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Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - UPSC MCQ


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25 Questions MCQ Test Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly - Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2

Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 for UPSC 2024 is part of Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly preparation. The Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 questions and answers have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus.The Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 MCQs are made for UPSC 2024 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises, MCQs and online tests for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 below.
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Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 1

Consider the following statements.

  1. A product is said to be dumped when the product has been exported at a price below normal value in Indian markets.
  2. Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC), imposes antidumping duties in India.
  3. Antidumping duty is imposed based on the recommendations of Union Finance Ministry’s investigation arm, the Directorate General of Trade Remedies (DGTR).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 1
  • Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) imposes antidumping duties.
  • These duties are imposed following recommendations of the Commerce Ministry’s investigation arm, the Directorate General of Trade Remedies (DGTR).
  • The DGTR, conclude that these products have been exported at a price below normal value in Indian markets, which has resulted in dumping.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 2

The term demographic trap is used by demographers to describe the combination of

  1. Increasing Mortality
  2. High Fertility rate
  3. Declining mortality
  4. Sub-replacement level fertility rates

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 2
  • The term demographic trap is used by demographers “to describe the combination of high fertility (birth rates) and declining mortality (death rates) in developing countries, resulting in a period of high population growth rate (PGR).”  
  • Sub-replacement fertility in demography refers to any fertility rate below the replacement rate that would cause the population of a certain group of people to decrease over time.
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Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 3

Consider the following statements regarding Reprography.

  1. Reprography refers to the reproduction and duplication of documents, written materials, drawings and designs.
  2. It is carried out with minimal or complete absence of light.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 3

Reprography refers to the “reproduction and duplication of documents, written materials, drawings, designs, etc., by any process making use of light rays or photographic means, including offset printing, microfilming, photography, … and the like.”

Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 4

In India, substantial amount of tiger population can be found in

  1. Shivalik hills
  2. Gangetic flood plains
  3. Brahmaputra flood plains
  4. Sundarbans
  5. North eastern hills

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 4
  • India has at least 3,167 tigers, according to estimates from the latest tiger census. While this is ostensibly an increase since the last census of 2018, the numbers are not strictly comparable, as a key calculation to compute the maximum and minimum range of the tiger population is yet to be done.
  • There were 2,967 tigers recorded in 2018, and 2,226 in 2014.
  • The tiger population has grown the most in the Shivalik hills and Gangetic flood plains, followed by central India, the north eastern hills, the Brahmaputra flood plains, and the Sundarbans. There was a decline in the Western Ghats numbers, though “major populations” were said to be stable.
  • Since 1973, when Project Tiger was established, the number of dedicated tiger reserves has grown from nine reserves covering 18,278 square km to 53 reserves spanning 75,796 square km, which is roughly 2.3% of India’s land area.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 5

Consider the following statements.

  1. Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), Under Ministry of Culture is responsible to promote cultural exchanges with other countries and people.
  2. Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) was founded by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.
  3. School of Foreign Languages under the Ministry of External Affairs, offers foreign language courses to diplomats.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 5
  • The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), an autonomous body under the administrative control of Ministry of External Affairs. It was founded in 1950 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.
  • The School of Foreign Languages (SFL) was established by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in 1948 with the purpose of imparting training in different foreign languages to the personnel of Armed Forces and Government departments such as the MEA, the Cabinet Secretariat, Central Police Organizations viz. BSF, CRPF, ITBP, etc.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 6

Consider the following statements.

  1. Valuation changes arising from an appreciating U.S. dollar can lead to decline in India’s foreign exchange reserves.
  2. The RBI Act, 1934 stipulates that the Central Government orders the rate at which the RBI shall buy or sell forex to banks.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 6
  • The decline in India’s foreign exchange reserves is largely due to the valuation changes arising from an appreciating U.S. dollar.
  • Section 40 of the RBI Act, 1934 (“Transactions in foreign exchange”) stipulates that the Central Government orders the “rate” at which the RBI shall buy or sell forex to banks (authorised persons). This “rate”, in turn, will be governed by India’s “obligations to the International Monetary Fund [IMF]”.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 7

Food Price Index (FPI) is a measure of the monthly change in international prices of a basket of food commodities. FPI is released by

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 7

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food Price Index (FFPI) is a measure of the monthly change in international prices of a basket of food commodities.

Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 8

Consider the following statements.

  1. In India, all the three lists in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India deals with India’s heritage.
  2. In India, the law to protect Antiquities was established only after India’s Independence.
  3. At present the law allows the Central Government or any authority or agency authorised by the Central Government to export any antiquity or art treasure.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 8
  • In India, Item-67 of the Union List, Item-12 of the State List, and Item-40 of the Concurrent List of the Constitution deal with the country’s heritage.
  • Before Independence, an Antiquities (Export Control) Act had been passed in April 1947 to ensure that “no antiquity could be exported without license.” In 1958, The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act was enacted. Then in 1971, Parliament saw an uproar over the theft of a bronze idol from Chamba and some important sandstone idols from other places.
  • This, along with the UNESCO convention, prompted the government to enact The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972 (AATA), implemented from April 1, 1976.
  • The AATA states, “it shall not be lawful for any person, other than the Central Government or any authority or agency authorised by the Central Government in this behalf, to export any antiquity or art treasure… No person shall, himself or by any other person on his behalf, carry on the business of selling or offering to sell any antiquity except under and in accordance with the terms and conditions of a licence.”
  • This licence is granted by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). After the AATA was implemented, the Centre asked traders in antiquities and art objects to declare their possessions of antiquities.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 9

Consider the following statements regarding Anticipatory bail.

  1. Anticipatory bail can be granted by the High Court or the Court of Session.
  2. It is granted for non-bailable offenses for which one anticipates arrest, even if the actual arrest has not happened or the FIR has not been registered.
  3. Before granting Anticipatory bail, the court can impose the condition that the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the court.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 9

Anticipatory bail can be granted under Section 438, when “any person has reason to believe that he may be arrested on an accusation of having committed a non-bailable offence”. It can be granted by the High Court or the Court of Session, under this section, for non-bailable offenses for which one anticipates arrest, even if the actual arrest has not happened or the FIR has not been registered. 
While granting anticipatory bail, the Sessions Court or High Court can impose the conditions laid down in sub-section (2) like,
(i) the person shall make himself available for interrogation by a police officer as and when required.
(ii) the person cannot make any inducement, threat, or promise, directly or indirectly, to any person acquainted with the facts of the case to dissuade him from disclosing them to the court or the police.
(iii) the person shall not leave India without the previous permission of the court.
(iv) such other conditions may be imposed under sub-section (3) of section 437 “as if the bail were granted under that section”.

Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 10

India is a member of which of the following constituents of the World Bank Group?

  1. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
  2. International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)
  3. International Development Association (IDA)
  4. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 10

India is a member of four of the five constituents of the World Bank Group viz., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). India is not a member of ICSID (International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes). India has been accessing funds from the World Bank (mainly through IBRD and IDA) for various development projects.

Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 11

Consider the following statements.

  1. A solar eclipse occurs when the Sun is positioned in between the Moon and the Earth for a few minutes.
  2. A partial or a total solar eclipse depends on how much portion of the Sun’s disc gets hidden by the Moon.
  3. The safest way to view the solar eclipse is by indirect projection method, which can be done by projecting the Sun’s disc onto a white paper, by using a telescope.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 11
  • A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon is positioned in between the Sun and the Earth for a few minutes. Under certain-alignment, the Moon partially or fully blocks the Sun’s light and instead casts its shadow on Earth. That is why, there can be a partial or a total solar eclipse, depending on how much portion of the Sun’s disc gets hidden by the Moon.
  • Use of certified solar filters or eclipse goggles are recommended while viewing the Sun during the eclipse.
  • Experts warn against looking at the Sun with naked eyes, or through binoculars or telescopes without filters, as this can prove harmful to one’s vision. The safest way to view the eclipse is by indirect projection method, which can be easily done by projecting the Sun’s disc onto a white paper, either using a telescope or a pin-hole camera.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 12

Consider the following statements regarding Dengue.

  1. The mosquitoes that cause Dengue and chikungunya do not breed in clear water.
  2. The mosquitoes that transmit Dengue are also vectors of chikungunya and Zika viruses.
  3. The symptoms of Dengue is similar to that of Measles.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 12
  • Dengue is transmitted by several species of mosquitoes within the genus Aedes. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle, and joint pain, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. There are four types of dengue strains, and type II and IV are considered to be more severe and normally require hospitalisation. According to experts, the aedes mosquito breeds in clean stagnant water.
  • These mosquitoes are also vectors of chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses.
  • Dengue and chikungunya are caused by the bite of Aedes agypti mosquito, which breeds in clear water. The Anopheles mosquito, which causes malaria, can breed in both fresh and muddy water.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 13

Consider the following statements regarding Bar Council of India (BCI).

  1. The BCI is a statutory body established under the Advocates Act, 1961.
  2. It regulates legal practice and legal education in India.
  3. As per the rules framed by the BCI, foreign lawyers and law firms are not allowed to practice in India.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 13
  • In a move that could potentially change the landscape of legal practice in the country, the Bar Council of India (BCI) has allowed foreign lawyers and law firms to practise in India. Although they cannot appear in court, they can advise clients on foreign law and work on corporate transactions.
  • On March 13, the BCI notified in the official gazette the Rules for Registration and Regulation of Foreign Lawyers and Foreign Law Firms in India, 2022.
  • The BCI is a statutory body established under the Advocates Act, 1961, and it regulates legal practice and legal education in India.
  • Now, the BCI has reasoned that its move will address concerns about the flow of Foreign Direct Investment in the country and make India a hub of International Commercial Arbitration.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 14

Consider the following statements regarding International Criminal Court (ICC).

  1. The International Criminal Court was created as a standing body to investigate war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity.
  2. It was created under United Nations Statute.
  3. The court is based in The Hague.
  4. Both India and United States are State parties to the ICC.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 14
  • The International Criminal Court was created two decades ago as a standing body to investigate war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity under a 1998 treaty known as the Rome Statute. 
  • The court is based in The Hague, a Dutch city that has long been a center for international law and justice.
  • Many democracies joined the International Criminal Court, including close American allies including Britain.
  • The United States is not a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute), which founded the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 15

Consider the following statements regarding Raccoon dogs.

  1. Raccoon dogs are closely related to foxes.
  2. They hibernate during the winter season.
  3. They are considered to be a threat to the local ecosystem in Europe.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 15

Raccoon dogs are neither dogs nor raccoons. They belong to the canid family and are closely related to foxes. They are the only canids that hibernate during the winter.
Raccoon dogs are originally from East Asia and are commonly found in parts of China, Korea and Japan, where they are known as tanuki. They are also found in Europe, where they were first brought in by fur traders in the 1920s. Today, raccoon dogs are considered to be a threat to the local ecosystem in Europe and an EU report declared them “one of the most successful alien carnivores in Europe.”

Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 16

Consider the following statements.

  1. The Ministry of Defence unveiled the Agnipath scheme, a pan-India merit-based recruitment scheme for soldiers, airmen and sailors.
  2. Under the Agnipath scheme, candidates in the age group of 17.5 to 21 years would be provided an opportunity to serve in the armed forces for a period of 4-years.
  3. The enrolment in the armed forces, Central Armed Police Force (CAPF), Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and the Border Security Force (BSF) are done adhering to the caste-based formula and cannot exceed the 50% cap fixed by the Supreme Court.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 16
  • The armed forces— The Army, the Navy and the Air force— do not recruit adhering to the caste-based formula, but enrolment in the CAPFs is done as per the existing reservation system and cannot exceed the 50% cap fixed by the Supreme Court.
  • The Ministry of Defence on June 14, 2022 unveiled the Agnipath scheme, a pan-India merit-based short-term recruitment scheme for soldiers, airmen and sailors. Under the scheme, candidates in the age group of 17.5 to 21 years would be provided an opportunity to serve in the armed forces as Agniveer for a period of 4-years, which includes the training period. After the completion of the four-year tenure, 25% of the recruits would be retained for regular service, based on organisational requirements and existing policies.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 17

Consider the following statements regarding 3D bioprinting technology.

  1. 3D bioprinting utilizes the 3D printing techniques to combine cells, growth factors, and biomaterials to fabricate biomedical parts.
  2. 3D bioprinting involves a layer-by-layer method to create tissue-like structures that are later used in various medical and tissue engineering fields.
  3. 3D bioprinting can be used to reconstruct tissue from various regions of the body.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 17
  • Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting is the utilization of 3D printing–like techniques to combine cells, growth factors, and/or biomaterials to fabricate biomedical parts, often with the aim of imitating natural tissue characteristics. Generally, 3D bioprinting can utilize a layer-by-layer method to deposit materials known as bio-inks to create tissue-like structures that are later used in various medical and tissue engineering fields.
  • There are many applications for 3D bioprinting in the medical field. An infant patient with a rare respiratory disease known as tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) was given a tracheal splint that was created with 3D printing. 3D bioprinting can be used to reconstruct tissue from various regions of the body. 
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 18

Consider the following statements regarding Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).

  1. Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) has been an observer in the United Nations General Assembly.
  2. Varanasi is the first tourism and cultural capital of SCO.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 18
  • The SCO has also forged close and crucial relationships with both individual nation states and international organisations. It has been an observer in the United Nations General Assembly since 2005 and in 2010, the UN and SCO Secretariats signed a Joint Declaration on Cooperation. Over the years, the SCO has worked with various UN organisations to address various pressing global issues.
  • The recent conference was aimed at improving tourism. At the end of the meeting, a joint action plan for implementing the agreement between the Member States on cooperation in the tourism sector was finalised and approved. It comprises promotion of the SCO tourism brand, promotion of the cultural heritage of member states; sharing of information and digital technologies in tourism; and promotion of mutual cooperation in medical and health tourism. The meeting also adopted the Action Plan for ‘Year of Tourism Development in the SCO Space in 2023’. Notably, Varanasi has been declared as the first tourism and cultural capital of SCO.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 19

Apart from bacteria, which of the following living species may be involved in the nitrogen cycle in our atmosphere?

  1. Animals
  2. Humans
  3. Green plants

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 19
  • Plants generally take up nitrates and nitrites and convert them into amino acids which are used to make proteins. These proteins and other complex compounds are subsequently consumed by animals.
  • Once the animal or the plant dies, other bacteria in the soil convert the various compounds of nitrogen back into nitrates and nitrites. A different type of bacteria converts the nitrates and nitrites into elemental nitrogen.
  • Thus, there is a nitrogen-cycle in nature in which nitrogen passes from its elemental form in the atmosphere into simple molecules in the soil and water, which get converted to more complex molecules in living beings and back again to the simple nitrogen molecule in the atmosphere.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 20

Consider the following statements regarding Directorate General of GST Intelligence (DGGI).

  1. The Directorate General of GST Intelligence (DGGI) is a law enforcement agency under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry responsible for fighting tax evasion in India.
  2. Before the introduction of GST in 2017, the DGGI operated as Directorate General of Central Excise Intelligence (DGCEI).

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 20
  • The Directorate General of GST Intelligence (DGGI) is a law enforcement agency under the Ministry of Finance responsible for fighting tax evasion in India.
  • Before the introduction of GST in July 2017, the DGGI operated as Directorate General of Central Excise Intelligence (DGCEI).
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 21

Indian Cybercrime Coordination Centre (I4C), recently seen in news, functions under 

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 21

Indian Cybercrime Coordination Centre (I4C) was established by MHA, in New Delhi to provide a framework and eco-system for Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) for dealing with Cybercrime in a coordinated and comprehensive manner.
I4C is envisaged to act as the nodal point to curb Cybercrime in the country.

Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 22

Recently Indian Space Research Organisationbrought down a satellite in a controlled manner and made a controlled re-entry. A controlled re-entry is usually impossible or very difficult to achieve for satellites placed in

  1. Geo-stationary orbit
  2. Geosynchronous orbit
  3. Low-earth orbit

Select the correct answer code:

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 22
  • A controlled re-entry like the one attempted by Isro is possible only for satellites in the low-earth orbit – at about 1,000 kms over the surface of the earth. These manoeuvres, however, are not usually attempted because fuel reserves have to be maintained in the satellite after mission life is over.
  • And, this is impossible for satellites placed in geo-stationary or geosynchronous orbit – where time taken by the satellite to orbit the earth matches Earth’s rotation – because they are at altitudes of nearly 36,000 kms. For attempting to bring down a satellite from such as orbit, a huge fuel reserve would be needed. This will only make the satellite heavier and costlier at launch.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 23

Consider the following statements regarding Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972.

  1. Coin, sculpture, painting and epigraph are considered as Antiquities.
  2. To be considered as an antiquity, the object has to be in existence for not less than one hundred years.
  3. Manuscript and documents are not considered as Antiquities.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 23

The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972, implemented on April 1, 1976, defined “antiquity” as “any coin, sculpture, painting, epigraph or other work of art or craftsmanship; any article, object or thing detached from a building or cave; any article, object or thing illustrative of science, art, crafts, literature, religion, customs, morals or politics in bygone ages; any article, object or thing of historical interest” that “has been in existence for not less than one hundred years.”

For “manuscript, record or other document which is of scientific, historical, literary or aesthetic value”, this duration is “not less than seventy-five years.”

Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 24

Consider the following statements.

  1. The term ‘bail’ has been expressly defined in the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) and also differentiates between “bailable” and “non-bailable” offenses.
  2. Interim bail is given when an anticipatory bail application is pending before the court.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 24
  • Black’s Law Dictionary describes ‘bail’ as procuring “the release of a person from legal custody, by undertaking that he shall appear at the time and place designated and submit himself to the jurisdiction and judgment of the court.”
  • Although “bail” has not been expressly defined in Indian statutes, the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) differentiates between “bailable” and “non-bailable” offenses. It also defines three kinds of bail that can be granted — regular bail under Sections 437 and 439; interim bail or short-term bail which is given when regular or anticipatory bail application is pending before the court; and anticipatory or pre-arrest bail.
  • The provision for “anticipatory bail” was introduced under Section 438 of the CrPC after the 41st Law Commission Report in 1969 recommended the need for a measure that protects against arbitrary violation of one’s personal liberty, such as when politicians detain their opponents in false cases.
Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 25

Consider the following statements.

  1. Dextran is a bacterial compound formed when sugarcane stays in the sun for too long after harvesting.
  2. In India, the raw sugar has more dextran since the cut-to-crush time of sugarcane is more here.
  3. Polarisation is the percentage of sucrose present in a raw sugar mass.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: April 2023 Weekly Current Affair - 2 - Question 25

Two specific advantages of Indian raw sugar:

  • First, it is free of dextran, a bacterial compound formed when sugarcane stays in the sun for too long after harvesting. “Our raw sugar has no dextran, as it is produced from fresh cane crushed within 12-24 hours of harvesting. The cut-to-crush time is 48 hours or more in Brazil.
  • Second, Indian mills could supply raws with a very high polarisation of 98.5-99.5%. Polarisation is the percentage of sucrose present in a raw sugar mass. The more the polarisation — it is only 96-98.5% in raws from Brazil, Thailand and Australia — the easier and cheaper it is to refine.
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