20 Questions MCQ Test Indian Economy for UPSC CSE - Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2
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Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 1
Selling cost is the feature of Monopolistic competition Monopolistic competition is a market structure where there are many sellers offering differentiated products and facing a downward-sloping demand curve. Selling cost refers to the expenses incurred by firms in order to promote and differentiate their products. It is a characteristic feature of monopolistic competition and distinguishes it from other market structures. Here is a detailed explanation of why selling cost is a feature of monopolistic competition: 1. Product Differentiation: In monopolistic competition, each firm produces a slightly different product from its competitors in terms of quality, design, packaging, or branding. This differentiation creates a perceived value for the product and allows firms to charge a higher price. Selling costs, such as advertising, marketing, and branding expenses, are incurred by firms to highlight these differences and attract customers. 2. Non-Price Competition: Unlike perfect competition, where firms are price takers, firms in monopolistic competition have some control over their pricing decisions. Selling costs enable firms to engage in non-price competition by promoting the unique features of their products. This helps them build brand loyalty and create a perceived value that justifies higher prices. 3. Brand Image and Reputation: Selling costs also contribute to the development and maintenance of a brand image and reputation. Firms invest in advertising and marketing campaigns to create a positive perception of their products in the minds of consumers. This can lead to increased sales and customer loyalty, allowing firms to charge a premium for their products. 4. Increased Market Power: By differentiating their products and incurring selling costs, firms in monopolistic competition can reduce the level of competition they face. This gives them a certain degree of market power, allowing them to set prices and quantities to maximize their profits. In conclusion, selling cost is a key feature of monopolistic competition. It enables firms to differentiate their products, engage in non-price competition, build brand image and reputation, and increase their market power.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 2
The demand curve of oligopoly is kinked.
Definition of Oligopoly: Oligopoly is a market structure in which a few large firms dominate the industry. These firms have significant market power and their actions can affect the market conditions.
Characteristics of Oligopoly: Oligopoly is characterized by:
Interdependence: The decisions of one firm affect the others in the industry.
Barriers to Entry: It is difficult for new firms to enter the market due to high entry barriers.
Price Rigidity: Firms in oligopoly tend to maintain stable prices over time.
Non-Price Competition: Firms compete based on factors other than price, such as quality, branding, advertising, etc.
Demand Curve of Oligopoly: The demand curve faced by an oligopolistic firm depends on various factors, including the reactions of other firms in the market.
Kinked Demand Curve: The kinked demand curve is a graphical representation of the behavior of firms in an oligopoly. It is based on the assumption that firms in oligopoly are more concerned about the reactions of their competitors to price changes rather than the reactions of consumers.
Characteristics of Kinked Demand Curve: The kinked demand curve has the following characteristics:
Steep Upper Segment: The upper segment of the demand curve is steep because if a firm raises its price, its competitors are unlikely to follow suit, resulting in a significant loss of market share.
Flat Lower Segment: The lower segment of the demand curve is flat because if a firm lowers its price, its competitors are expected to match the price reduction, resulting in no gain in market share.
Price Stability: The kinked demand curve leads to price stability in an oligopoly market as firms have an incentive to maintain their prices within the range defined by the kink.
Implication of Kinked Demand Curve: The kinked demand curve implies that an oligopolistic firm is likely to face a relatively inelastic demand for price increases and a relatively elastic demand for price decreases.
Other Demand Curve Shapes: While the kinked demand curve is a common representation of oligopoly, it is important to note that other demand curve shapes are possible depending on the specific circumstances of the market.
Therefore, the demand curve of oligopoly is kinked, which reflects the unique behavior and interdependence of firms in this market structure.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 3
Explanation: In perfect competition, the goods are homogeneous. Homogeneous goods refer to products that are identical in terms of quality, features, and characteristics. This means that consumers perceive no difference between the goods offered by different sellers in the market. Here's a detailed explanation: Definition of perfect competition: Perfect competition is a market structure where there are many buyers and sellers, and no single buyer or seller has control over the market price. In a perfectly competitive market, all firms produce identical products and there is free entry and exit from the market. Characteristics of perfect competition: 1. Large number of buyers and sellers: There are many buyers and sellers in the market, none of which has the power to influence the market price. 2. Homogeneous products: Goods produced by different firms are identical in terms of quality, features, and characteristics. 3. Perfect information: Buyers and sellers have complete information about the market conditions, including prices and product quality. 4. Free entry and exit: There are no barriers to entry or exit in the market, allowing new firms to enter and existing firms to leave. 5. Price takers: Firms in a perfectly competitive market are price takers, meaning they have no control over the market price and must accept the prevailing price. Why goods are homogeneous in perfect competition: In perfect competition, goods are homogeneous for several reasons: - The production process is standardized, resulting in identical products. - Firms have no control over the market price, so they cannot differentiate their products to attract customers. - Perfect information ensures that consumers are aware of all available options and can easily compare prices and quality. Importance of homogeneous goods in perfect competition: - Homogeneous goods ensure that consumers can make informed decisions based on price alone, as there are no quality or feature differences to consider. - Firms in a perfectly competitive market must focus on cost efficiency and productivity to stay competitive, as they cannot rely on product differentiation. - Homogeneous goods contribute to price stability in the market, as firms cannot charge higher prices for differentiated products. In conclusion, in perfect competition, goods are homogeneous, meaning they are identical in terms of quality, features, and characteristics. This ensures that consumers have the freedom to choose based on price alone and promotes healthy competition among firms.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 5
Monopolistic competition and differentiated goods: Monopolistic competition is a market structure where there are many firms selling similar but differentiated products. In this type of market, goods are not homogeneous like in perfect competition, but they are also not as distinct as in pure monopoly. Instead, goods in monopolistic competition have certain unique features or attributes that set them apart from their competitors. These differentiated goods have several characteristics: 1. Product differentiation: Goods in monopolistic competition are differentiated, meaning that each firm produces a slightly different version of the product. This differentiation can be in terms of quality, design, packaging, features, or branding. As a result, consumers perceive these products as distinct and may have preferences for one brand over another. 2. Branding: Differentiation often involves creating a brand identity for the product. Firms invest in advertising, marketing, and building a brand image to create a unique identity for their goods. This branding helps firms to attract and retain customers and differentiate themselves from their competitors. 3. Price-setting power: Due to product differentiation, firms in monopolistic competition have some degree of control over the price they charge. They can set prices based on the perceived value of their product and the level of competition in the market. 4. Non-price competition: In monopolistic competition, firms compete not only on price but also on other factors like product features, quality, customer service, and advertising. This non-price competition allows firms to differentiate their goods and attract customers based on factors other than price. 5. Easy entry and exit: Monopolistic competition allows for relatively easy entry and exit of firms in the market. This means that new firms can enter the market if they believe they can offer a differentiated product and compete effectively. Similarly, existing firms can exit the market if they find it unprofitable. In summary, monopolistic competition involves the production and sale of differentiated goods that have unique features or attributes. These goods are not homogeneous like in perfect competition, but they are also not as distinct as in pure monopoly. Product differentiation, branding, price-setting power, non-price competition, and easy entry and exit are key characteristics of goods in monopolistic competition.
A monopoly structure must have one seller, has no substitute, and entry into the industry is preventeD.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 6
Monopoly Structure A monopoly structure is characterized by a market condition where there is only one seller dominating the industry. This means that there is no competition from other sellers in the market. In a monopoly, the single seller has complete control over the supply of goods or services, giving them significant market power. Characteristics of a Monopoly Structure 1. Single Seller: A monopoly structure must have only one seller operating in the market. This seller controls the entire market and has no direct competitors. 2. No Substitutes: In a monopoly, the products or services offered by the seller have no close substitutes available in the market. Consumers have no alternative options to choose from. 3. Prevention of Entry: Entry into the industry is prevented or restricted in a monopoly. This means that potential competitors are unable to enter the market and challenge the monopoly seller's dominance. Conclusion Based on the characteristics of a monopoly structure, it can be concluded that the statement is true. A monopoly structure indeed has one seller, no substitutes, and entry into the industry is prevented.
The market price of the commodity depends on the amount supplied by the monopoly firm.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 7
‘Mono’ means one and ‘poly’ means seller. Thus, monopoly refers to a market situation in which there is only one seller of a particular product. Here the firm itself is the industry and the firm’s product has no close substitute. The monopolist is not bothered about the reaction of rival firms since it has none. The demand curve of the monopolist is the industry demand curve. (Recall that in pure competition there are two demand curves).
The shape of the total revenue curve depends on the shape of the average revenue curve.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 9
Average revenue is the revenue per unit of the commodity sold. It is obtained by dividing the total revenue by the number of units sold. Mathematically AR = TR/Q; where AR = Average revenue, TR = Total revenue and Q = Quantity sold.
If there is any change in the AR, then TR will also change. Therefore, the shape of the total revenue curve depends on the shape of the average revenue curve.
In the case of a negatively sloping straight line demand curve, the total revenue curve is
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 10
The straight line shown in the figure above is the market demand curve for a particular product. The monopolist firm selling the product faces a downward slope, as seen . It also computes the amounts of average, total and marginal revenue.
Average revenue for any quantity level can be measured by the slope of the total revenue curve.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 11
Average revenue for any quantity level can be measured by the slope of the line from the origin to the relevant point on the total revenue curve.
MR = ∆TR/∆Q
∆TR/∆Q indicates the slope of the total revenue curve.
Thus, if the total revenue curve is given to us, we can find out marginal revenue at various levels of output by measuring the slopes at the corresponding points on the total revenue curve.
Marginal revenue for any quantity level can be measured by the slope of the total revenue curve.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 12
Explanation: The statement is true. The marginal revenue for any quantity level can indeed be measured by the slope of the total revenue curve. Here's why: 1. Definition of marginal revenue: Marginal revenue is the additional revenue generated by selling one more unit of a product. 2. Total revenue curve: The total revenue curve shows the total amount of revenue generated at each quantity level. 3. Slope of the total revenue curve: The slope of a curve represents the rate of change. In this case, the slope of the total revenue curve represents how much the total revenue changes as the quantity level increases. 4. Marginal revenue and slope: The marginal revenue is equal to the slope of the total revenue curve at any given quantity level. This means that the change in total revenue resulting from selling one more unit of a product is equal to the slope of the total revenue curve at that quantity level. 5. Graphical representation: Graphically, the total revenue curve is an upward-sloping curve. The marginal revenue curve, on the other hand, starts at the same point as the total revenue curve but has a downward slope. The point where the marginal revenue curve intersects the x-axis (quantity level) is the profit-maximizing quantity level for the firm. In conclusion, the slope of the total revenue curve does indeed measure the marginal revenue for any quantity level.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 13
This type of market is combination of monopoly and competitive markets. a monopolistic competitive market is one with freedom of entry and exit, but firms can differentiate their products.
Toothpaste compete on quality of product as much as price. Product differentiation is a key element of the business. There are relatively low barriers to entry in setting up a new business.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 14
Oligopoly is when a small number of firms collude, either explicitly or tacitly, to restrict output and/or fix prices, in order to achieve above normal market returns. Firms in an oligopoly set prices, whether collectively – in a cartel – or under the leadership of one firm, rather than taking prices from the market.
Under which market conditions firms make only Normal profit in the long run
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 15
Market Conditions for Normal Profit in the Long Run In the long run, firms tend to make normal profit under certain market conditions. Let's explore these conditions in detail: 1. Monopolistic Competition: - Monopolistic competition is a market structure characterized by a large number of firms producing differentiated products. - In this market structure, firms have some control over the price of their product due to product differentiation. - In the long run, firms in monopolistic competition tend to make only normal profit because of the freedom of entry and exit. - If a firm is making above-normal profit, new firms will enter the market, increasing competition and reducing their market share and profit margins. - Conversely, if a firm is making below-normal profit or incurring losses, some firms may exit the market, reducing competition and allowing the remaining firms to regain normal profit. 2. Oligopoly: - Oligopoly is a market structure characterized by a few large firms dominating the market. - The behavior of firms in oligopoly can vary, but in some cases, firms may make only normal profit in the long run. - In an oligopolistic market, firms are interdependent, meaning they consider the actions and reactions of their competitors when making pricing and production decisions. - If a firm in an oligopoly tries to increase its profit by raising prices, other firms may react by reducing their prices, resulting in a price war and a reduction in profit margins. - Similarly, if a firm tries to gain a larger market share by reducing prices, other firms may respond by doing the same, leading to lower profit margins. - This competitive dynamic often leads to firms making only normal profit in the long run. 3. Duopoly: - Duopoly is a market structure characterized by two dominant firms operating in the market. - The behavior of firms in a duopoly can also lead to the long-run equilibrium with normal profit. - Similar to oligopoly, firms in a duopoly are interdependent and consider the actions and reactions of their competitor. - If one firm in a duopoly tries to gain a competitive advantage by increasing prices or reducing prices, the other firm may respond in a way that limits the potential for above-normal profit. - This competitive dynamic often keeps the firms in a duopoly from making excessive profit in the long run, resulting in normal profit. 4. Monopoly: - In a monopoly, there is a single firm dominating the market with no close substitutes. - Unlike the other market structures mentioned above, a monopoly has the potential to make above-normal profit in the long run. - This is because a monopolistic firm has significant market power and can set prices higher than its production costs. - However, it is important to note that the ability to make above-normal profit in the long run is not guaranteed in all monopoly situations. Factors such as government regulations, potential competition, and changes in consumer preferences can impact the long-term profitability of a monopoly. In conclusion, firms tend to make only normal profit in the long run under market conditions such as monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and duopoly. While monopolies have the potential to make above-normal profit, it is not always the case due to various factors.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 16
Demand Curve of a Monopoly Firm
A monopoly firm is the sole producer of a product or service in the market, giving it the power to set prices and control the quantity supplied. The demand curve for a monopoly firm will be:
Downward sloping: The demand curve of a monopoly firm is always downward sloping.
Explanation: This is because a monopoly firm has control over the market and can influence the price. As the monopolist increases the price of its product, the quantity demanded by consumers decreases. Conversely, if the monopolist lowers the price, the quantity demanded increases.
Reasons for downward sloping demand curve:
No close substitutes: In a monopoly, there are no close substitutes available for the monopolist's product, so consumers have limited options.
Market power: The monopolist has market power and can influence the price, leading to a negative relationship between price and quantity demanded.
Barriers to entry: Monopoly firms often have barriers to entry, such as patents, high startup costs, or exclusive control over resources, which limit competition and allow them to maintain their market power.
Therefore, the correct answer is C: Downward sloping.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 17
The firm practicing price discrimination will be charging different prices in different markets for a product. - Price discrimination refers to the practice of charging different prices for the same or similar products to different customers or in different markets. - This strategy allows firms to maximize their profits by taking advantage of differences in customers' willingness to pay. - Price discrimination can be achieved through various methods, such as segmenting the market based on geographical location, demographic characteristics, or customer behavior. - By charging different prices in different markets, firms can capture the maximum value from each segment of customers. - Price discrimination is commonly observed in industries such as airlines, where different prices are charged based on factors like booking time, demand, and seat availability. - It is important to note that price discrimination is only possible when there is limited market arbitrage, meaning customers cannot easily resell the product at a higher price in another market. - Price discrimination can be an effective strategy for firms to increase their profits and gain a competitive advantage in the market. - However, it is also subject to legal and ethical considerations, as it can potentially lead to unfair pricing practices and exploitation of certain customer segments. - Overall, the practice of price discrimination involves charging different prices in different markets for a product, allowing firms to optimize their revenue and cater to the varying preferences and willingness to pay of different customer segments.
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 18
The monopolist has control over pricing, demand, and supply decisions, thus, sets prices in a way, so that maximum profit can be earned. The monopolist often charges different prices from different consumers for the same product. This practice of charging different prices for identical product is called price discrimination. And in monopoly it is decided by the change in the demand of the product.
The market structure in which the number of sellers is small and there is interdependence in decision making by the firms is known as
Detailed Solution for Test: Non Competitive Markets - 2 - Question 20
Market Structure: Oligopoly In an oligopoly market structure, there are a small number of sellers who dominate the market. These sellers have a significant market share and their actions can have a substantial impact on the overall market. Here's a detailed explanation of why oligopoly is the correct answer: Interdependence in Decision Making: - In an oligopoly, firms are interdependent and their decisions are influenced by the actions of their competitors. - Each firm must take into account the potential reactions of other firms when making pricing, production, or marketing decisions. - For example, if one firm decides to lower its prices, other firms may be forced to follow suit to remain competitive. Small Number of Sellers: - Oligopolies typically have a small number of sellers operating in the market. - This small number of firms leads to a high degree of concentration and market power. - Examples of oligopolistic industries include telecommunications, automobile manufacturing, and airline industry. Competition and Barriers: - While there is competition among the firms in an oligopoly, it is generally less intense than in perfect competition. - Oligopolistic firms may face various barriers to entry, such as high start-up costs, economies of scale, or control over key resources. - These barriers make it difficult for new firms to enter the market and compete with the existing players. Collusion and Non-Price Competition: - Oligopolistic firms often engage in collusive behavior to limit competition and maximize their profits. - Collusion can take the form of price-fixing agreements, market sharing, or collusion on production levels. - Additionally, firms in an oligopoly often engage in non-price competition by differentiating their products through branding, advertising, or product features. Overall, the market structure described in the question, where a small number of sellers exist and there is interdependence in decision making, aligns with the characteristics of an oligopoly. Therefore, the correct answer is A: Oligopoly.
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