has been argued that a group approach to farming, especially in the form of bottom up agricultural production collectivities, offers substantial scope for poverty alleviation and empowering the poor as well as enhancing agricultural productivity. To realize this potential, however, the groups would need to be voluntary in nature, small in size, participative in decision making and equitable in work sharing and benefit distribution. There are many notable examples of such collectivities to be found in varied contexts, such as in transitions economies. All of them bear witness to the possibility of successful cooperation under given conditions. And although the gender impact of the family cooperatives in the transition economies are uncertain, the Indian examples of women-only groups farming offer considerable potential for benefiting women.

 

 


Q. Agricultural collectivities such as group based farming can provide the rural poor

1. Empowerment

2. Increased agricultural productivity.

3. Safeguard against exploitative markets.

4. Surplus production of agricultural commodities.

Select the correct Solution: using the codes given below:  

Solution:

Solution: b) “protection against free market individualism” tells that statement 3 is correct. Rest others are very explicitly mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 2

Passage I


The poor especially in market economics need the strength that collectivities offer for creating more economic, social and political space for themselves, for enhancing their socio-economic well-being and voice, and as a protection against free market individualism. It has been argued that a group approach to farming, especially in the form of bottom up agricultural production collectivities, offers substantial scope for poverty alleviation and empowering the poor as well as enhancing agricultural productivity. To realize this potential, however, the groups would need to be voluntary in nature, small in size, participative in decision making and equitable in work sharing and benefit distribution. There are many notable examples of such collectivities to be found in varied contexts, such as in transitions economies. All of them bear witness to the possibility of successful cooperation under given conditions. And although the gender impact of the family cooperatives in the transition economies are uncertain, the Indian examples of women-only groups farming offer considerable potential for benefiting women.

 

 

Q. What does the author imply by “gender impact”?

Solution:

Solution: c) Clear from the passage.

QUESTION: 3

Passage I


The poor especially in market economics need the strength that collectivities offer for creating more economic, social and political space for themselves, for enhancing their socio-economic well-being and voice, and as a protection against free market individualism. It has been argued that a group approach to farming, especially in the form of bottom up agricultural production collectivities, offers substantial scope for poverty alleviation and empowering the poor as well as enhancing agricultural productivity. To realize this potential, however, the groups would need to be voluntary in nature, small in size, participative in decision making and equitable in work sharing and benefit distribution. There are many notable examples of such collectivities to be found in varied contexts, such as in transitions economies. All of them bear witness to the possibility of successful cooperation under given conditions. And although the gender impact of the family cooperatives in the transition economies are uncertain, the Indian examples of women-only groups farming offer considerable potential for benefiting women.

 

 

Q. Consider the following assumptions:

1. It is imperative for transition economies to have agricultural collectivities.

2. Agricultural productivity can be increased by group approach to farming.

With reference to the above passage which of these assumptions is/are valid?

Solution:

Solution: b) The word “imperative” is an extreme word. It means something which is absolutely necessary. The passage only says that they are helpful.

QUESTION: 4

Passage II

 

In a typical Western liberal context, deepening of democracy invariably leads to consolidation of ‘liberal values’. In the Indian context, democratization is translated into greater involvement of people not as ‘individuals’ which is a staple to liberal discourse, but as communities or groups. Individuals are getting involved in the public sphere not as ‘atomized’ individuals but as members of primordial communities drawn on religious or caste identity. Community-identity seems to be the governing force. It is not therefore surprising that the so-called peripheral groups continue to maintain their identities with reference to the social groups {caste, religion or sex} to which they belong while getting involved in the political processes despite the fact that their political goals remain more or less identical. By helping to articulate the political voice of the marginalized, democracy in India has led to ‘a loosening of social strictures’ and empowered the peripherals to be confident of their ability to improve the socio economic conditions in which they are placed. This is a significant political process that had led to a silent revolution through a meaningful transfer of power from the upper caste cities to various subaltern groups within the democratic framework of public governance.

 

 

Q. According to the passage, what does “deepening of democracy” mean in the Western context?

Solution:

Solution: d) Option (a) talks about the Indian context. Option (b) talks about democracy in general.Option (c) talks about the consequences of democratization in a normal society. In the Western context it simply means people embrace liberal values. So, none of the statements are correct.A careful reading of passage will give you the solutions.

QUESTION: 5

Passage II

 

In a typical Western liberal context, deepening of democracy invariably leads to consolidation of ‘liberal values’. In the Indian context, democratization is translated into greater involvement of people not as ‘individuals’ which is a staple to liberal discourse, but as communities or groups. Individuals are getting involved in the public sphere not as ‘atomized’ individuals but as members of primordial communities drawn on religious or caste identity. Community-identity seems to be the governing force. It is not therefore surprising that the so-called peripheral groups continue to maintain their identities with reference to the social groups {caste, religion or sex} to which they belong while getting involved in the political processes despite the fact that their political goals remain more or less identical. By helping to articulate the political voice of the marginalized, democracy in India has led to ‘a loosening of social strictures’ and empowered the peripherals to be confident of their ability to improve the socio economic conditions in which they are placed. This is a significant political process that had led to a silent revolution through a meaningful transfer of power from the upper caste cities to various subaltern groups within the democratic framework of public governance.

 

 

Q. Greater democratization in India has not necessarily led to

Solution:

Solution: b) Option (a) could have been true; but its very general – it talks about public sphere; and not Indian politics in specific.So, lesson is: Keep a check on general and over-arching statements.

QUESTION: 6

Passage II

 

In a typical Western liberal context, deepening of democracy invariably leads to consolidation of ‘liberal values’. In the Indian context, democratization is translated into greater involvement of people not as ‘individuals’ which is a staple to liberal discourse, but as communities or groups. Individuals are getting involved in the public sphere not as ‘atomized’ individuals but as members of primordial communities drawn on religious or caste identity. Community-identity seems to be the governing force. It is not therefore surprising that the so-called peripheral groups continue to maintain their identities with reference to the social groups {caste, religion or sex} to which they belong while getting involved in the political processes despite the fact that their political goals remain more or less identical. By helping to articulate the political voice of the marginalized, democracy in India has led to ‘a loosening of social strictures’ and empowered the peripherals to be confident of their ability to improve the socio economic conditions in which they are placed. This is a significant political process that had led to a silent revolution through a meaningful transfer of power from the upper caste cities to various subaltern groups within the democratic framework of public governance.

 

 

Q. What is the “silent revolution” that has occurred in the Indian democratic process?

Solution:

Solution: c) Option (a) is incorrect, which also makes option (d) incorrect.Option (b) is incorrect, because the loosening has not been in the voting behaviour; it has been towards the social structures and participation in the political process.If you see this line “– ‘loosening of social strictures’ and empowered the peripherals to be confident of their ability to improve the socio economic conditions in which they are placed. This is a significant political process that had led to a silent revolution”, you will understand the solution.

QUESTION: 7

Directions for the following 5 (five) items:

Examine the information given in the following paragraph and Solution: the items that follow:

 

Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day. Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be schedules immediately after the day of Economics lecture. English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

Q. Which lecture is scheduled on Monday?

Solution:

Solution: d) Simply write the days and cross the ones that are not applicable. You will get the answer. Since Tuesday’s schedule is fixed – for English to come immediately before economics, and economics to come immediately before maths, this will be the arrangement. Monday - Statistics,Tuesday – E, History. Wednesday – English, Thursday – Economics. Friday –Mathematics

QUESTION: 8

Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day. Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be schedules immediately after the day of Economics lecture. English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

 

 

Q. Which lecture is scheduled between Statistics and English?

Solution:

Solution: b) As seen from the table we drew.

Monday - Statistics, Tuesday – History . Wednesday – English, Thursday – Economics, Friday –Mathematics

QUESTION: 9

Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day. Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be schedules immediately after the day of Economics lecture. English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

 

 

Q. Which lecture is the last one in the week?

Solution:

Solution: c) As from the table.

Monday - Statistics, Tuesday – History . Wednesday – English, Thursday – Economics, Friday –Mathematics

QUESTION: 10

Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day. Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be schedules immediately after the day of Economics lecture. English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

 

 

Q. Which lecture is located scheduled on Wednesday?

Solution:

Solution: c) Straight from the table.

Monday - Statistics, Tuesday – History . Wednesday – English, Thursday – Economics, Friday –Mathematics

QUESTION: 11

Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day. Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be schedules immediately after the day of Economics lecture. English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.

 

 

Q. Which lecture is scheduled before the Mathematics lecture?

Solution:

Solution: a) This is clear from the question itself. 

 

QUESTION: 12

Two glasses of equal volume are respectively half and three-fourths filled with milk. They are then filled to the brim by adding water. Their contents are then poured into another vessel. What will be the ratio of milk to water in this vessel?

Solution:

Solution: d) Lets say both glasses have 100 ml capacity. Glass 1: 50 ml water and 50 ml milk Glass 2: 25 ml water and 75 ml milk. Total when poured together = 200 ml.

Milk = 125 mlWater = 75 ml

Ration = 125:75 = 5:3

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements:

 

1. All machines consume energy

2. Electricity provides energy

3. Electrically operated machines are cheap to maintain

4. Electrically operated machines do not cause pollution.

 

Q. Which one of the following inferences can be drawn from the above statements?

Solution:

Solution: d) Lets critically analyse each option. 

01: Just because all machines consume energy; and electricity provides energy, does not mean that electricity is the only source of energy. Machines can run on other sources of energy too. So it is wrong.
02: Electricity provides energy does not mean it is only source providing energy. Hence, 02 is also wrong.
03: In the light of the above discussion, 03 is also wrong.
04: From statements 3 and 4, this seems the most reasonable option. Hence, (d)

QUESTION: 14

Examine the following statements:

 

1. None but the rich ran afford air-travel.

2. Some of those who travel by air become sick

3. Some of those who become sick require treatment.

 

Q. Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?

Solution:

Solution: d) Option (a) is incorrect because even if the rich can afford air travel, its not necessary that every rich person will travel by air. Since (b) is also incorrect, (c) has to be incorrect. Option (d) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 15

In five flats, one above the other, live five professionals. The professor has to go up to meet his IAS officer friend. The doctor is equally friendly to all, and has to go up as frequently as go down. The engineer has to go up to meet his MLA friend above whose flat lives the professor's friend.From the ground floor to the top floor, in what order do the five professionals live?

Solution:

Solution: d) It is clear that the doctor is at the centre and the MLA stays above the Engineer.It is also given that IAS officer is professor’s friend. So, IAS officer must stay above Engineer and MLA. Only the last option is satisfying the above conditions.You can also check it by drawing a diagram.S1: IAS>....>Prof

S2: Doc is in the middle

S3: IAS>..MLA>..>EngineerNow only way in which these can be satisfied is:IAS>MLA>Doctor> Engineer> Professor

QUESTION: 16

Directions for the following 15 (fifteen) items:

Read the following three passages and solve the items that follow each passage. Your Solutions to these items should be based on the passages only.

Passage I


Education, without a doubt, has an important functional, instrumental and utilitarian dimension. This is revealed when one asks questions such as 'what is the purpose of education?'. The Solutions, too often, are 'to acquire qualifications for employment/upward mobility', 'wider/higher (in terms of income) opportunities', and 'to meet the needs for trained human power in diverse field for national development'. But in its deepest sense education is not instrumentalist. That is to say, it is not to be justified outside of itself because it leads to the acquisition of formal skills or of certain desired psychological – social attributes. It must be respected in itself. Education is thus not a commodity to be acquired or possessed and then used, but a process of inestimable importance to individuals and society, although it can and does have enormous use value. Education then, is a process of expansion and conversion, not in the sense of conversion turning students into doctors or engineers, but the widening and turning out of the mind – the creation, sustenance and development of self-critical awareness and independence of thought. It is an inner process of moral-intellectual development.

Q. What do you understand by the 'instrumentalist' view of education?   

Solution:

Solution: a) Observe the following lines: “But in its deepest sense education is not instrumentalist. That is to say, it is not to be justified outside of itself…”Options 2, 3 and 4 are mentioned in the passage as the outcomes of education.Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 17

Passage I

 

Education, without a doubt, has an important functional, instrumental and utilitarian dimension. This is revealed when one asks questions such as 'what is the purpose of education?'. The Solutions, too often, are 'to acquire qualifications for employment/upward mobility', 'wider/higher (in terms of income) opportunities', and 'to meet the needs for trained human power in diverse field for national development'. But in its deepest sense education is not instrumentalist. That is to say, it is not to be justified outside of itself because it leads to the acquisition of formal skills or of certain desired psychological – social attributes. It must be respected in itself. Education is thus not a commodity to be acquired or possessed and then used, but a process of inestimable importance to individuals and society, although it can and does have enormous use value. Education then, is a process of expansion and conversion, not in the sense of conversion turning students into doctors or engineers, but the widening and turning out of the mind – the creation, sustenance and development of self-critical awareness and independence of thought. It is an inner process of moral-intellectual development.

 

 

Q. According to the passage, education must be respected in itself because

Solution:

Solution: c) This is clearly mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 18

Passage I

 

Education, without a doubt, has an important functional, instrumental and utilitarian dimension. This is revealed when one asks questions such as 'what is the purpose of education?'. The Solutions, too often, are 'to acquire qualifications for employment/upward mobility', 'wider/higher (in terms of income) opportunities', and 'to meet the needs for trained human power in diverse field for national development'. But in its deepest sense education is not instrumentalist. That is to say, it is not to be justified outside of itself because it leads to the acquisition of formal skills or of certain desired psychological – social attributes. It must be respected in itself. Education is thus not a commodity to be acquired or possessed and then used, but a process of inestimable importance to individuals and society, although it can and does have enormous use value. Education then, is a process of expansion and conversion, not in the sense of conversion turning students into doctors or engineers, but the widening and turning out of the mind – the creation, sustenance and development of self-critical awareness and independence of thought. It is an inner process of moral-intellectual development.

 

 

Q. Education is a process in which

Solution:

Solution: c) This has also been clearly mentioned in the last few lines.

QUESTION: 19

Passage II


Chemical pesticides lose their role in sustainable agriculture if the pests evolve resistance. The evolution of the pesticide resistance is simply natural selection in action. It is almost certain to occur when vast numbers of a genetically variable population are killed. One or a few individuals may be unusually resistant (perhaps because they possess an enzyme that can detoxify the pesticide). If the pesticide is applied repeatedly, each successive generation of the pest will contain a larger proportion of resistant individuals. Pests typically have a high intrinsic rate of reproduction, and so a few individuals in one generation may give rise to hundreds or thousands in the next, and resistance spreads very rapidly in a population.

This problem was often ignored in the past, even though the first case of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) resistance was reported as early as 1946. There is an exponential increase in the numbers of invertebrates that have evolved resistance and in the number pesticides against which resistance has evolved. Resistance has been recorded in every family of arthropod pests (including dipterans such as mosquitoes and house flies, as well as beetles, moths, wasps, fleas, lice and mites) as well as in weeds and plant pathogens. Take the Alabama leaf worm, a moth pest of cotton, as an example. It has developed resistance in one or more regions of the world to aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, lindane and toxaphene.

If chemical pesticides brought nothing but problems, - if their use was intrinsically and acutely unsustainable – then they would already have fallen out of widespread use. This has not happened. Instead, their rate of production has increased rapidly. The ratio of cost to benefit for the individual agricultural producer has remained in favour of pesticide use. In the USA, insecticides have been estimated to benefit the agricultural products to the tune of around $5 for every $1 spent.
Moreover, in many poorer countries, the prospect of imminent mass starvation, or of an epidemic disease, are so frightening that the social and health costs of using pesticides have to be ignored. In general the use of pesticides is justified by objective measures such as 'lives saved', 'economic efficiency of food production' and 'total food produced'. In these very fundamental senses, their use may be described as sustainable. In practice, sustainability depends on continually developing new pesticides that keep at least one step ahead of the pests – pesticides that are less persistent, biodegradable and more accurately targeted at the pests.

Q. “The evolution of pesticide resistance is natural selection in action.” What does it actually imply?  

Solution:

Solution: c) Option (a) and (b) are incorrect as they are nowhere mentioned in the passage.Option (c) is correct because it follows the logic of evolution and natural selection.

QUESTION: 20

Passage II


Chemical pesticides lose their role in sustainable agriculture if the pests evolve resistance. The evolution of the pesticide resistance is simply natural selection in action. It is almost certain to occur when vast numbers of a genetically variable population are killed. One or a few individuals may be unusually resistant (perhaps because they possess an enzyme that can detoxify the pesticide). If the pesticide is applied repeatedly, each successive generation of the pest will contain a larger proportion of resistant individuals. Pests typically have a high intrinsic rate of reproduction, and so a few individuals in one generation may give rise to hundreds or thousands in the next, and resistance spreads very rapidly in a population.

This problem was often ignored in the past, even though the first case of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) resistance was reported as early as 1946. There is an exponential increase in the numbers of invertebrates that have evolved resistance and in the number pesticides against which resistance has evolved. Resistance has been recorded in every family of arthropod pests (including dipterans such as mosquitoes and house flies, as well as beetles, moths, wasps, fleas, lice and mites) as well as in weeds and plant pathogens. Take the Alabama leaf worm, a moth pest of cotton, as an example. It has developed resistance in one or more regions of the world to aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, lindane and toxaphene.

If chemical pesticides brought nothing but problems, - if their use was intrinsically and acutely unsustainable – then they would already have fallen out of widespread use. This has not happened. Instead, their rate of production has increased rapidly. The ratio of cost to benefit for the individual agricultural producer has remained in favour of pesticide use. In the USA, insecticides have been estimated to benefit the agricultural products to the tune of around $5 for every $1 spent.
Moreover, in many poorer countries, the prospect of imminent mass starvation, or of an epidemic disease, are so frightening that the social and health costs of using pesticides have to be ignored. In general the use of pesticides is justified by objective measures such as 'lives saved', 'economic efficiency of food production' and 'total food produced'. In these very fundamental senses, their use may be described as sustainable. In practice, sustainability depends on continually developing new pesticides that keep at least one step ahead of the pests – pesticides that are less persistent, biodegradable and more accurately targeted at the pests.

 

 

Q. With reference to the passage, consider the following statements:

 1. Use of chemical pesticides has become imperative in all the poor countries of the world.

2. Chemical pesticides should not have any role in sustainable agriculture

3. One pest can develop resistance to many pesticidesWhich of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

Solution: b) Statements 1 and 2 are extreme statements and out of context generalizations. So the answer has to be (b).

Lesson: Avoid out of context (passage) generalizations.

QUESTION: 21

Passage II


Chemical pesticides lose their role in sustainable agriculture if the pests evolve resistance. The evolution of the pesticide resistance is simply natural selection in action. It is almost certain to occur when vast numbers of a genetically variable population are killed. One or a few individuals may be unusually resistant (perhaps because they possess an enzyme that can detoxify the pesticide). If the pesticide is applied repeatedly, each successive generation of the pest will contain a larger proportion of resistant individuals. Pests typically have a high intrinsic rate of reproduction, and so a few individuals in one generation may give rise to hundreds or thousands in the next, and resistance spreads very rapidly in a population.

This problem was often ignored in the past, even though the first case of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) resistance was reported as early as 1946. There is an exponential increase in the numbers of invertebrates that have evolved resistance and in the number pesticides against which resistance has evolved. Resistance has been recorded in every family of arthropod pests (including dipterans such as mosquitoes and house flies, as well as beetles, moths, wasps, fleas, lice and mites) as well as in weeds and plant pathogens. Take the Alabama leaf worm, a moth pest of cotton, as an example. It has developed resistance in one or more regions of the world to aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, lindane and toxaphene.

If chemical pesticides brought nothing but problems, - if their use was intrinsically and acutely unsustainable – then they would already have fallen out of widespread use. This has not happened. Instead, their rate of production has increased rapidly. The ratio of cost to benefit for the individual agricultural producer has remained in favour of pesticide use. In the USA, insecticides have been estimated to benefit the agricultural products to the tune of around $5 for every $1 spent.
Moreover, in many poorer countries, the prospect of imminent mass starvation, or of an epidemic disease, are so frightening that the social and health costs of using pesticides have to be ignored. In general the use of pesticides is justified by objective measures such as 'lives saved', 'economic efficiency of food production' and 'total food produced'. In these very fundamental senses, their use may be described as sustainable. In practice, sustainability depends on continually developing new pesticides that keep at least one step ahead of the pests – pesticides that are less persistent, biodegradable and more accurately targeted at the pests.

 

 

Q. Though the problems associated with the use of chemical pesticides is known for a long time, their widespread use has not waned. Why?

Solution:

Solution: d) The actual answer is there in the last paragraph: “Moreover, in many poorer countries, the prospect of imminent mass starvation, or of an epidemic disease, are so frightening that the social and health costs of using pesticides have to be ignored. In general the use of pesticides is justified by objective measures such as 'lives saved', 'economic efficiency of food production' and 'total food produced'.”So, none of the options are correct.

QUESTION: 22

Passage II


Chemical pesticides lose their role in sustainable agriculture if the pests evolve resistance. The evolution of the pesticide resistance is simply natural selection in action. It is almost certain to occur when vast numbers of a genetically variable population are killed. One or a few individuals may be unusually resistant (perhaps because they possess an enzyme that can detoxify the pesticide). If the pesticide is applied repeatedly, each successive generation of the pest will contain a larger proportion of resistant individuals. Pests typically have a high intrinsic rate of reproduction, and so a few individuals in one generation may give rise to hundreds or thousands in the next, and resistance spreads very rapidly in a population.

This problem was often ignored in the past, even though the first case of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) resistance was reported as early as 1946. There is an exponential increase in the numbers of invertebrates that have evolved resistance and in the number pesticides against which resistance has evolved. Resistance has been recorded in every family of arthropod pests (including dipterans such as mosquitoes and house flies, as well as beetles, moths, wasps, fleas, lice and mites) as well as in weeds and plant pathogens. Take the Alabama leaf worm, a moth pest of cotton, as an example. It has developed resistance in one or more regions of the world to aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, lindane and toxaphene.

If chemical pesticides brought nothing but problems, - if their use was intrinsically and acutely unsustainable – then they would already have fallen out of widespread use. This has not happened. Instead, their rate of production has increased rapidly. The ratio of cost to benefit for the individual agricultural producer has remained in favour of pesticide use. In the USA, insecticides have been estimated to benefit the agricultural products to the tune of around $5 for every $1 spent.
Moreover, in many poorer countries, the prospect of imminent mass starvation, or of an epidemic disease, are so frightening that the social and health costs of using pesticides have to be ignored. In general the use of pesticides is justified by objective measures such as 'lives saved', 'economic efficiency of food production' and 'total food produced'. In these very fundamental senses, their use may be described as sustainable. In practice, sustainability depends on continually developing new pesticides that keep at least one step ahead of the pests – pesticides that are less persistent, biodegradable and more accurately targeted at the pests.

 

 

 

Q. How do pesticides act as agents for the selection of resistant individuals in any pest population?

1. It is possible that in a pest population the individuals will behave differently due to their genetic makeup.

2. Pests do possess the ability to detoxify the pesticides.

3. Evolution of pesticide resistance is equally distributed in pest population.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

Solution: a) Statement 1 has been mentioned clearly in the passage and is the very base on which the whole passage stands. Others are not mentioned.

QUESTION: 23

Passage II


Chemical pesticides lose their role in sustainable agriculture if the pests evolve resistance. The evolution of the pesticide resistance is simply natural selection in action. It is almost certain to occur when vast numbers of a genetically variable population are killed. One or a few individuals may be unusually resistant (perhaps because they possess an enzyme that can detoxify the pesticide). If the pesticide is applied repeatedly, each successive generation of the pest will contain a larger proportion of resistant individuals. Pests typically have a high intrinsic rate of reproduction, and so a few individuals in one generation may give rise to hundreds or thousands in the next, and resistance spreads very rapidly in a population.

This problem was often ignored in the past, even though the first case of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) resistance was reported as early as 1946. There is an exponential increase in the numbers of invertebrates that have evolved resistance and in the number pesticides against which resistance has evolved. Resistance has been recorded in every family of arthropod pests (including dipterans such as mosquitoes and house flies, as well as beetles, moths, wasps, fleas, lice and mites) as well as in weeds and plant pathogens. Take the Alabama leaf worm, a moth pest of cotton, as an example. It has developed resistance in one or more regions of the world to aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, lindane and toxaphene.

If chemical pesticides brought nothing but problems, - if their use was intrinsically and acutely unsustainable – then they would already have fallen out of widespread use. This has not happened. Instead, their rate of production has increased rapidly. The ratio of cost to benefit for the individual agricultural producer has remained in favour of pesticide use. In the USA, insecticides have been estimated to benefit the agricultural products to the tune of around $5 for every $1 spent.
Moreover, in many poorer countries, the prospect of imminent mass starvation, or of an epidemic disease, are so frightening that the social and health costs of using pesticides have to be ignored. In general the use of pesticides is justified by objective measures such as 'lives saved', 'economic efficiency of food production' and 'total food produced'. In these very fundamental senses, their use may be described as sustainable. In practice, sustainability depends on continually developing new pesticides that keep at least one step ahead of the pests – pesticides that are less persistent, biodegradable and more accurately targeted at the pests.

 

 

Q. Why is the use of chemical pesticides generally justified by giving the examples of poor and developing countries?

1. Developed countries can afford to do away with use of pesticides by adapting to organic farming, but it is imperative for poor and developing countries to use chemical pesticides.

2. In poor and developing countries, the pesticide addresses the problem of epidemic diseases of crops and eases the food problem.

3. The social and health costs of pesticide use are generally ignored in poor and developing countries.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

Solution: c) You might feel why is statement 3 wrong? Because it mentions both poor and developing countries have to ignore the costs. In the passage, its only poor countries that ignore the cost. 

Moreover, statement 1’s first part is out of context generalizations. Lesson: Read the statements very carefully and keep cross checking for minute differences with the passage.

QUESTION: 24

Passage II


Chemical pesticides lose their role in sustainable agriculture if the pests evolve resistance. The evolution of the pesticide resistance is simply natural selection in action. It is almost certain to occur when vast numbers of a genetically variable population are killed. One or a few individuals may be unusually resistant (perhaps because they possess an enzyme that can detoxify the pesticide). If the pesticide is applied repeatedly, each successive generation of the pest will contain a larger proportion of resistant individuals. Pests typically have a high intrinsic rate of reproduction, and so a few individuals in one generation may give rise to hundreds or thousands in the next, and resistance spreads very rapidly in a population.

This problem was often ignored in the past, even though the first case of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) resistance was reported as early as 1946. There is an exponential increase in the numbers of invertebrates that have evolved resistance and in the number pesticides against which resistance has evolved. Resistance has been recorded in every family of arthropod pests (including dipterans such as mosquitoes and house flies, as well as beetles, moths, wasps, fleas, lice and mites) as well as in weeds and plant pathogens. Take the Alabama leaf worm, a moth pest of cotton, as an example. It has developed resistance in one or more regions of the world to aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, lindane and toxaphene.

If chemical pesticides brought nothing but problems, - if their use was intrinsically and acutely unsustainable – then they would already have fallen out of widespread use. This has not happened. Instead, their rate of production has increased rapidly. The ratio of cost to benefit for the individual agricultural producer has remained in favour of pesticide use. In the USA, insecticides have been estimated to benefit the agricultural products to the tune of around $5 for every $1 spent.
Moreover, in many poorer countries, the prospect of imminent mass starvation, or of an epidemic disease, are so frightening that the social and health costs of using pesticides have to be ignored. In general the use of pesticides is justified by objective measures such as 'lives saved', 'economic efficiency of food production' and 'total food produced'. In these very fundamental senses, their use may be described as sustainable. In practice, sustainability depends on continually developing new pesticides that keep at least one step ahead of the pests – pesticides that are less persistent, biodegradable and more accurately targeted at the pests.

 

 

Q. What does the passage imply?

Solution:

Solution: a) If you observe the other statements, except (a), they are extreme generalizations. Only (a) which is also clearly the essential message of the passage, is correct.

QUESTION: 25

Passage III


Today's developing economies use much less energy per capita than developed countries such as the United State did at similar incomes, showing the potential for lower-carbon growth. Adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated into a climate-smart development strategy that increases resilience, reduces the threat of further global warming, and improves development outcomes. Adaptation and mitigation measures can advance development, and prosperity can raise incomes and foster better institutions. A healthier population living in better – built houses and with access to bank loans and social security is better equipped to deal with a changing climate and its consequences. Advancing robust, resilient development policies that promote adaptation is needed today because changes is the climate, already begun, will increase even in the short term.
The spread of economic prosperity has always been intertwined with adaptation to changing ecological conditions. But as growth has altered the environment and as environmental change has accelerated, sustaining growth and adaptability demands greater capacity to understand our environment, generate new adaptive technologies and practices, and diffuse them widely. As economic historians have explained, much of humankind's creative potential has directed at adapting to the changing world. But adaptation cannot cope with all the impacts related to climate change, especially as larger changes unfold in the long term.
Countries cannot grow out of harm's way fast enough to match the changing climate. And some growth strategies, whether driven by the government or the market, can also add to vulnerability – particularly if they over exploit natural resources. Under the Soviet development plan, irrigated cotton cultivation expanded in water-stressed Central Asia and led to the near disappearance of the Aral Sea, threatening the livelihoods of fishermen, herders and farmers. And clearing mangroves- the natural coastal buffers against storm surges – to make way for intensive farming or housing development, increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana.

 

 

Q.  Which of the following conditions of growth can add to vulnerability?

1. When the growth occurs due to excessive exploitation of mineral resources and forests

2. When the growth brings about a change in humankind's creative potential.

3. When the growth is envisaged only for providing houses and social security to the people.

4. When the growth occurs due to emphasis on farming only.

Select the correct Solution: using the codes given below: 

Solution:

Solution: a) In the last paragraph, "overexploitating natural resources" is mentioned as one of the factors adding to vulnerability. Statement 2 and 4 mentioned in the passage but not in this context. Statement 3 with "social security" is incorrect. So, only statement 1 is correct.

QUESTION: 26

Passage III


Today's developing economies use much less energy per capita than developed countries such as the United State did at similar incomes, showing the potential for lower-carbon growth. Adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated into a climate-smart development strategy that increases resilience, reduces the threat of further global warming, and improves development outcomes. Adaptation and mitigation measures can advance development, and prosperity can raise incomes and foster better institutions. A healthier population living in better – built houses and with access to bank loans and social security is better equipped to deal with a changing climate and its consequences. Advancing robust, resilient development policies that promote adaptation is needed today because changes is the climate, already begun, will increase even in the short term.
The spread of economic prosperity has always been intertwined with adaptation to changing ecological conditions. But as growth has altered the environment and as environmental change has accelerated, sustaining growth and adaptability demands greater capacity to understand our environment, generate new adaptive technologies and practices, and diffuse them widely. As economic historians have explained, much of humankind's creative potential has directed at adapting to the changing world. But adaptation cannot cope with all the impacts related to climate change, especially as larger changes unfold in the long term.
Countries cannot grow out of harm's way fast enough to match the changing climate. And some growth strategies, whether driven by the government or the market, can also add to vulnerability – particularly if they over exploit natural resources. Under the Soviet development plan, irrigated cotton cultivation expanded in water-stressed Central Asia and led to the near disappearance of the Aral Sea, threatening the livelihoods of fishermen, herders and farmers. And clearing mangroves- the natural coastal buffers against storm surges – to make way for intensive farming or housing development, increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana.

 

 

Q. What does low-carbon growth imply in the present context?

1. More emphasis on the use of renewable sources of energy.

2. Less emphasis on manufacturing sector and more emphasis on agricultural sector.

3. Switching over from monoculture practices to mixed farming

4. Less demand for goods and services.Select the correct Solution: using the codes given below:

Solution:

Solution: d) Renewable energy is generally understood as a strategy for low carbon growth. But it is not mentioned in the passage. Instead the passage mentions consuming less energy per capita means low carbon growth.All other statements are either absurd or out of passage.

QUESTION: 27

Passage III


Today's developing economies use much less energy per capita than developed countries such as the United State did at similar incomes, showing the potential for lower-carbon growth. Adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated into a climate-smart development strategy that increases resilience, reduces the threat of further global warming, and improves development outcomes. Adaptation and mitigation measures can advance development, and prosperity can raise incomes and foster better institutions. A healthier population living in better – built houses and with access to bank loans and social security is better equipped to deal with a changing climate and its consequences. Advancing robust, resilient development policies that promote adaptation is needed today because changes is the climate, already begun, will increase even in the short term.
The spread of economic prosperity has always been intertwined with adaptation to changing ecological conditions. But as growth has altered the environment and as environmental change has accelerated, sustaining growth and adaptability demands greater capacity to understand our environment, generate new adaptive technologies and practices, and diffuse them widely. As economic historians have explained, much of humankind's creative potential has directed at adapting to the changing world. But adaptation cannot cope with all the impacts related to climate change, especially as larger changes unfold in the long term.
Countries cannot grow out of harm's way fast enough to match the changing climate. And some growth strategies, whether driven by the government or the market, can also add to vulnerability – particularly if they over exploit natural resources. Under the Soviet development plan, irrigated cotton cultivation expanded in water-stressed Central Asia and led to the near disappearance of the Aral Sea, threatening the livelihoods of fishermen, herders and farmers. And clearing mangroves- the natural coastal buffers against storm surges – to make way for intensive farming or housing development, increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana.

 

 

 Q. Which of the following conditions is/are necessary for the sustainable economic growth?

1. Spreading of economic prosperity more.

2. Popularizing/spreading of adaptive technologies widely

3. Investing on research in adaptation and mitigation technologies.

Select the correct Solution: using the codes given below:

Solution:

Solution: b) Check second paragraph which mentions "But as growth has altered the environment ....technologies and practices and diffuse them widely." Hence, statements 2 and 3 are correct. Answer is (b).These are easy to pick.

QUESTION: 28

Passage III


Today's developing economies use much less energy per capita than developed countries such as the United State did at similar incomes, showing the potential for lower-carbon growth. Adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated into a climate-smart development strategy that increases resilience, reduces the threat of further global warming, and improves development outcomes. Adaptation and mitigation measures can advance development, and prosperity can raise incomes and foster better institutions. A healthier population living in better – built houses and with access to bank loans and social security is better equipped to deal with a changing climate and its consequences. Advancing robust, resilient development policies that promote adaptation is needed today because changes is the climate, already begun, will increase even in the short term.
The spread of economic prosperity has always been intertwined with adaptation to changing ecological conditions. But as growth has altered the environment and as environmental change has accelerated, sustaining growth and adaptability demands greater capacity to understand our environment, generate new adaptive technologies and practices, and diffuse them widely. As economic historians have explained, much of humankind's creative potential has directed at adapting to the changing world. But adaptation cannot cope with all the impacts related to climate change, especially as larger changes unfold in the long term.
Countries cannot grow out of harm's way fast enough to match the changing climate. And some growth strategies, whether driven by the government or the market, can also add to vulnerability – particularly if they over exploit natural resources. Under the Soviet development plan, irrigated cotton cultivation expanded in water-stressed Central Asia and led to the near disappearance of the Aral Sea, threatening the livelihoods of fishermen, herders and farmers. And clearing mangroves- the natural coastal buffers against storm surges – to make way for intensive farming or housing development, increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana.

 

 

Q. Which of the following inferences can be made from the passage?

1. Rainfed crops should not be cultivated in irrigated areas

2. Farming under water-deficient areas should not be a part of development strategy.

Select the correct Solution: using the codes given below:

Solution:

Solution: d) See again here both the statements are extreme generalizations. The passage mentions only a specific case related to both the statements. Hence, both are wrong.

QUESTION: 29

Passage III


Today's developing economies use much less energy per capita than developed countries such as the United State did at similar incomes, showing the potential for lower-carbon growth. Adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated into a climate-smart development strategy that increases resilience, reduces the threat of further global warming, and improves development outcomes. Adaptation and mitigation measures can advance development, and prosperity can raise incomes and foster better institutions. A healthier population living in better – built houses and with access to bank loans and social security is better equipped to deal with a changing climate and its consequences. Advancing robust, resilient development policies that promote adaptation is needed today because changes is the climate, already begun, will increase even in the short term.
The spread of economic prosperity has always been intertwined with adaptation to changing ecological conditions. But as growth has altered the environment and as environmental change has accelerated, sustaining growth and adaptability demands greater capacity to understand our environment, generate new adaptive technologies and practices, and diffuse them widely. As economic historians have explained, much of humankind's creative potential has directed at adapting to the changing world. But adaptation cannot cope with all the impacts related to climate change, especially as larger changes unfold in the long term.
Countries cannot grow out of harm's way fast enough to match the changing climate. And some growth strategies, whether driven by the government or the market, can also add to vulnerability – particularly if they over exploit natural resources. Under the Soviet development plan, irrigated cotton cultivation expanded in water-stressed Central Asia and led to the near disappearance of the Aral Sea, threatening the livelihoods of fishermen, herders and farmers. And clearing mangroves- the natural coastal buffers against storm surges – to make way for intensive farming or housing development, increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana.

 

 

Q. Consider the following assumptions:

1. Sustainable economic growth demands the use of creative potential of man.

2. Intensive agriculture can lead to ecological backlash.

3. Spread of the economic prosperity can adversely affect the ecology and environment.

With reference to the passage, which of the above assumptions is/are valid?

Solution:

Solution: d)“....much of human kind’s creative potential has been directed at adapting to the changing world”. For e.g. the passage talks about Soviet development plan – cotton cultivation and mangroves of Guinea etc. This shows statement 1 is true.Then “for intensive farming or housing development, increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana”...shows that statement 2 is true.Further, paragraph 2 talks about economic prosperity being intertwined with ecological conditions. Hence, 3 is also true.

QUESTION: 30

Passage III


Today's developing economies use much less energy per capita than developed countries such as the United State did at similar incomes, showing the potential for lower-carbon growth. Adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated into a climate-smart development strategy that increases resilience, reduces the threat of further global warming, and improves development outcomes. Adaptation and mitigation measures can advance development, and prosperity can raise incomes and foster better institutions. A healthier population living in better – built houses and with access to bank loans and social security is better equipped to deal with a changing climate and its consequences. Advancing robust, resilient development policies that promote adaptation is needed today because changes is the climate, already begun, will increase even in the short term.
The spread of economic prosperity has always been intertwined with adaptation to changing ecological conditions. But as growth has altered the environment and as environmental change has accelerated, sustaining growth and adaptability demands greater capacity to understand our environment, generate new adaptive technologies and practices, and diffuse them widely. As economic historians have explained, much of humankind's creative potential has directed at adapting to the changing world. But adaptation cannot cope with all the impacts related to climate change, especially as larger changes unfold in the long term.
Countries cannot grow out of harm's way fast enough to match the changing climate. And some growth strategies, whether driven by the government or the market, can also add to vulnerability – particularly if they over exploit natural resources. Under the Soviet development plan, irrigated cotton cultivation expanded in water-stressed Central Asia and led to the near disappearance of the Aral Sea, threatening the livelihoods of fishermen, herders and farmers. And clearing mangroves- the natural coastal buffers against storm surges – to make way for intensive farming or housing development, increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana.

 

 

Q. Which one of the following statements constitutes the central theme of this passage?

Solution:

Solution: b) In such questions, you need to read the keyword – “Central Theme” , not observation or message etc. So, stick to the keyword.Now, option (a) is an observation. Option (c) and (d) are extreme generalizations of specific cases mentioned in the passage.Option (b) is the theme.

QUESTION: 31

Directions for the following 11 questions:

Read the following three passages and solve the items that follow each passage. Your Solutions to these passages should be based on these passages only.


Passage I


Invasions of exotic species into new geographical areas sometimes occur naturally without human agency. However, human actions have increased this trickle to a flood. Human caused introductions may occur either accidently or as a consequence of human transport, or intentionally but illegally to serve some private purpose or legitimately to procure some hoped-for public benefit by bringing a pest under control, producing new agricultural products or providing novel recreational opportunities. Many introduced species are assimilated into communities without much obvious effect. However some have been responsible for dramatic changes to native species and native communities. For example, the accidental introduction of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis into Guam, an island in the pacific, has through nest predation reduced 10 endemic forest bird species to the point of extinction.
One of the major reasons for the world’s great biodiversity is the occurrence of centres of endemism so that similar habitats in different parts of the world are occupied by different groups of species that happen it have evolved there. If the species naturally had access to everywhere on the globe, we might expect a relatively small number of successful species to become dominant in each biome. The extent to which this homogenisation can happen naturally is restricted by the limited powers of dispersal of most species in the face of the physical barriers that exist to dispersal. By virtue of the transport opportunities offered by humans, these barriers have been breached by an ever-increasing number of exotic species. 

The effects of introductions have been to convert a hugely diverse range of local community compositions into something much more homogenous.
It would be wrong, however, to conclude that introducing species to a region will inevitably cause a decline in species richness there. For example, there are numerous species of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates found in continental Europe but absent from the British Isles (many because they have so far failed to recolonize after the last glaciations).Their introduction would be likely to augment British biodiversity. The significant detrimental effect noted above arises where aggressive species provide a novel challenge to endemic biotas ill-equipped to deal with them.

 

 

Q. With reference to the passage, which of the following statements is correct?  

Solution:

Solution: d) All three statements are extreme generalizations based on specific references from the passage. For e.g. “However, SOME (introductions) have been responsible for dramatic changes in native species.”So, avoid all such generalizations.

QUESTION: 32

Passage I


Invasions of exotic species into new geographical areas sometimes occur naturally without human agency. However, human actions have increased this trickle to a flood. Human caused introductions may occur either accidently or as a consequence of human transport, or intentionally but illegally to serve some private purpose or legitimately to procure some hoped-for public benefit by bringing a pest under control, producing new agricultural products or providing novel recreational opportunities. Many introduced species are assimilated into communities without much obvious effect. However some have been responsible for dramatic changes to native species and native communities. For example, the accidental introduction of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis into Guam, an island in the pacific, has through nest predation reduced 10 endemic forest bird species to the point of extinction.
One of the major reasons for the world’s great biodiversity is the occurrence of centres of endemism so that similar habitats in different parts of the world are occupied by different groups of species that happen it have evolved there. If the species naturally had access to everywhere on the globe, we might expect a relatively small number of successful species to become dominant in each biome. The extent to which this homogenisation can happen naturally is restricted by the limited powers of dispersal of most species in the face of the physical barriers that exist to dispersal. By virtue of the transport opportunities offered by humans, these barriers have been breached by an ever-increasing number of exotic species. 

The effects of introductions have been to convert a hugely diverse range of local community compositions into something much more homogenous.
It would be wrong, however, to conclude that introducing species to a region will inevitably cause a decline in species richness there. For example, there are numerous species of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates found in continental Europe but absent from the British Isles (many because they have so far failed to recolonize after the last glaciations).Their introduction would be likely to augment British biodiversity. The significant detrimental effect noted above arises where aggressive species provide a novel challenge to endemic biotas ill-equipped to deal with them.

 

 

Q. Why does man introduce exotic species into new geographical areas?

1. To bread exotic species with local varieties.

2. To increase agricultural productivity.

3. for beautification and landscaping.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:

Solution: d)This is answered in the following para : “serve some private purpose or legitimately to procure some hoped-for public benefit by bringing a pest under control, producing new agricultural products or providing novel recreational opportunities”.

QUESTION: 33

Passage I


Invasions of exotic species into new geographical areas sometimes occur naturally without human agency. However, human actions have increased this trickle to a flood. Human caused introductions may occur either accidently or as a consequence of human transport, or intentionally but illegally to serve some private purpose or legitimately to procure some hoped-for public benefit by bringing a pest under control, producing new agricultural products or providing novel recreational opportunities. Many introduced species are assimilated into communities without much obvious effect. However some have been responsible for dramatic changes to native species and native communities. For example, the accidental introduction of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis into Guam, an island in the pacific, has through nest predation reduced 10 endemic forest bird species to the point of extinction.
One of the major reasons for the world’s great biodiversity is the occurrence of centres of endemism so that similar habitats in different parts of the world are occupied by different groups of species that happen it have evolved there. If the species naturally had access to everywhere on the globe, we might expect a relatively small number of successful species to become dominant in each biome. The extent to which this homogenisation can happen naturally is restricted by the limited powers of dispersal of most species in the face of the physical barriers that exist to dispersal. By virtue of the transport opportunities offered by humans, these barriers have been breached by an ever-increasing number of exotic species. 

The effects of introductions have been to convert a hugely diverse range of local community compositions into something much more homogenous.
It would be wrong, however, to conclude that introducing species to a region will inevitably cause a decline in species richness there. For example, there are numerous species of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates found in continental Europe but absent from the British Isles (many because they have so far failed to recolonize after the last glaciations).Their introduction would be likely to augment British biodiversity. The significant detrimental effect noted above arises where aggressive species provide a novel challenge to endemic biotas ill-equipped to deal with them.

 

 

Q. How is homogenization prevented under natural conditions?

Solution:

Solution: b)Homogenization and endemism are different things as per the passage. Options (a) and (c) show the reasons for endemism. Only option (b) shows the reasons for the prevention of homogenization.

QUESTION: 34

Passage I


Invasions of exotic species into new geographical areas sometimes occur naturally without human agency. However, human actions have increased this trickle to a flood. Human caused introductions may occur either accidently or as a consequence of human transport, or intentionally but illegally to serve some private purpose or legitimately to procure some hoped-for public benefit by bringing a pest under control, producing new agricultural products or providing novel recreational opportunities. Many introduced species are assimilated into communities without much obvious effect. However some have been responsible for dramatic changes to native species and native communities. For example, the accidental introduction of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis into Guam, an island in the pacific, has through nest predation reduced 10 endemic forest bird species to the point of extinction.
One of the major reasons for the world’s great biodiversity is the occurrence of centres of endemism so that similar habitats in different parts of the world are occupied by different groups of species that happen it have evolved there. If the species naturally had access to everywhere on the globe, we might expect a relatively small number of successful species to become dominant in each biome. The extent to which this homogenisation can happen naturally is restricted by the limited powers of dispersal of most species in the face of the physical barriers that exist to dispersal. By virtue of the transport opportunities offered by humans, these barriers have been breached by an ever-increasing number of exotic species. 

The effects of introductions have been to convert a hugely diverse range of local community compositions into something much more homogenous.
It would be wrong, however, to conclude that introducing species to a region will inevitably cause a decline in species richness there. For example, there are numerous species of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates found in continental Europe but absent from the British Isles (many because they have so far failed to recolonize after the last glaciations).Their introduction would be likely to augment British biodiversity. The significant detrimental effect noted above arises where aggressive species provide a novel challenge to endemic biotas ill-equipped to deal with them.

 

 

Q. How have the human beings influenced the biodiversity?

1. By smuggling live organism

2. By building highways

3. By making ecosystems sensitive so that new species are not allowed

4. By ensuring that new species do not have major impact on local species.

Which of the statements given above are correct?  

Solution:

Solution: a) As per the first paragraph, “Human-caused introductions may occur either accidentally as a consequence of human transport, or intentionally but illegally to serve some private purpose.” Hence, point 1- smuggling (illegal) and point 2 – building highways (transport) are correct.

QUESTION: 35

Passage I


Invasions of exotic species into new geographical areas sometimes occur naturally without human agency. However, human actions have increased this trickle to a flood. Human caused introductions may occur either accidently or as a consequence of human transport, or intentionally but illegally to serve some private purpose or legitimately to procure some hoped-for public benefit by bringing a pest under control, producing new agricultural products or providing novel recreational opportunities. Many introduced species are assimilated into communities without much obvious effect. However some have been responsible for dramatic changes to native species and native communities. For example, the accidental introduction of the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis into Guam, an island in the pacific, has through nest predation reduced 10 endemic forest bird species to the point of extinction.
One of the major reasons for the world’s great biodiversity is the occurrence of centres of endemism so that similar habitats in different parts of the world are occupied by different groups of species that happen it have evolved there. If the species naturally had access to everywhere on the globe, we might expect a relatively small number of successful species to become dominant in each biome. The extent to which this homogenisation can happen naturally is restricted by the limited powers of dispersal of most species in the face of the physical barriers that exist to dispersal. By virtue of the transport opportunities offered by humans, these barriers have been breached by an ever-increasing number of exotic species. 

The effects of introductions have been to convert a hugely diverse range of local community compositions into something much more homogenous.
It would be wrong, however, to conclude that introducing species to a region will inevitably cause a decline in species richness there. For example, there are numerous species of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates found in continental Europe but absent from the British Isles (many because they have so far failed to recolonize after the last glaciations).Their introduction would be likely to augment British biodiversity. The significant detrimental effect noted above arises where aggressive species provide a novel challenge to endemic biotas ill-equipped to deal with them.

 

 

Q. What can be the impact of invasion of exotic species on an ecosystem?

1. Erosion of endemic species.

2. Change in the species composition of the community of the ecosystem.

Select the correct Solution: using the codes given below:

Solution:

Solution: c) As per the first paragraph invasion of exotic species has led to dramatic changes to native species and natural communities. Hence, statement 1 is correct.The last few lines of the passage state that the introduction of exotic species has a detrimental effect and poses a challenge to endemic biotas ill-equipped to deal with them. Hence, S2 is also correct.

QUESTION: 36

PASSAGE II


Most champions of democracy have been rather reticent in suggesting that democracy would itself promote development and enhancement of social welfare – they have tended to see them as good but distinctly separate and largely independent goals. The detractors of democracy, on the other hand, seemed to have been quite willing to express their diagnosis of what they see as serious tensions between democracy and development. The theorists of the practical spirit - “Make up your mind: do you want democracy, or instead, do you want development?”- often came ,at least to start with , from East Asian countries, and their voice grew in influence as several of these countries were immensely successful – through the 1970s and 1980s and even later – in promoting economic growth without pursuing democracy.

To deal with these issues we have to pay particular attention to both the content of what can be called development and to the interpretation of democracy (in particular to the respective roles of voting and of public reasoning). The assessment of development cannot be divorced from the lives that people can lead and the real freedom that they enjoy. Development can scarcely be seen merely in terms of enhancement of inanimate objects of convenience, such as a rise in the GNP (or in personal incomes), or industrialisation – important as they may be as means to the real ends. Their value must depend on what they do to the lives and freedom of the people involved, which must be central to the idea of development.
If development is understood in a broader way, with a focus on human lives, then it becomes immediately clear that the relation between development and democracy has to be seen partly in terms of their constitutive connection, rather than only through their external links. Even though the question has often been asked whether political freedom is “conductive to development”, we must not miss the crucial that political liberties and democratic rights are among the “constitutive components” of development does not have to be established indirectly through their contribution to the growth of GNP.

 


Q. According to the passage, why is a serious tension perceived between democracy and development by the detractors of democracy?   

Solution:

Solution: b)You may be confused here. Observe the language of the options carefully before making a choice. First (a): this is mentioned by champions of democracy, not detractors. So, it is wrong which automatically makes (d) also wrong.
Now, choice is b/w (b) and (c) – while passage denotes that several non-democratic regimes in East Asia have delivered growth successfully; it does not say generally that non-democratic regimes deliver faster growth. Hence, its an extreme generalization. So (c) is wrong.
(b) can be observed from the last lines of the first paragraph.

QUESTION: 37

PASSAGE II


Most champions of democracy have been rather reticent in suggesting that democracy would itself promote development and enhancement of social welfare – they have tended to see them as good but distinctly separate and largely independent goals. The detractors of democracy, on the other hand, seemed to have been quite willing to express their diagnosis of what they see as serious tensions between democracy and development. The theorists of the practical spirit - “Make up your mind: do you want democracy, or instead, do you want development?”- often came ,at least to start with , from East Asian countries, and their voice grew in influence as several of these countries were immensely successful – through the 1970s and 1980s and even later – in promoting economic growth without pursuing democracy.

To deal with these issues we have to pay particular attention to both the content of what can be called development and to the interpretation of democracy (in particular to the respective roles of voting and of public reasoning). The assessment of development cannot be divorced from the lives that people can lead and the real freedom that they enjoy. Development can scarcely be seen merely in terms of enhancement of inanimate objects of convenience, such as a rise in the GNP (or in personal incomes), or industrialisation – important as they may be as means to the real ends. Their value must depend on what they do to the lives and freedom of the people involved, which must be central to the idea of development.
If development is understood in a broader way, with a focus on human lives, then it becomes immediately clear that the relation between development and democracy has to be seen partly in terms of their constitutive connection, rather than only through their external links. Even though the question has often been asked whether political freedom is “conductive to development”, we must not miss the crucial that political liberties and democratic rights are among the “constitutive components” of development does not have to be established indirectly through their contribution to the growth of GNP.

 

 

 Q. According to the passage, what should be the ultimate assessment/aim/view of development?   

Solution:

Solution: d)As per the second paragraph, “The assessment of development cannot be divorced from the lives that people can lead and the real freedom that they enjoy.” Hence, (d).

QUESTION: 38

PASSAGE II


Most champions of democracy have been rather reticent in suggesting that democracy would itself promote development and enhancement of social welfare – they have tended to see them as good but distinctly separate and largely independent goals. The detractors of democracy, on the other hand, seemed to have been quite willing to express their diagnosis of what they see as serious tensions between democracy and development. The theorists of the practical spirit - “Make up your mind: do you want democracy, or instead, do you want development?”- often came ,at least to start with , from East Asian countries, and their voice grew in influence as several of these countries were immensely successful – through the 1970s and 1980s and even later – in promoting economic growth without pursuing democracy.

To deal with these issues we have to pay particular attention to both the content of what can be called development and to the interpretation of democracy (in particular to the respective roles of voting and of public reasoning). The assessment of development cannot be divorced from the lives that people can lead and the real freedom that they enjoy. Development can scarcely be seen merely in terms of enhancement of inanimate objects of convenience, such as a rise in the GNP (or in personal incomes), or industrialisation – important as they may be as means to the real ends. Their value must depend on what they do to the lives and freedom of the people involved, which must be central to the idea of development.
If development is understood in a broader way, with a focus on human lives, then it becomes immediately clear that the relation between development and democracy has to be seen partly in terms of their constitutive connection, rather than only through their external links. Even though the question has often been asked whether political freedom is “conductive to development”, we must not miss the crucial that political liberties and democratic rights are among the “constitutive components” of development does not have to be established indirectly through their contribution to the growth of GNP.

 

 

Q. What does a “constitutive” connection between democracy and development imply?

Solution:

Solution: c) As per the last paragraph, “….we must not miss the crucial recognition that political libertiesand democratic rights are among the ‘constituent components’ of development.” So, answer is (c).

QUESTION: 39

PASSAGE III


The need for Competition Law becomes more evident when foreign direct investment (FDI) is liberalised. The impact of FDI is not always pro-competitive. Very often FDI takes the form of a foreign corporation acquiring a domestic enterprise or establishing a joint venture with one. By making such an acquisition the foreign investor may substantially lessen competition and gain a dominant position in the relevant market, thus charging higher prices. Another scenario is where the affiliates of two separate multinational companies (MNCs) have been established in competition with one another in a particular developing economy, following the liberisation of FDI. Subsequently, the parent companies overseas merge. With the affiliates no longer remaining independent, competition in the host country may be artificially inflated. Most of these adverse consequences of mergers and acquisitions by MNCs can be avoided if an effective competition law is in place. Also, an economy that has implemented an effective competition law is in a better position to attract FDI than one that has not. This is not just because most MNCs are expected to be accustomed to the operation of such a law in their home countries and know how to deal with such concerns but also that MNCs expect competition authorities to ensure a level playing field between domestic and foreign firms.

 

 

Q. With reference to the passage, consider the following statements:

1. It is desirable that the impact of Foreign Direct investment should be pro-competitive.

2. The entry of foreign investors invariably leads to the inflated prices in domestic markets.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?   

Solution:

Solution: a) The author very clearly wants to convey statements 1 by : “The need for Competition Law becomes more evident when foreign direct investment (FDI) is liberalised. The impact of FDI is not always pro-competitive.”
Statement 2 is valid only when the parent companies merge overseas.

QUESTION: 40

PASSAGE III


The need for Competition Law becomes more evident when foreign direct investment (FDI) is liberalised. The impact of FDI is not always pro-competitive. Very often FDI takes the form of a foreign corporation acquiring a domestic enterprise or establishing a joint venture with one. By making such an acquisition the foreign investor may substantially lessen competition and gain a dominant position in the relevant market, thus charging higher prices. Another scenario is where the affiliates of two separate multinational companies (MNCs) have been established in competition with one another in a particular developing economy, following the liberisation of FDI. Subsequently, the parent companies overseas merge. With the affiliates no longer remaining independent, competition in the host country may be artificially inflated. Most of these adverse consequences of mergers and acquisitions by MNCs can be avoided if an effective competition law is in place. Also, an economy that has implemented an effective competition law is in a better position to attract FDI than one that has not. This is not just because most MNCs are expected to be accustomed to the operation of such a law in their home countries and know how to deal with such concerns but also that MNCs expect competition authorities to ensure a level playing field between domestic and foreign firms.

 

 

Q. According to the passage, how does a foreign investor dominate the relevant domestic market?

1. Multinational companies get accustomed to domestic laws.

2. Foreign companies establish joint ventures with domestic companies.

3. Affiliates in a particular market/sector lose their independence as their parent companies overseas merge.

4. Foreign companies lower the cost of their products as compared to that of products of domestic companies.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

Solution:

Solution: b) Statement 1 is favourable to competition.Statement 4 as been quoted out of the passage. Hence, only 2 and 3 are correct as they have been directly stated in the passage.

QUESTION: 41

PASSAGE III


The need for Competition Law becomes more evident when foreign direct investment (FDI) is liberalised. The impact of FDI is not always pro-competitive. Very often FDI takes the form of a foreign corporation acquiring a domestic enterprise or establishing a joint venture with one. By making such an acquisition the foreign investor may substantially lessen competition and gain a dominant position in the relevant market, thus charging higher prices. Another scenario is where the affiliates of two separate multinational companies (MNCs) have been established in competition with one another in a particular developing economy, following the liberisation of FDI. Subsequently, the parent companies overseas merge. With the affiliates no longer remaining independent, competition in the host country may be artificially inflated. Most of these adverse consequences of mergers and acquisitions by MNCs can be avoided if an effective competition law is in place. Also, an economy that has implemented an effective competition law is in a better position to attract FDI than one that has not. This is not just because most MNCs are expected to be accustomed to the operation of such a law in their home countries and know how to deal with such concerns but also that MNCs expect competition authorities to ensure a level playing field between domestic and foreign firms.

 

 

Q. What is the inference from this passage?

Solution:

Solution: c)Options (a) and (b) are extreme generalizations.Option (d) has been quoted out of context. Hence, the answer is (c) which is the essence of passage.

QUESTION: 42

Examine the following statements:

 

1) I watch TV only if I am bored

2) I am never bored when I have my brother’s company.

3) Whenever I go to the theatre I take my brother along.

 

Q. Which one of the following conclusions is valid in the context of the above statements?

Solution:

Solution: d)This is a typical logic based reasoning.To make such questions easier, always draw a logical flow diagram. 

Here being bored or X or Y is leading to the action “Watch TV”. But if the person is watching TV, it does not mean that he was necessarily bored. The cause could have been X or Y or anything. So, option (a) is incorrect. But, at the same time, he will not watch TV, if he is note bored. Same diagram can be visualized for the relation between “not being bored” and “being in brother’s company “. You will see that his brother’s company is not the only way in which he can escape boredom. This tells that (c) is wrong because he may not be bored when he doesn’t have his brother’s company.

QUESTION: 43

Only six roads A, B, C, P, Q and R connect a military camp to the rest of the country. Only one out of A, P, and R are open at any one time. If B is closed so is Q. Only one of A & B is open during storms. P is closed during floods. In the context, which one of the following statements is correct?

Solution:

Solution: b) Verify logically for each option.Take the first one - In this case, if R is open, then B, C and Q can also be open. 4 roads can be open. So its wrong.Take the second one - In storm either A or B is open. Hence, it has to be correct.Take the third one - P is closed during flooding. Therefore, if A is open then neither of B and Q will be open. So, at most two roads can be open. So, This may or may not be true.Take the fourth one - From option 2, we know that at least one road is open. Hence, this is incorrect.In all three given situations - Normal, Storms and Floods, there is no closed condition on road C. Hence, (b).

QUESTION: 44

Examine the following statements:

1. None but students are the members of the club.

2. Some members of the club are married persons.

3. All married persons are invited for dance.

 

Q. Which one of the conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?

Solution:

It is given that all married persons are invited for the dance and some members of the club are married persons. So, All married students of the club are invited for the dance

QUESTION: 45

Four political parties W, X, Y and Z decided to set up a joint candidate for the coming parliamentary elections. The formula agreed by them was the acceptance of a candidate of the most of the parties. For aspiring candidates A, B, C and D approached the parties for their ticket.

A was acceptable to W but not Z

B was acceptable to Y but not X

C was acceptable to W and Y

D was acceptable to W and X

When candidate B was preferred by W and Z, candidate C was preferred by X and Z and candidate A was acceptable to X but not Y: Who got the ticket?

Solution:

Solution: c) As it is given, A is accepted by W, Z and X.B accepted by Y, W and Z.C accepted by W, Y, X and Z. D accepted by W and X.So, C can be accepted by all the four parties.

QUESTION: 46

Consider the following statements:

 

1. All X-brand cars parked here are white.

2. Some of them have radial tyres

3. All X-brand cars manufactured after 1986 have radial tyres are parked here.

4. All cars are not X-brand.

 

Q. Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?

Solution:

Solution: b) You can draw a Venn diagram or solve logically. But in this case you can just approach logically verifying each statement option.Take (a): Its wrong because only X-brand cars parked here are white.Take (b): All X-brand cars are white and some have radial tyres which means its correct.Take (c): Its an out of the league statement. Take (d): An illogical and out of the context statement.

QUESTION: 47

Consider the following statements:

 

The Third World War, if it ever starts will end very quickly with possible end of civilization. It is only the misuse of nuclear power which will trigger it.

Based on the above statement which one of the following inferences is correct?

Solution:

Solution: a)  Very clear when its mentioned that only the misuse of nuclear power will trigger world war. So nuclear power has to be used in the third world war.

QUESTION: 48

Figures given below are changing with certain rules as we observe them from left to right:

 


According to this rule which of the following would be the next figure if the changes were made in the same rule?  

Solution:

Solution: d)
You need to pick up just the pattern of triangle and you have the answer. See the triangle is moving corners anti-clockwise and turning upside down successively. So in the answer figure it has to be at the left top and vertical up. Only one option (d) satisfies this condition.
Learn saving time. You need not solve the full question to arrive at the solution.

QUESTION: 49

Consider the following information regarding the performance of class of 1000 students in four different tests:

 

 

If a student scores 74 marks in each of the four tests, in which one of the following tests is her performance the best comparatively?   

Solution:

Solution: b) If she scores 74 marks, we can assume that this will be her best performance if he scored 74 marks in a subject which has least highest marks and the least higher range of marks. Test II satisfies this best.

QUESTION: 50

Six squares are coloured, front and back, red(R), blue(B), yellow (Y), green (G), white (W), orange (O) and are hinged together as shown in the figure given below. If they were folded to form a cube what would be the face opposite to white face? 

 

  

Solution:

Solution: c) Take G or Y as the base of the cube and start folding the cube to fit adjacent sides. Use your imagination a little. Or write these letters in that order on a rubber (cuboid/cube) shape to see how the letters will align.If you take G as the base, these will be opposite faces: GO, YR, BW.Even if you take Y as the base, you will find the same opposite faces.

QUESTION: 51

 

In the above figure, circle P represents hardworking people, circle Q represents intelligent people, Circle R represents truthful people and circle S represents honest people. Which region represents the people who are intelligent, honest and truthful but not hardworking?

Solution:

Solution: a) Choose a sector that excludes P, but includes all others Q, R and S. It is 6.

QUESTION: 52

 

Three views of a cube following a particular motion are given below: What is letter opposite to A?

Solution:

Solution: a)
If you observe first two figures, you will know that A, B, H and M are adjacent to K.
So, letter opposite to A has to be either H or M.
Now, there are two conditions. One, if M is opposite to A, then H will be opposite to B. But, by third figure, we see it is not possible.
Hence, H has to be opposite to A.

QUESTION: 53

   

 

Which one of the figures shown below occupies the blank space(?) in the matrix given below

Solution:

Solution: d)
In first and third set, the black portion of middle image is diagonally opposite to that of first image. This is the pattern. So, second image in second set must be diagonally opposite to the first one. Hence, (d).

QUESTION: 54

Consider the following statements:

 

1. All artists are whimsical.

2. Some artists are drug addicts.

3. Frustrated people are prone to become drug addicts.

 

Q. From the above three statements it may be concluded that:

Solution:

Solution: b) Again try drawing a Venn diagram.S1: If all artists are whimsical, it means that whimsical is a big category (or circle) and all artists will be one small circle in that. 

S2: If some artists are drug addicts, draw a circle that cuts the circle of Drug addicts. Now, that circle can either be completely inside whimsical OR outside it cutting it. 

S3: If frustrated people MAY become drug addicts (not all), then Frustrated (F) can be a smaller circle cutting the drug circle. 

 

Now, check the options. Option (a) can be dismissed easily.
Option (b) has to be correct, because no matter what the drug circle has to cut the whimsical circle.
Option (c) too can be dismissed based on the diagram.
Option (d) is also wrong, because the diagram does not support it.

QUESTION: 55

Examine the following statements:

 

1. Either A & B are of same age or A is older than B

2. Either C & D are of same age or D is older than C

3. B is older than C

  
Q. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?  

Solution:

Solution: d) From S1: A>=B

From S2: D>=C

From S3: B>C

Now if B (which is either equal or older than A) is greater than C, then A has to be older than C.

QUESTION: 56

Examine the following statements:

 

1. Only those who have a pair of binoculars can become the member of the birdwatcher's club.

2. Some members of the birdwatcher's club have cameras.

3. Those members who have cameras can take part in photo-contests.

 

Q. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?

Solution:

Solution: b) You can use a Venn diagram but use logic, you can solve it quicker.See, option 1 and 3 are too general and not necessarily true. But option 2 is a correct conclusion as all the club members definitely have a pair of binoculars. 

QUESTION: 57

During the summer vacation Ankit went to a summer camp where he took part in hiking, swimming and boating. This summer, he is looking forward to a music camp where he hopes to sing, dance and learn to play the guitar.

Based on the above information four conclusions as given below, have been made. Which one of these logically follows from the information given above?

Solution:

No reasons are specified in the question of going to different camps. As, Ankit has been going to different camps for the past two years, so it can be said that he goes to some type of camp every summer.

QUESTION: 58

Three persons A, B & C wear shirts of Black, Blue and Orange colours (not necessarily in the order) and pants of green, yellow and orange (not necessarily in that order). No person wore shirt and pant of the same colour. Further, it is given that,

1. A did not wear shirt of black colour.

2. B did not wear shirt of blue colour.

3. C did not wear shirt of orange colour.

4. A did not wear the pants of green colour5. B wore pants of orange colour.

What were the colours of the pants and shirts worn by C respectively?

Solution:

Solution: b) Make a small table from the given data. 

Now, from the above information, this can be the deduced table. 

 

QUESTION: 59

Ten new TV shows started in January- 5 sitcoms, 3 drama and 2 news magazines. By April, only seven of the new shows were still on, five of them being sitcoms.

Based on the above information, for conclusions, as given below, have been made. Which of these logically follows from the information given above?

Solution:

Solution: c) Three shows were discontinued as given. Since no sitcoms shows were discontinued, the discontinued ones must be either drama or news magazines. Now, there were only two news magazines. So, atleast one discontinued show was a drama.

QUESTION: 60

Read the passage given below and the two statements that follow (given on the basis of the passage):

 

Four men are waiting at Delhi airport for Mumbai flight. Two are doctors and other two are businessman. Two speak Gujarati and two speak Tamil. No two of the same profession speak the same language. Two are Muslims and two are Christians. No two of the same religion are of the same profession, nor do they speak same language. The Tamil speaking doctor is Christian.

1. The Christian-Businessman speaks Gujarati.

2. The Gujarati-speaking doctor is a Muslim.

 

 

Q. Which of the above statements is/are correct conclusion/conclusions?

Solution:

Solution: C

Assume these are the 4 people - Doc 1, Doc 2 , Business 1, Business 2Now, if Doc 2(Tamil, Christian), then Doc 1 (has to be Muslim, Gujarati) andBusiness 1 has to be (Gujarati, Christian); so Business 2 will be (Muslim, Tamil) 

QUESTION: 61

Consider the following statement:

 

“Though quite expensive, television is not a luxury item, as one can learn many things through television”.

Which of the following is the valid inference from the above given statement?

Solution:

Solution: b) Check option (a): Too general. Option (b): Again a general statement. Although TV is a learning item and not a luxury, even then TV is not essential for learning. We cannot infer this option.Option (c): Clear from (b) that its wrong. Choice has to be (d).

QUESTION: 62

Mr. Kumar drives to work at an average speed of 48km/hr. The time taken to cover the first 60% of the distance is 10 minutes more than the time taken to cover the remaining distance. How far is his office?

Solution:

Solution: b) Let the distance be N.First 60% distance is covered in 10 more minutes more time than that of the rest 40% distanceSo, 0.6 x N distance is covered in 10 more minutes more than that of the rest 0.4 x N distanceWhich means 0.2 x N is covered in 10 minutes i.e., 1/6 hrHence, Average speed = distance/time = 0.2 x N /(1/6) = 48=> x = 48/6 x 0.2 =40 km

QUESTION: 63

Gita is prettier than Sita but not as pretty as Rita. Then,

Solution:

Solution: a) Simple symbols will get you the answer. R> G>SOptions (b), (c) and (d) are false.

QUESTION: 64

Given that,

1. A is the brother of B

2. C is the father of A.

3. D is brother of E.

4. E is the daughter of B

 

Then, the uncle of D is?

Solution:

Solution: a) Draw a family tree diagram and it becomes easy.

Uncle of D is A.

QUESTION: 65

Examine the following statements:

 

1. Rama scored more than Rani

2. Rani scored less than Ratna

3. Ratna scored more than Rama

4. Padma scored more than Rama but less than Ratna.

 

Q. Who scored the highest?

Solution:

Solution: d)
Again simple symbols.
S1: Rama>...... Rani
S2: Ratna>.....Rani
S3: Ratna>...>Rama>...Rani
S4: Ratna>Padma>Rama>Rani
Ratna scored the highest. 

QUESTION: 66

Directions for the following eight items:

The following eight items are based on three passages in English to test the comprehension of the English language.  Read each item and Solution: the items that follow.


Passage-I


For fourteen and half months I lived in my little cell or room in Dehradun jail, and I began to feel as if I was almost a part of it. I was familiar with every bit of it, I knew every mark and dent on the whitewashed walls and on the uneven floors and on the ceiling with the moth eaten rafters. In the little yard outside I greeted little tufts of grass and odd bits of stone as old friends. I was not alone in my cell, for several colonies of wasp and hornets lived there, and many lizards found the home behind the rafters, emerging in the evening in the search of prey.

 


Q. Which of the following explains best the sentence in the passage “I was almost a part of it”?  

Solution:

Solution: b)
(a) and (c) can not be convincing arguments to explain the question statement.
Between (b) and (d), you choose (b) because (d) would be extrapolation of what is given in the passage. We can understand that the prisoner might have felt like home there, but (b) option is more objective, specific and mentioned in the passage.

QUESTION: 67

Passage-I

 

For fourteen and half months I lived in my little cell or room in Dehradun jail, and I began to feel as if I was almost a part of it. I was familiar with every bit of it, I knew every mark and dent on the whitewashed walls and on the uneven floors and on the ceiling with the moth eaten rafters. In the little yard outside I greeted little tufts of grass and odd bits of stone as old friends. I was not alone in my cell, for several colonies of wasp and hornets lived there, and many lizards found the home behind the rafters, emerging in the evening in the search of prey.

 

 

Q. The passage attempts to describe:

Solution:

Solution: c) (a) is not correct if you read the passage correctly. (b) is one of the elements of the passage, not what the passage attempts to describe. (d) would be a subjective view of what has been mentioned in the passage. Moreover, there were other things too that the prisoner was doing for e.g. noticing the walls.So, best choice would be (c).

QUESTION: 68

Passage- I

 

For fourteen and half months I lived in my little cell or room in Dehradun jail, and I began to feel as if I was almost a part of it. I was familiar with every bit of it, I knew every mark and dent on the whitewashed walls and on the uneven floors and on the ceiling with the moth eaten rafters. In the little yard outside I greeted little tufts of grass and odd bits of stone as old friends. I was not alone in my cell, for several colonies of wasp and hornets lived there, and many lizards found the home behind the rafters, emerging in the evening in the search of prey.

 

 

Q. The author of the passage seems to suggest that

Solution:

Solution: a) The prisoner familiarized himself with his surroundings. He befriended his natural environment as a means of survival and to overcome his aloofness. So most appropriate option is (a).

QUESTION: 69

Passage-II

 

We started pitching the highest camp that has been ever made. Everything took five times as long as it would have taken in the place where there was enough air to breathe; but at last we got tent up, and when we crawled in, it was not too bad. There was only a light wind and inside it was not too cold for us to take off our gloves. At night most climbers take off their boots; but I prefer to keep them on. Hilary, on the other hand took his off and lain them next to his sleeping bag.

 

 

Q. What does the expression “pitching the highest camp” imply?  

Solution:

Solution: c) It can’t be the summit because they are talking about the highest camp that has ever been made (by humans). (b) is also inappropriate. And (d) is an absurd statement.(c) is the right choice.

QUESTION: 70

Passage-II

 

We started pitching the highest camp that has been ever made. Everything took five times as long as it would have taken in the place where there was enough air to breathe; but at last we got tent up, and when we crawled in, it was not too bad. There was only a light wind and inside it was not too cold for us to take off our gloves. At night most climbers take off their boots; but I prefer to keep them on. Hilary, on the other hand took his off and lain them next to his sleeping bag.

 

 

Q. They took a long time to finish the work because:

Solution:

Solution: b)“Everything took five times as long as it would have taken in a place where there was enough air to breathe.” This means that the place didn’t have enough air to breathe.

QUESTION: 71

Passage-II

 

We started pitching the highest camp that has been ever made. Everything took five times as long as it would have taken in the place where there was enough air to breathe; but at last we got tent up, and when we crawled in, it was not too bad. There was only a light wind and inside it was not too cold for us to take off our gloves. At night most climbers take off their boots; but I prefer to keep them on. Hilary, on the other hand took his off and lain them next to his sleeping bag.

 

 

Q. When they crawled into the tent

Solution:

Solution: a) Clear from the passage.

QUESTION: 72

Passage-III


A local man, staying on the top of the floor of an old wooden house, was awakened at midnight by fire. Losing his way in the smoke-filled passage, he missed the stairway and went into another room. He picked a bundle to protect his face from fire and immediately fell through the floor below where he managed to escape through a clear doorway. The “bundle” proved to be the baby of the Mayor's wife. The “hero” was congratulated.

 


Q. The man went to another room because   

Solution:

Solution: b)
Clear from the passage as he was unable to see through.

QUESTION: 73

Passage-III


A local man, staying on the top of the floor of an old wooden house, was awakened at midnight by fire. Losing his way in the smoke-filled passage, he missed the stairway and went into another room. He picked a bundle to protect his face from fire and immediately fell through the floor below where he managed to escape through a clear doorway. The “bundle” proved to be the baby of the Mayor's wife. The “hero” was congratulated.

 

 

Q. The man was called hero because

Solution:

Solution: d) The bundle that he had used to save face, was the Mayor’s baby, who also got saved in his escaping from fire.

QUESTION: 74

Directions for the following 7(seven) items:

Given below are the seven items. Each item describes a situation and is followed by four possible responses. Indicate the response that you find most appropriate. Choose only one response for each item. The responses will be evaluated based on the level of appropriateness for the given situation.
Please attempt all the items.

There is no penalty for wrong Solutions for these seven items.

 


Q. You have differences of the opinion regarding the final report prepared by your subordinate that is to be submitted urgently. The subordinate is justifying the information given in the report. You would  

Solution:

Solution: More preferred (c); less preferred (a)
The question tests your organizational, managerial and administrative skills alongwith emotional intelligence.
Since the report is to be submitted urgently, you don’t have time for the results to be reconsidered or to keep arguing with the subordinate. So, best way out is (c), if not then (c).
B or D will not lead to any results.

QUESTION: 75

There is no penalty for wrong Solutions for these seven items.

 

You are competing with your batch-mate for the prestigious award to be decided based on an oral presentation. You have been asked by the committee to finish on time. Your friend however, is allowed more than the stipulated time period.

Solution:

Solution: More preferred (a); less preferred (d).This question checks capacity and inclination for justice, and withstanding odd situations.Option (b) is a knee-jerk reaction and shows your emotional intelligence in poor light.Option (c) shows a lack of interest in fighting for justice.Going through option (a), you are going by the official machinery of grievance redressal; fighting for justice as well withstanding the odds that will come in the way.Option (d) shows the inclination towards fighting for justice, but it is not result-oriented. Leaving the place will not help in any way.

QUESTION: 76

There is no penalty for wrong Solutions for these seven items.

 

You are handling a time bound project. During the project review meeting, you find that project is likely to get delayed due to lack of cooperation of the team members. You would,

Solution:

Solution: More preferred (b); less preferred (a)
The question too tests your organizational, managerial and administrative skills along with emotional intelligence.
Asking for replacement or extension without looking into reasons or talking to team members will be a wrong decision. Moreover, it is a time bound project. So, options (c) and (d) are out.
(a) is preferable because you will at least get the work done. (b) is even more preferable because you will get to the core of the issue, and then ensure that the work is completed on time. 

QUESTION: 77

There is no penalty for wrong Solutions for these seven items.

 

You are a chairperson of a state sports committee. You have received a complaint and later it was found that an athlete in junior age category who has won a medal has crossed the age criteria by 5 days. You would...

Solution:

Solution: More preferable (a); less preferable (d).
This question checks your administrative acumen and sense of balance in decision-making.
Since the investigation in the case is over, asking for clarification from the committee that screened the athlete is the best way out. You will get to know if it was a procedural error or operational error or an unintended mistake. Then you can take action. Best is (a).
Or you can even ask the committee for views. This is a more democratic approach since you are heading the committee.
Other options are a little bit on the extreme side and not preferable in this case. The reputation of the athlete is also at stake.
Take a balanced, pragmatic approach.

QUESTION: 78

There is no penalty for wrong Solutions for these seven items.

 

You are handling a priority project and have been meeting all the deadlines and planning your leave during the project. Your immediate boss does not grant leave citing the urgency of the project. You would...

Solution:

Solution: More preferable (d); less preferable (c)
This question checks for balance in decision-making and handling organizational pulls and pressures on your personal life.
(a) and (b) are not right for obvious reasons like dishonesty; disobeying official orders and protocols; and irresponsible behaviour.
(c) can get you the leave, within the official channels, but your relationship with immediate boss will be spoiled. He will not like a higher authority overruling him on a matter of leave for you, especially when its an urgent project.
(d) is a more nuanced approach; because its an urgent project (and your leave is not all that urgent and important).

QUESTION: 79

There is no penalty for wrong Solutions for these seven items.

 

You are involved in setting up a water supply project in remote area. Full recovery of cost is impossible in any case. The income levels in the area are low and 25% of the population is below poverty line (BPL). When a decision has to be taken on pricing you would....

Solution:

Solution: (d) more preferable; (c) less preferable.
This question checks your administrative acumen; sense of balance in decision-making and empathy for the marginalised.
Option (a) is implausible/impractical.
Option (b) - fixed installation charges will be difficult for BPL to pay. And later making it free for everyone is impractical.
C or D is a more humane and sympathetic approach because BPL are getting either water free or at a differentiated (lower cost) while others are paying to ensure economic viability.
D is preferable because otherwise there will be misuse of BPL water.

QUESTION: 80

There is no penalty for wrong Solutions for these seven items.

 

As a citizen you have some work with a government department. The official calls you again and again; and without directly asking you, sends out feelers for a bribe. You want to get your work done. You would...

Solution:

Solution: More preferable (c); less preferable (b)
This checks tolerance for corruption; uprightness; and integrity.
Sending in a formal complaint will be a wrong step as there is no evidence that the official has asked you for a bribe.
Giving a bribe will ofcourse be wrong.
Behaving as if you have not understood will be a less preferable option because the official has not done it just once. He has been doing it again and again.
So going to the higher officer for help will be the best approach. Because this way not only your case will be quickly resolved, that other official may stop asking future bribes from others in fear of action from higer-ups.