UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2013: Paper 2 (CSAT)


80 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Previous Year Question Papers | UPSC Prelims Past Year Paper 2013: Paper 2 (CSAT)


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QUESTION: 1

Directions for the following 2 (two) items: Read the following passage and answer the two items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Ecological -research over the last quarter of the century has established the deleterious effects of habitat fragmentation due to mining, highways and such other intrusions on forests. When a large block of forests gets fragmented into smaller bits, the edges of all these bits come into contact with human activities resulting in the degradation of the entire forests. Continuity of forested landscapes and corridors gets disrupted 'affecting several extinction-prone species of wildlife. Habitat fragmentation, is therefore considered as the most serious threat to biodiversity conservation. Ad hoc grants of forest lands to mining companies coupled with rampant, illegal mining is aggravating this threat.

 

Q.What is the central focus of this passage?

Solution:

Try getting the essence of the passage, which is: “Due to some activities like mining, highways etc, there is disruption in landscapes and corridors. This is affecting several species of wild life.”
Easy to pick.

QUESTION: 2

Ecological -research over the last quarter of the century has established the deleterious effects of habitat fragmentation due to mining, highways and such other intrusions on forests. When a large block of forests gets fragmented into smaller bits, the edges of all these bits come into contact with human activities resulting in the degradation of the entire forests. Continuity of forested landscapes and corridors gets disrupted 'affecting several extinction-prone species of wildlife. Habitat fragmentation, is therefore considered as the most serious threat to biodiversity conservation. Ad hoc grants of forest lands to mining companies coupled with rampant, illegal mining is aggravating this threat.

 

Q.What is the purpose of maintaining the continuity of forested landscapes and corridors?

1. Preservation of biodiversity.

2. Management of mineral resources.

3. Grant of forest lands for human activities

Solution:

Pretty straight question.

QUESTION: 3

In a rare coin collection, there is one gold coin for every three non -gold coins. 10 more gold coins are added to the collection and the ratio of gold coins to non-gold coins would be 1: 2. Based on the information; the total number of corns in the collection now becomes

Solution:

Find the Initial ratio = Gold (G):Non-Gold(N) = 1:3 .....(i)

After adding 10 gold coins, the ratio becomes (10+G):N = 1:2 ..... (ii)

On solving (i) & (ii), you get, G=20 and N=60.
Therefore, now the total number of coins in the collection = (10+G)+N= 10+20+60=90

QUESTION: 4

A gardener has 1000 plants: He wants to plant them in such a way that the number of rows and the number of columns remains the same. What is the minimum number of plants that he needs more for this purpose?

Solution:

If the number of rows and number of columns are to be equal, then the total number of trees should be a perfect square. As 1000 is not a perfect square, find a perfect square nearest to 1000.
It’s 1024, which is square of 32. So he needs to add 24 more trees to get 1024.

QUESTION: 5

A sum of Rs.700 has to be used to give seven cash prizes to the students of a school for their overall academic performance. If each prize is Rs.20 less than its preceding prize, what is the least value of the prize?

Solution:

Let the least value price be X. Then the next value is X+20, and the next value is X+40 and on and on up to 7 values. So, seven cash prizes follow arithmetic progression with

First term = a (Least prize)

Common difference, d = 20

Number of terms, n = 7

Sum of AP = n/2 [2a + (n-1)d]

Sum = 700 = 7/2 [2*a+(7-1)*20]

700 = 7a + 420

a = 40

QUESTION: 6

Out of 120 applications for a post, 70 are males and 80 have a driver license. What is the ratio of between the minimum to maximum number of males having driver's license.

Solution:

Since, there are 70 males out of 120 applicants, there must be 50 females. For the minimum number of males to have a driver's license all 50 females must have a driver's license. Thus, the number of males having a driver's license, will be 80 - 50 = 30. The maximum number of males having driver's license is 70. The ratio between the minimum and the maximum is 30 : 70 or 3 : 7.

QUESTION: 7

In a garrison, there was food for 1000 soldiers for one month. After 10 days 1000 more soldiers joined the garrison. How long would the soldiers be able to carry on with the remaining food? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 8

The tank-full petrol in Arun's motor-cycle lasts for 10 days. If he starts using 25% more everyday, how many days will the tank-full petrol last?

Solution:

Total consumption is say N. So daily consumption is N/10. Now if daily increases by 25%, then totally its 1.25N. So, when you divide 10 by 1.25N, it will be N/8. It will go for 8 days.

QUESTION: 9

A person can walk a certain distance and drive back in six hours. He can also walk both ways in 10 hours. How much time will he take to drive both ways? 

Solution:

When a person walks two ways, it takes 10 hours.

So, 1-way walk will take 5 hours

1-way walk + 1-way Drive = 6 hours

1-way drive = 6 - 5 = 1 hour

Hence, 2-way drive = 2 hours

QUESTION: 10

Directions for the following 7 (seven) items: Read the following two passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

Passage -1
The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolid manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred III a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation.
The excess input of nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many 'healthy' oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloomforming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situations, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation.
The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge 'dead zones' in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killing virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km2 in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off'- 'countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer.

 

Q.According to the passage, why should the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses be restricted?

1. Losing nutrients in this way is not a good practice economically.

2. Watercourses do not contain the microorganisms that can decompose organic components of agricultural slurry.

3. The discharge may lead to the eutrophication of water bodies.
 

Solution:

Consider this: “The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry in to water courses. The simplest and most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolid manure or as sprayed slurry”. So, these sentences from 1st paragraph hint that loosing the nutrients in this way is not a good economical practice. Hence, option 1 is correct.
Options 2 and 3 are self-evident from 2nd paragraph.

QUESTION: 11

Passage -1
The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolid manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred III a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation.
The excess input of nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many 'healthy' oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloomforming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situations, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation.
The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge 'dead zones' in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killing virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km2 in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off'- 'countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer.

 

Q.The passage refers to the conversion of "pollutant to fertilizer". What is pollutant and what is fertilizer in this context? 

Solution:

No-brainer.

QUESTION: 12

Passage -1
The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolid manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred III a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation.
The excess input of nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many 'healthy' oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloomforming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situations, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation.
The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge 'dead zones' in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killing virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km2 in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off'- 'countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer.

 

Q. According to the passage, what are the effects of indiscriminate use of fertilizers?

1. Addition of pollutants to the soil and water.

2. Destruction decomposer of microorganisms in soil.

3. Nutrient enrichment of water bodies.

4. Creation of algal blooms.

Solution:

Again a no-brainer.

QUESTION: 13

Passage -1
The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolid manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred III a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation.
The excess input of nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many 'healthy' oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloomforming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situations, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation.
The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge 'dead zones' in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killing virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km2 in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off'- 'countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer.

 

Q.What is/are the characteristics of a water body with cultural eutrophication?

1. Loss of ecosystem services

2. Loss of flora and fauna

3. Loss of mineral nutrients

Solution:

The implications of Cultural eutrophication have been discussed in the paragraph with clarity. Just underline keywords and key phrases while reading.

QUESTION: 14

Passage -1
The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolid manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred III a more primitive and sustainable type of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microorganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation.
The excess input of nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus - based, from agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many 'healthy' oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to eutrophic condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloomforming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situations, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation.
The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge 'dead zones' in the oceans near river outlets, particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killing virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km2 in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off'- 'countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increase productivity and use more fertilizer.

 

Q.What is the central theme of this passage?

Solution:

Just be aware of extreme options like (d). Even though the passage discussed the negative impact of the fertilizers, it never says that they be done away with or they are undesirable. If used and disposed properly, its useful.

QUESTION: 15

Passage - 2
The miseries of the world cannot be cured by physical help only. Until man's nature changes, his physical needs will always arise, and miseries will always be felt, and no amount of physical help will remove them completely. The only solution of the problem is to make mankind pure. Ignorance is the mother of evil and of all the misery we see. Let men have light, let them be pure and spiritually strong and educated; then alone will misery cease in the world. We may convert every house in the country into a charitable asylum, we may fill the land with hospitals, but human misery will continue until man's character changes.

 

Q.According to the passage, which of the following statements is most likely to be true as the reason for man's miseries?

Solution:

Quite clear in the last statement.

QUESTION: 16

Passage - 2
The miseries of the world cannot be cured by physical help only. Until man's nature changes, his physical needs will always arise, and miseries will always be felt, and no amount of physical help will remove them completely. The only solution of the problem is to make mankind pure. Ignorance is the mother of evil and of all the misery we see. Let men have light, let them be pure and spiritually strong and educated; then alone will misery cease in the world. We may convert every house in the country into a charitable asylum, we may fill the land with hospitals, but human misery will continue until man's character changes.

 

Q.With reference to the passage, the following assumptions have been made:

1. The author gives primary importance to physical and material help in eradicating human misery.

2. Charitable homes, hospitals, etc. can remove human misery to a great extent.

Which of the assumptions is/are valid? 

Solution:

This is a simple passage. Even with one reading, if you have got the essence of the passage, you will not make any mistakes.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following figures 1, 2, 3 and 4:

 

Q.In the figure from 1 to 4 above, two symbols are shown to change their position in a regular direction. Following the same sequence, which one of the following will appear at the fifth stage?

Solution:

The ‘sun’ is following an anti-clockwise rotation in square figure. The triangle is following a zigzag pattern. Pretty simple to grasp.

QUESTION: 18

Directions for the following 2 (two) items:

In each item, there are two sets of figures; first four figures named Problem figures and next four figures named Answer figures indicated as (a), (b), (c) and (d). The problem figures follow a particular sequence. In accordance with the same, which one of the four answer figures should appear as the fifth figure?

 

Q.Problem figures:

Solution:

The triangle is rotating clockwise by an angle of 120 degrees. And, the arrow is following a patten of up-down in subsequent figures. 

QUESTION: 19

In this item, there are two sets of figures; first four figures named Problem figures and next four figures named Answer figures indicated as (a), (b), (c) and (d). The problem figures follow a particular sequence. In accordance with the same, which one of the four answer figures should appear as the fifth figure?

 

Q.Problem figures:

Solution:

Little tricky. But after observing for some time, you will be able to see the pattern.
The three segments of each figure ( two Ls and one arrow); are 
(i) Moving left
(ii) When they reach the extreme left (first position), they come back again from the other left (but with an inverted image)

So, when the arrow in the first figure moves to second figure, it becomes inverted. And until it goes again to the extreme left and moves, it would not invert.
For such problems, good observation power and practice is needed.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following diagrams:

Q.x men, working at constant speed, do a certain job in y days. Which one of these diagrams shows the relation between x and y?

Solution:

You can see it diagram wise (Technique 1) or mathematically (Technique 2).
Diagram I: Even for zero x, there exists some y (i.e. it assumes some value). This means, even if there are no men, there exist some working days, which is wrong.
Diagram II: If x is increased y is also increased. This means if no. of men are increased then the no. of working days increased, which is wrong.
Diagram III: This has two parts in it, a vertical line and a horizontal line. Vertical line suggests infinite working days for some number of workers, which is wrong. Horizontal line suggests, same working days even if the no of men is increased/decreased which is also wrong.
Diagram IV: This shows the correct relation i.e. no. of working days reduces as no. Of men are increased. 
You can see this in terms of a mathematical equation too (Technique 2): Here x and y are inversely related. If x, the number of men increases, then, y, the number of days for completing the work decreases. So, mathematically they are inversely proportional. => x multiplied(1/y) => xy = constant This is an equation of a rectangular hyperbola which is shown in diagram IV.

QUESTION: 21

Consider the following matrix:

 

Q.What is the number at 'X' in the above matrix?

Solution:

If you add all the digits in the central column, you get the addition of the numbers in the first and second column. For e.g. 3+7+0=10; which is equal to 3+7 = 10

Same in Second row: 2+2+4 = 8 which is equal to 2+6 = 8 Same should be in third row: 7+3+0=10 which should be equal to 1+x = 10 => X = 9 

QUESTION: 22

Four cars are hired at the rate of Rs. 6 per km plus the cost of diesel at Rs. 40 a litre. In this context, consider the details given in the following table:

 

Q.Which car maintained the maximum average speed? 

Solution:

You need to find the total distance travelled by and divide it by total time. To find the distance, first form a correct equation that sums up the relation of all variables of each Car – A , B, C , D.
Let the distance be N. So diesel consumed for car A will be N/8 litres. Cost will be (N/8) X 40 = 5N Moreover, 6 Rs. needs to paid per km. So additional cost will be 6N Total cost = 11N = Rs. 2120 => N = 192.7 Km Average speed of Car A = 192.7/20 = Around 9.6 km/hr Now, instead of repeating this process for every car, form a general equation: Total cost = [(Distance/mileage) x Fuel Cost ] + Distance x per km. Cost ] Find distance from here and then average speed. You will get the answer as A.

QUESTION: 23

Examine the following three figures in which the numbers follow a specific pattern:

 

Q.The missing number (?) in the third figure above is

Solution:

Observe the first two figures carefully. You will see this pattern.
2*(84/12)=14
2*(81/9)=18
Hence for the third figure, 2 * (88/11)=X=> X=2*8 => X=16

QUESTION: 24

A cube has six numbers marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on its faces. Three views of the cube are shown below:

Solution:

Technique 1: (Simple drawing)

First you can follow a very simple method. Take a rubber (cuboid or cube shape) with you in the exam hall. Try writing up the numbers as they have been put in the question figure. You have the answer on that rubber in front of you.

Technique 2: (Logic)

To see logically, If we check the first two cubes, the common number 1 has numbers 4, 6, 2 and 3 on its four adjacent faces. So the remaining number 5 is on the opposite face of 1. .........Statement 1 (S1)
See the 4th cube. Here we need to find two adjacent numbers of 5.
Method I:

Looking at it in other way, (from statement 1) it can be said that, 2,3,4 and 6 are the adjacent numbers of 5. So out of all, only (a) is possible.
Method  II

If you see statement (1) itself, you can eliminate three answer options.

- Number 1 should not be an adjacent number of 5 because it is the opposite number of 5 (from statement (1)) .

- So answer options (b),(c) and (d) can be eliminated as each of these options have 1 as one of its two numbers. 

QUESTION: 25

Direction for the following 5 (five) items: Study the two figures given below and answer the five items that follow:

 

Q.How many Physics professors belong to the age group 35 - 44?

Solution:

From figure 2, you can see that 40% of Physics professors belong to the age group 35-44. From figure 1, we can find that there are 32 male and 8 female Physics professors. Totally there are 40 Physics professors - out of which 40% belong to 35-44 age group. 40% of 40 will be 16 – answer.

QUESTION: 26

Study the two figures given below and answer the five items that follow:

 

Q.Which one of the following disciplines has the highest ratio of males to females? 

Solution:

Simple mathematics. Just take the concerned ratios. 

QUESTION: 27

Study the two figures given below and answer the five items that follow:

 

Q.What percentage of all Psychology professors are females?

Solution:

There are 4 male and 6 female Psychology professors - totally 10 Psychology professors.
There are 6 female professors out of all Psychology professors. So, (6/10) X 100 = 60%

QUESTION: 28

Study the two figures given below and answer the five items that follow:

 

Q. If the number of female Physics professors in the age group 25 - 34 equals 25% of all the Physics professors in that age group, then what is the number of male Physics professors in the age group 25 - 34? 

Solution:

Look at figure2 - 30% of Physics professors belong to the age group 25-34. Then from figure1, we know there are 32 male and 8 female Physics professors. So, totally 40 Physics professors, out of that 30% belong to 25-34 age group.
So there are 12 (30% of 40) Physics professors in the age group 25-34 ......S1 Further its given that the number of female Physics professors in the age group 25 - 34 equals 25% of all the Physics professors in that age group, so, 25% of 12 i.e. 3 are female professors in that age group ..........................S2

From S1 and S2:    12-3=9 male professors belong to 25-34 age group.

QUESTION: 29

Study the two figures given below and answer the five items that follow:

 

Q.If the Psychology professors in the University constitute 2% of all the professors in the University, then what is the number of professors in the University?

Solution:

Simple arithmetic.

QUESTION: 30

Consider the following figures: